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Y~1 imply ~4~ ~~ ~1~ ~1 ~ ~ +~ ~~ Veterinary Medical Care ~ ~~ ~ ^ - =~7~皀 񲷃~1 47~ Stile ~~ Prolog ~~ 491 ~9 7~ ] ~ ~ id ~ 皛| ~ id ~ ~ o1 'e i? ~1, 0 ~1 Hotel ~ O ~(Surveillance). Z If, I'll. ~ 240~7!'H~ ~~ 11Ho~31 0 ~r~S~p ~~ ~0~. ~' ~~ ~*=o1 O off ~1 z1 0 4~ = O ~;~1~ Act O 皛d ;~0491A171- 4Q]~ ~E1 w~;~c gqOolitl~~ old ci!5: 491~(ACLAM By. T; B)ol71~ ~e~/~1~(1aboratory animal science and medicine) a: ,~ Argot Hi, *~ ~ 54 ~e] On 癨 ~~ of 5L| A!Q1 o1 ~~ TSll ^~ ~~ ~ ! 7 Q3 P| 1 T T4s~lAl7i ohs 0. Own 9.|~;8 Al7~!io3 TO o^1OLt, .~5!| 717J. cam. Sting ~~~ ~AaA1 +~lAlql7n 70~ol'R ^|~0 ~~:76~e row ~o8, Zil7i4;g HAHN S!|At~A47~7t ~~1皌 my. 45A, ~~ ~~ ~ t 77t ~ ~ oll711 al Boy ~ ~7~, ~ 79~, 7~178. 71~ owl =] o~iq-Ati~ ~~o ^1~ ~nOi9R) Em. 7ii~4~1~1~ 4~r=~7~34 ~~ ttBlqn Sty 01o~of Id. . If, TV (Animal Procurement and Transportation) '= ~~ me 14Et 棸48||皌 ~~ ~4 {171~ ~~ +01~ .~ 75 e~71- ~4~Z~ ~A7Oi~ OlT0171~ ~ 桺erot Its. r'l~*mm(United State Department of Agriculture:USDA) Class B ~ ~eEl\5T61 ~OO1O1~ 7R~ ?1 ~ 70 T 7R All ~1 Me 1 51 Al 發梸 ~1, ~A] ol L} =7 皌 ~ ~ ~ . '1 ( 7R Al ~ O O ~ C-7 * 31 ~ ~ I ~01~ iF;717.1 . q7-~ T)521 ~~7O1 OAR,-Aim ~AtoROt ~~ plot 7~8 ~ ~414~ FOR ~o1 oR~ol0~7 TOJO1 TT皛7her He f a Font ~1 Bed $l71Q1 ~~. ART 1~ ~ 皌Ai~(Fish and Wildlife Service)oll Ql癛 73~ 皛+ ~~ ~1 7,JAl=~11 ~01~ 7~1 67 An J 6:i' (purpose-bred research animality A(l 13ti~yOl.1+ G~ - ~91 Fly oql lR~4 rho 7!~ ~~0~0t &1-~ 741~ am oit7K on: USDA Class A teal) ^~$2:ol~t ~7~ill5~ fall ~~ DO Stat o7~ by 7i717~ 0 ;3 Typo ale 癳~77OJ ~11:~. olS Pete 70 ~ ~ ~~ OTT ~~ TV 7e704 ~011 *~81~ . 71 ~~ a: ~ 71 HIM| o1 and 5! rR ED TV! ~(~1 e .: ~ 2o7e7i)S~ ~|T^)oqlAl~ BALM ~Z=r to my. 62

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^1~J (Drozdowicz and others 1990: Jelinek 1971: Landi and others 1982; Prasad and others 1978; Sanhouri and others 1989; Tuli and others 1995; Wallace 1976). ~~7~k9] 7=-to~ =~ ~~ 'TV 0 ~ 0~ ~~ Din Isis, 8a~7q Joule T71 Ids ~~ 3~ 73~7t ~7~ t,3~ 7~ 9$~13 T88P4. ~T~7(cubicle), Elrll~ ~ ~(laminar flow) ^1'$~7'1. ANTE 73tj3~714 *3,017l, otol9~B,3~olEl ~ 7~T03 ~ fR OCR for page 48
At 3 ~ 44 ~~ AiDd D' ~~ ~~ Be, 7o9^47~0J ANTES ol~O1 發e 70$, 7~ T~1~7A 7.1 il 7( 7~ Al of ol Till 7a T A| ~ ~ ~ Al ~ ~ ~1 0t ~~ ~ D ~ ~ J' ~~ ~ ~2'0 AM 767d~ ~~ I, DROP ARIA 7~17t 7~0D~1(oil Oo~7d '皀A1 Mycobactenum tuberculosis)發l ~ I CA~o1 ~~ ~ ~.0 If, 7.1 Dig ~~ ~704 ~0] al ~ 1 7171 gem hero Bird 7-J~ ~ Al ~ rid ~ ~ ~~ +~ Ol~Joll~l ~*~= 7> 2'ololo~ Add' (gross) Melt, (microscopic) Owe ODES rOd6l~ trout DRAW GUAM };~:l,~ot~ ~8A~ 7AJ~ A1~1~7F 梸7~ ~21~ =~ 87 ~e T皛 ~ ~ 7;1 ~ ~ ~ AJ ~ ~ f ~ At~ Ad~ ~ 7e 7C ~O~ Ot ~J~ A~ ~d ~ 7il ~ 7~ ~ 71 ~ i~17A O i~ ~^e~~ Ot ~D] 7~ ~D 11 0 T- A@* ~04 7r~(Brown and Schofield 1994: Brown and others 1993). 7A7e~ +~發 A]~o4~ 7AAlq~ 3jl70U~~7> ~A15a T 01~ 4~T 4~7=i49l A1~7~0J 3J74IrJ 33 7~7t olTO4~740t ~rT. ~ it 1 ~71UI~ U~~7O1 Utig7~71L} 9:R~I T~ AAA1 J(癛~ ~ ,. J71~ ~I, o~ Ts~), $A~!7A C ec ~4~.S~ rmcAl~F 37248R0f ~ Ti~71~ J70A17a 70$ 7a4;4qR ~R~ 371~ ~1~ AJ'ERO) 0~, ~rO 皛,n L~EtL+' olA] *Uod 65

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~~ ~~ x~ ~~ ~IJ (clinical morbidity) =~ ~q~1F(mortalitY)發l T7|6~i olvd dials] 71~Q ~R~R6 of i.~, T~7, ! ~ ~ >11 A! TED ^1 Al 91 ~5!1x~, Utah At. TSARS. Tam 3~. ~~| [2 $!T71* ~~ T~ED1~1 ~~ T~!1 ~0~6loi U~(Cunliffe-Beamer 1993) TF7~ Te8A1 癐q ~ Ott :;il*:~ TF癐l Del $~ ~D19} arm. TF01 6361 He Am 71 ~ 9~. TF7~ - *~1 717~7t, TOT ~ig皛 ~6R 3~0~6'ot ma. (Brown and Schofield 1994). W 9i7~ 7e~01 ~1I~DII '21~ 皛 SdDO1 IS T $]F 4 . ~ 17]714 ~qq~11~ 9 ~ T 皛 ~e\!Q ~ 7g TF7;~發1 6Dl~a7,lR'3~ eTO4~,~ 710| 7~7ei~ ~ol ~e T ,J,~(Klement and others 1987). ~ 61~ T~TF~ ~l8D06~ 7DT ~^D>~ A1.~ ~81-7i1 ~皛 T~ ,皛}~q- T~T~D3 . =~ ~ ~7~41 D . ~7~7e78sil i~ ^3~. 715~ 7A7e7J At~ E~7] O] 71 6a. '~-6=A1 ~ *6~$i26~ E'94 7D 840 At~  7iL01 TF ~',R, ~ T 01 1; ~ ,.!+ ~ =*Al-71- ~ol ~02;~(Chaffee 1974: Wingfield 1979). ~F^e~1 TF Q ~eA|ol~; SIT~ A12~ ~D$1~ 71~] 77cT~. ~ ;;1~ =~ T ~Ff FoR ~7~ oR~ ea~. Ati~TFofl ~i~ ~ At~ DRT84' ~a~. r~l701 Q~: 7 73191 E:iT TF1~ 40,R~ Ja Sl ~ ~ 71~ 7.~01 11 ~ -7 ~ ~ ~ ~ 11 ~ol i,7. *~~ O ~ ~ 7t 皛lq 747~ 71 FT~癐| 61IT~ TF~ 7.1 ~!A1 ~ 711~ _v~ . 2;P a R ~! Bi~ 71~toll ~1 ~a T ^1~(ASR 1989). iFw51~o~709~(PHS Policy):il ~F_ 71~D(AWRs)~ T~= ~eAIBl~ ~T7~7( 7 TF71~D11 ER~ 7~7aiiJ 7~7~ Q] tl7'~ 0 ~59 ~7ad ~ $1 ~:~ (]ACuc) ol|A1 =~7d, ~ ,7, 0~ 癮D~ ~ TT7a7~1'1 ~* ERTF~ (TF~ ~TF!:I~. ~a~D~7coll ~* ~a . f F~I 3R`~! TF~ ~1~V *,R'~\t T ti. r8~a~S Tw(major survival surgery) . ~1170~ ~71~ ~A171~. ~J'7q70 ~,_ ~ai;7m 71~o9| ~a7a7m 701~0R~ *A4Al71~ f Fe~ `4~( 7R ~F, 7R ~F. 7R T9i~. ~7 - 71~. A>7| 7e~F) +^a~ f F (minor survival surgery)~ il|70~ ~Al-717.l ~11 皛7J9] ~J7,R,7d ~o~vJ~ *~ 501.71L| otoR i~o,R,~g *=rt71 皛 fF7 i~(~o~ ~ 04 ~. 5~77OII 71*,R~ ~ 74174 ~ ~! ig71~ =~. +~癡~ ~o,R~Al ~ 0~77OJ f f F ~ -25- ]'p桭 t9 ~ ~ ~71 ~2Q ~7.1otollA1 ~e^1 ~ |7~1 ~ 0~71o51 Ti ~7451 71 T 7778 =58 ~49 7t 545 Q 05~. ~ 70~70 ^1 F1 ~ Q] E':~* 7 ER ~ O ~ A1 Sa 71 ~. _ 70F~ Tit~ 70 T T~77 ~ ~e^| =5. Dl~a. (nonsurvival) f F發lA1~ ~ ~o|A1 ~!;471 7,]01 C~l梸Al.A174ot . I o. fF~ ~A1~ 70$. ~ 7ol0RA1 ,~ 7= 71~=Q~ VJ~:A1 I4~ ~.o~ o] ~14~ 4 FT81 . 711~81~. fF7t fF7~7DI~ 7~850t 17 4 F71T fFT$] ~ D7~7R *718Rof ~(SIattum and others 1991). Ttl~7 v~C ~ 癑癛 7 7~01 fF~77Ddo1 癟~ R4~ ~皛 o31= ~r~. S4T RA1 Al$~7, F~ fF癛) ~._ 70T o~ fF4I~ ol <,~ 7,JC] =o'7 ~ ~q~D~ ~? f ,AO~, 01~7.tA47t ~71 C~ +~ 皛q ol5i 7iL0 g~0 =7 癑~R D1 ~T 7D 7d 0J ~] 71 7t ~= ~ 5皛 fFT 0~03~ ~ '= ~ 5~ 皛7a f 7^1~ 7~ 7~ ~ ~7 al 41~71 $i o~ +52| ~47d ~1~o1 ~e hA 5P] Ti;{+F 71 ~A . r~| ^o~ 皏 ~l ~t! ~7 7V~^A| -71 7l $1 iS~ 發 *~c!~(culiliffe 桞eamer 1993). TF7~7Z~. 717 +7 TF~ ^4~71 (t ~ 7Q~ 7j`~ Q7A~ o1 F f 皛l~(Schonholtz 1976) . T~f F 71~3 ~ fF~1' OD e~ ~ ~ T~D~ 401~ ~73aQ =59~ ~(Belkin 1992: McWilliams 1976). 7 皛T~ 7104 66

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~ 3 ~ Tact ~~ 9 ~ ~ f In ~~ t31~! At. 7tl ~ ~ f XT#I ~ ~ ~ zip, Knoll tll ~ =131 (Hofmann 1979), +~ few. Off And, Dais fF~91 ~3~ Z='e fF7-i old crop =~31(Chamberlain and Houang 1984: Pereira and others 1990: Schonholtz 1976), 717. Amp, ~llMlm皛3F3'4 Dd~(Kagan 1992b) ~ 71~3 7~0 ~ - Me fF711391 發(AYliffe 1991: Kagan 1992a: Ritter and Marmion 1987: Schofield 1994: Whyte 1988)1 ~~fw71~oll :!. ~~ ~91 ~~ ~Ao3發l ~71~ 穨703 稤a~6 o ^~iql388ot ~h4(Schofieid 1994). ~皉tD3~34 7~D3~1 發'J7~0~] '30~ol~. ~~ ~171~ PAR ~~ ~ o1 發Tol~le71 ~4皛]o5~皛皌 eJ~(Berg 1993). О3~ ~~4~4it73~ ^~64 AT ~8J ~ 17JF 7134癓r 皘~ 71~. AT~ ~13' ~TA ~3f(saline)~ All~ 癷r tT~. 癳t R~ ^4~ital(sterilant)~;: o~l=1 ~O'~ ^3~73,1~ 皌']~(Rutala 1990) 01 ~7a 0 ~ 1r~ o3:l~p~o1 皛5L ~ ~ ~F5~ ~ tt P ~ ~1 ~'~61 0~!709~17~1 皛 S] 穨 (lACUC) O13~ ~ on3 ~0~ 7~1 ~皛 ~ 733 T. D1 Ae~ 71 ~1 T~+F ~ ~ 7~ O3 ~ ~ t~ A1 ~e ql ~ n,~ ^1 ~'87n 癓r tl~ T18 m~St1 A1l ~ 0 71 O-D 2~ Dn 7'Fq3' 3~4 ~133 ~ }~' 71 D n ~ q3' fF^l~ ~ io]7l o~ ~ ~ tt ~r3' ~ +~ L]OL~ 0 ~3 87,1t4~ 7~3OLL ~1:} (AORN 1982: Bartiey 1993). 7gm131 ~ ~ ~1皛 TF~1 ~q*~L f~ ~ . ~ 7ee 7DT. 4Fe~ ~Aa~ TFF $1i~b3 At8~71 7il t~1 ~79~ ~th ~! *7.1 iL1 7~ 0 r t ~. A4I ~D tt f F ~ L] E1 ~ ~ ~ 7q] ql cR ~ 7A 7~ ~ T~ e f F~ ~o o 7 ~ o ~D F ~04 T~. 51- ~ ^0 ~ 5!F ~D ~ 71 w54 7D~D4 ~ O Ao ZO~O 34 gE'91 rD 7~7~ ~ L] E1 29 11 ~ ~D ~ ~ 701^ ~R~ -71~ ;!61 ~9ol~, Cl~ ~oR 5~74O~ ~DR 皌r71~ T ~ ~o~ ~71 70L81F ~1~ ~ T 癐~(Dardai and Heavner 1987). ~ =~皛 rc1~- fF ~r<~r~Ol~ :;LAD p^5!t 70L~ 7~ ~e~71~. TFo oql Rt ~ I *54 ~o~47A 7=f^D~ 710~: ~789l 057.17t ~. ~t~oq 7JOo'~1 fw'~ o;4 0~77e34 TqR D oF rl~ f ~e a|~7~71 ~ A皛 ~ 38~ t~ - ol 皛71~ f 皛 7~1~71 7RAI~IM ~l~(Beamer 1972: BradDeld and others 1992: Cunliffe -Beamer 1990: Waynforth 1980. 1987). 皛UJ7~0~l ~I~3D4I-~741F TF91 70$0R ~ ~ e7~T$~ ~ TF8ol. ~f~ ~FF ~Alq3~ 717~1~ T 01 051 7~L~BJ f w7e7~lQ~ TL~ =~70~ 7~71M ,皛],olA1 3~ ~o4Al121 TF~ t4~7 _~ ~= T~ 71~F ~D~L f ~l~(Brown 1994: Cunliffe-Beamer 1993). ~e71~ fF癐] tt~ C1~ ~ f~71Y11 ~OD0174 +7R~ol ~I~(Cunliffe-Beamer 1983. 1993). 0e~7= 0 ~ Aa~'L O`~=OR At*~71 $181 OCR for page 48
,~ ~~ x/~ ~~ Em D~1 ~q~Zlol ~1* +91oR癴 Em. ~1~ _ 71皀 ~ ~~ ~717F 皛 Poll TO ~~ 7.~7t ~~ of omit Am. Deborah ~~ ~癲 ~R~72. ^ =4 1t 71~. Tow ma' DEN ~皛癛 ~R癛 ~ -Sol tt~J~ 71~101; Am. Tom 7~! ~72 Otto $1isJ 707 T_(FBR 1987) . ~J~1 ~2 4711e=~ TOl f~727R M91 tt61 =4 7a72~ 918~ 71291 ~71g ~~ T7F ~7! ~~ ~ ~ 癷ll 1: ~7 l] El So 01 ~ ~79 O i!! JJ ~1 1 ;A1~ 皛 ~ 71 ~ ~ ~1 71 ~皛 ~ :'l HI AIR . T~$ ~ ~E|LR~ =~ ~ 7003 T~T~ ~El. ~CR(~. banda~,lng). ~ITS!1 ~2~(~) ~ 2~, ~5R~ 7R71 =皀 T~ 71~ol皌 ~ ~(UFAW 1989) 4 #, 7:!~, ~1~ (Pain, Analsesia. and Anesthesia) f~4~^ ~91 ~f7~01 $~ '2~1~ f~oll ~uJ~d ~ R~ ~ ~(~) 1 i~ 7,gi'7= 0 ~ ~7= 011 ^~} :~71 ~ ~ 7~=Mo o1 J ~ 7~ ~ mE1 71 癑 ~ = *~z54 .] 70 ~ ~ D21'~. ~ 70 iS3 ~ ~ ~ o|| ~J9 i5~ =~ ~ 7 ol1 ^1 ~ u~ol~ ~桹2O~ f oAA~ 7~1~ $~1~ ~1311!1~ 8~- Ee D4 ^5 1 ~ ~ 皛! ol D] ~!4 7~1 皛 ~ t0 $ 0A 7 IS~ f ~rel ~ e D4 _ S) ~~ ~ o i j! ~7 f 7JC|, T4~1 ^2~ol|A1 D}~781!4 79~701s~ 7~79i~ ^~8 ~Ei7~47~ ~r~ I 1 9~ r~q~l~ ~ D4 ~ 7=~7~1~ 7037 (Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals: NRC 1992)l ol~ ~ol tt~ 71 tJ 7~ 0] ~ D~ ~r~ 72Ol1 i~l~ ;~o3 ~ 71- 71 ~5;i ol ~tti(T ~ A D ) . ~ 11 '1 ~ ~5~1 71 ~ ~ ~ 7Aa ~:1 7474 ~E1~R ~ D ~rg . D 發rl(Hughes and Lang 1983: Soma 19874. ~r皀 ~ ~發l ~q~ Y~ - o1 ~OO~7l ~1~o4(Breazile 1987: Morton and Griffiths 1986; Wright and others 1985) ~皛8J *~皀~1 ~ ~70~ 71~ Z~7~1 皛, ^~1~ ~D8, 3il ^~ ~=olL~ 癮~ Y]~ D3l70~7~0` Ql~Oll] 7^~^11. YlOl~o 7~ 79201 ~o tR ~ 2 T ~r發 ~ ~a~ ~91 71 ~; ~ 1  f Mr](NRC 1992) ~6 31 ~ ~= :~ ~ ~ At O=~ `~ At2=' ~ ~ r~rO] A,] ~ ~, ~ ~ =,) ^a ~847~ 71 ~ oil DRm$ il~8R皌 ii~ 79發~(Dresser 1988; Dubner 1987: Kitchen and others 1987). L'J7~0~ ~ol^~ol ~0 71~7i 皛6374 0171 ,皛71~1 ~-~ 1 ~ 皛== 70$0R~ ^1~40|7nA1 ~= of 71~ f~7~717t ~癐lAl~ ~ 171~ f 7-1~ - 70~ f ,l~(lRAC 1985). 0,~5~ tE~47AoJ D~8 ~AotA1-7l7Al = ~ OD~7~ 0|~79o] ~ 7^1~ Dg D}~Y~Y~ ' of71 $18il^1 71T7~ ~17~iQ +8R1 ~. 71~^1191 f~1 ~ f~ T +~T$5!1 71~7t ~r皛2 f AA~. *~' O`~EO. ~9:1 SoERQ~ 70~, =~7 OCR for page 48
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{!D~1 ~61~ ii~1 ~1? I J 71 ~ ~~ 71i~ 71 o7~171~ I T JO 梸1 Moliere ~ ~~ T9lAl ,.~T7~71 ~~ J_ At A171~r~ :po] ~ 7,~, ~ ~ 79 0 ~ o~te4At~ ~A1 ~71 ~ 02 ^1- 51~ ~~ 7,JA174 *~7t BEAD ~ 70 $, 70~17= 0 e! of ~~ 73$ tool ,oJr- (Arluke 1990: NRC 1992: Rollin 1986: Wolfle 1985). 7J~7~71 ~87,~ 64 ~a皛 0Jes4Ay 0~] Elf TO ~ a 7a 0 ;! Olaf T 0.1 lo_ 7.1~ 7a O 0~7.1~ al 1 of Wry 70

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