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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Appendix A Committee and Professional Staff Biographic Information NORMAN R. AUGUSTINE [NAE] (Chair) retired in 1997 as chair and chief executive officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation. Previously, he served as chair and chief executive officer of the Martin Marietta Corporation. On retiring, he joined the faculty of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University. Earlier in his career, he had served as under secretary of the Army and as assistant director of defense research and engineering. Mr. Augustine has been chair of the National Academy of Engineering and served 9 years as chairman of the American Red Cross. He has also been president of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and served as chairman of the Jackson Foundation for Military Medicine. He has been a trustee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Princeton. He is a trustee emeritus of Johns Hopkins University and serves on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and on the Department of Homeland Security’s Advisory Council. He is a former chairman of the Defense Science Board. He is on the boards of Black and Decker, Lockheed Martin, Procter and Gamble, and Phillips Petroleum, and he has served as chairman of the Business Roundtable Taskforce on Education. He has received the National Medal of Technology and the Department of Defense’s highest civilian award, the Distinguished Service Medal, five times. Mr. Augustine holds a BSE and an MSE in aeronautical engineering, both from Princeton University, and has received 19 honorary degrees. He is the author or coauthor of four books.
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future CRAIG R. BARRETT [NAE] is chief executive officer of Intel Corporation. He received a BSc in 1961, an MS in 1963, and a PhD in 1964, all in materials science from Stanford University. After graduation, he joined the faculty of Stanford University in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and remained through 1974, rising to the rank of associate professor. Dr. Barrett was a Fulbright Fellow at Danish Technical University in Denmark in 1972 and a North Atlantic Trade Organization Postdoctoral Fellow at the National Physical Laboratory in England from 1964 to 1965. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1994 and became NAE chair in July 2004. Dr. Barrett joined Intel in 1974 as a technology-development manager. He was named a vice president in 1984, and was promoted to senior vice president in 1987 and executive vice president in 1990. Dr. Barrett was elected to Intel’s board of directors in 1992 and was named the company’s chief operating officer in 1993. He became Intel’s fourth president in May 1997 and chief executive officer in 1998. Dr. Barrett is a member of the boards of directors of Qwest Communications International Inc., the National Forest Foundation, Achieve, Inc., the Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group, and the Semiconductor Industry Association. In addition to serving as cochairman of the National Alliance of Business Coalition for Excellence in Education, Dr. Barrett served on the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (also known as the Glenn Commission). Dr. Barrett is the author of over 40 technical papers dealing with the influence of microstructure on the properties of materials and of a textbook on materials science, Principles of Engineering Materials. He was the recipient of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers Hardy Gold Medal in 1969. GAIL CASSELL [IOM] is vice president of scientific affairs and Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases of Eli Lilly and Company. She was previously the Charles H. McCauley Professor and chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health under her leadership. She is a current member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She is a past president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), a former member of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director’s Advisory Committee, and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of NIH. Dr. Cassell served 8 years on the Bacteriology-Mycology 2 Study Section and as chair for 3 years. She also was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr.
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Cassell has been intimately involved in establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. She is the chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM, is a member of the Institute of Medicine, has served as an adviser on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and has been an invited participant in numerous congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has written over 250 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious diseases. STEVEN CHU [NAS] is the director of E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and a professor of physics and cellular and molecular biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Previously, he held positions at Stanford University and AT&T Bell Laboratories. Dr. Chu’s research in atomic physics, quantum electronics, polymer physics, and biophysics includes tests of fundamental theories in physics, the development of methods to laser-cool and trap atoms, atom interferometry, and the manipulation and study of polymers and biologic systems at the single-molecule level. While at Stanford, he helped to start Bio-X, a multidisciplinary initiative that brings together the physical and biologic sciences with engineering and medicine. Dr. Chu has received numerous awards and is a cowinner of the Nobel Prize in physics (1997). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Academica Sinica and is a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Korean Academy of Science and Engineering. Dr. Chu also serves on the boards of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the University of Rochester, NVIDIA, and the (planned) Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. He has served on numerous advisory committees, including the Executive Committee of the National Academy of Sciences Board on Physics and Astronomy, the National Institutes of Health Advisory Committee to the Director, and the National Nuclear Security Administration Advisory Committee to the Director. Dr. Chu received his AB degrees in mathematics and physics from the University of Rochester, a PhD in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and a number of honorary degrees. ROBERT M. GATES has been the president of Texas A&M University, a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university, since August 2002. Dr. Gates served as interim dean of the George Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M from 1999 to 2001. He served as director of central intelligence from November 1991 until January 1993. In that posi-
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future tion, he headed all foreign-intelligence agencies of the United States and directed the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Dr. Gates is the only career officer in CIA’s history to rise from entry-level employee to director. He served as deputy director of central intelligence from 1986 to 1989 and as assistant to the president and deputy national security adviser at the White House from January 1989 to November 1991. Dr. Gates joined the CIA in 1966 and spent nearly 27 years as an intelligence professional, serving six presidents. During that period, he spent nearly 9 years at the National Security Council, serving four presidents of both political parties. Dr. Gates has been awarded the National Security Medal and the Presidential Citizens Medal, has twice received the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal, and has three times received CIA’s highest award, the Distinguished Intelligence Medal. He is the author of the memoir From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider’s Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War, published in 1996. He serves as a member of the board of trustees of the Fidelity Funds and on the board of directors of NACCO Industries, Inc., Brinker International, Inc., and Parker Drilling Company, Inc. Dr. Gates received his bachelor’s degree from the College of William and Mary, his master’s degree in history from Indiana University, and his doctorate in Russian and Soviet history from Georgetown University. NANCY S. GRASMICK is Maryland’s first female state superintendent of schools. She has served in that post since 1991. Dr. Grasmick’s career in education began as a teacher of deaf children at the William S. Baer School in Baltimore City. She later served as a classroom and resource teacher, principal, supervisor, assistant superintendent, and associate superintendent in the Baltimore County Public Schools. In 1989, she was appointed special secretary for children, youth, and families, and in 1991, the state Board of Education appointed her state superintendent of schools. Dr. Grasmick holds a PhD from the Johns Hopkins University, an MS from Gallaudet University, and a BS from Towson University. She has been a teacher, an administrator, and a child advocate. Her numerous board and commission appointments include the President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education, the US Army War College Board of Visitors, the Towson University Board of Visitors, the state Planning Committee for Higher Education, and the Maryland Business Roundtable for Education. Dr. Grasmick has received numerous awards for leadership, including the Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Prize in Education. CHARLES O. HOLLIDAY, JR. [NAE] is the chairman of the board and chief executive officer of DuPont. He became chief executive officer in 1998 and chairman in 1999. He started at DuPont in 1970 at DuPont’s Old Hickory site after receiving a BS in industrial engineering from the Univer-
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future sity of Tennessee. He is a licensed professional engineer. In 2004, he was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering and became chairman of the Business Roundtable’s Task Force for Environment, Technology, and Economy the same year. Mr. Holliday is a past chairman of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), the Business Council, and the Society of Chemical Industry–American Section. While chairman of WBCSD, Mr. Holliday was coauthor of Walking the Talk, which details the business case for sustainable development and corporate responsibility. Mr. Holliday also serves on the board of directors of HCA, Inc. and Catalyst and is a former director of Analog Devices. SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON [NAE] is the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the oldest technologic research university in the United States, and has held senior leadership positions in government, industry, research, and academe. Dr. Jackson is immediate past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and chairman of the AAAS board of directors, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Physical Society, and she has advisory roles in other national organizations. She is a trustee of the Brookings Institution, a life member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Council on Competitiveness. She serves on the boards of Georgetown University and Rockefeller University, on the board of directors of the New York Stock Exchange, and on the board of regents of the Smithsonian Institution, and she is a director of several major corporations. Dr. Jackson was chairman of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1995-1999; at the Commission, she reorganized the agency and revamped its regulatory approach by articulating and moving strongly to risk-informed, performance-based regulation. Before then, she was a theoretical physicist at the former AT&T Bell Laboratories and a professor of theoretical physics at Rutgers University. Dr. Jackson holds an SB in physics, a PhD in theoretical elementary-particle physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and 31 honorary doctoral degrees. ANITA K. JONES [NAE] is Lawrence R. Quarles Professor of Engineering and Applied Science. She received her PhD in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in 1973. She left CMU as an associate professor when she cofounded Tartan Laboratories. She was vice-president of Tartan from 1981 to 1987. In 1988, she joined the University of Virginia as a professor and the chair of the Computer Science Department. From 1993 to 1997 she served at the US Department of Defense, where as director of defense research and engineering, she oversaw the department’s sci-
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future ence and technology program, research laboratories, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. She received the US Air Force Meritorious Civilian Service Award and a Distinguished Public Service Award. She served as vice chair of the National Science Board and cochair of the Virginia Research and Technology Advisory Commission. She is a member of the Defense Science Board, the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Corporation, National Research Council Advisory Council for Policy and Global Affairs, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation. She is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and American Association for the Advancement Science, and she is the author of 45 papers and two books. JOSHUA LEDERBERG [NAS/IOM] is Sackler Foundation Scholar at Rockefeller University in New York. He is a cowinner of the Nobel Prize in 1958 for his research in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. As a graduate student at Yale University, Dr. Lederberg and his mentor showed that the bacterium Escherichia coli could share genetic information through recombinant events. He went on to show in 1952 that bacteriophages could transfer genetic information between bacteria in Salmonella. In addition to his contributions to biology, Dr. Lederberg did extensive research in artificial intelligence, including work in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration experimental programs seeking life on Mars and the chemistry expert system DENDRAL. Dr. Lederberg is professor emeritus of molecular genetics and informatics. He received his PhD from Yale University in 1948. RICHARD LEVIN is the president of Yale University and Frederick William Beinecke Professor of Economics. In his writings and public testimony, Dr. Levin has described the substantial benefits of government funding of basic scientific research conducted by universities. A specialist in the economics of technologic change, Dr. Levin has written extensively on such subjects as intellectual-property rights, the patent system, industrial research and development, and the effects of antitrust and public regulation on private industry. Before his appointment as president, he devoted himself for two decades to teaching, research, and administration. He chaired Yale’s Economics Department and served as dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Levin is a director of Lucent Technologies and a trustee of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, one of the largest philanthropic organizations in the United States. He served on a presidential commission reviewing the US Postal Service and as a member of the bipartisan commission reviewing US intelligence capabilities. As a member of the Board of Science, Technology, and Economic Policy at the National Academy of Sciences, Dr. Levin cochaired a committee that examined the
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future effects of intellectual-property rights policies on scientific research and made recommendations for a patent system meeting the needs of the 21st century. He received his bachelor’s degree in history from Stanford University in 1968 and studied politics and philosophy at Oxford University, where he earned a bachelor of letters. In 1974, he received his PhD in economics from Yale and was named to the Yale faculty. He holds honorary degrees awarded by Peking, Harvard, Princeton, and Oxford Universities. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. C. D. (DAN) MOTE, JR. [NAE] began his tenure as president of the University of Maryland and as Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering in 1998. Before assuming the presidency at Maryland, Dr. Mote served on the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) faculty for 31 years. From 1991 to 1998, he was vice chancellor at UCB, held an endowed chair in mechanical systems, and was president of the UC Berkeley Foundation. He earlier served as chair of UCB’s Department of Mechanical Engineering. Dr. Mote’s research is in dynamic systems and biomechanics. Internationally recognized for his research on the dynamics of gyroscopic systems and the biomechanics of snow skiing, he has produced more than 300 publications; holds patents in the United States, Norway, Finland, and Sweden; and has mentored 56 PhD students. He received his BS, MS, and PhD in mechanical engineering from UCB. Dr. Mote has received numerous awards and honors, including the Humboldt Prize awarded by the Federal Republic of Germany. He is a recipient of the Berkeley Citation, an award from the University of California similar to an honorary doctorate, and was named distinguished engineering alumnus. He has received three honorary degrees. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and serves on its Council. He was elected to honorary membership in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers International, its most distinguished recognition, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Academy of Wood Science, the Acoustical Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He serves as director of the Technology Council of Maryland and the Greater Washington Board of Trade. In its latest survey, Washington Business Forward magazine named him one of the 20 most influential people in the metropolitan Washington area. CHERRY MURRAY [NAS, NAE] is the deputy director for science and technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in which she is the senior executive responsible for overseeing the quality of science and technology in the laboratory’s scientific and technical programs and disciplines. Dr. Murray came to LLNL from Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, where she served as senior vice president for physical sciences and wireless
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future research. She joined Bell Labs in 1978 as a member of the technical staff. She was promoted to a number of positions over the years, including department head for low-temperature physics, department head for condensed-matter physics and semiconductor physics, and director of the physical research laboratory. In 2000, Dr. Murray became vice president for physical sciences, and in 2001, senior vice president. Dr. Murray received her BS and PhD in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PETER O’DONNELL, JR. is president of the O’Donnell Foundation of Dallas, a private foundation that develops and funds model programs designed to strengthen engineering and science education and research. In higher education, the O’Donnell Foundation provided the challenge grant that led to the creation of 32 science and engineering chairs at the University of Texas (UT) at Austin. Also at UT-Austin, it developed the plan that created the Institute for Computational Engineering and Science, and it constructed the Applied Computational Engineering and Science Building to foster interdisciplinary research at the gradate level. In medicine, Mr. O’Donnell endowed the Scholars in Medical Research Program, designed to launch the most promising new assistant professors on their biomedical careers and thereby help to develop future leaders of medical science. In public education, Mr. O’Donnell created the Advanced Placement Incentive Program, which has increased the number of students, especially Hispanic and Black students, who pass college-level courses in mathematics, science, and English while still in high school. The incentive program is now in 43 school districts in Texas and served as the model for both the state of Texas and the federal Advanced Placement (AP) incentive programs. Mr. O’Donnell is chairman of Advanced Placement Strategies, Inc., a nonprofit organization he founded to manage and implement the AP incentive program in Texas schools. He served as a member of President Reagan’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, as commissioner of the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission, and on the State of Texas Select Committee on Higher Education. He is a trustee of the Cooper Institute, a member of the Presidents’ Circle of the National Academy of Sciences, and a founding member of the National Innovation Initiative Council on Competitiveness. Mr. O’Donnell has pursued a career in investments and philanthropy. He received his BS in mathematics from the University of the South and an MBA from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. LEE R. RAYMOND [NAE] is the chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Dr. Raymond was chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Exxon Corporation from 1993 until its merger with Mobil Oil Corporation in 1999. He served as a director of
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Exxon Corporation from 1984 until the merger. Since joining the organization in 1963, Dr. Raymond has held a variety of management positions in domestic and foreign operations, including Exxon Company, USA; Creole Petroleum Corporation; Exxon Company, International; Exxon Enterprises; and Esso Inter-America, Inc. He served as the president of Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc., in 1979 and moved to New York in 1981, when he was named executive vice president of Exxon Enterprises. In 1983, Dr. Raymond was named president and director of Esso Inter-America Inc. with responsibilities for Exxon’s operations in the Caribbean and Central and South America. He served as the senior vice president of Exxon Corporation from 1984 to 1987 and as its president from 1987 to 1993 and in 1996. Dr. Raymond has been a director of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. or a predecessor institution since 1987 and served as a member of the Committee on Director Nominations and Board Affairs and Chairman of the Committee on Management Development and Executive Compensation. He serves as a director of the United Negro College Fund, the chairman of the American Petroleum Institute, trustee and vice chairman of the American Enterprise Institute, and trustee of the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. He is a member of the Business Council, the Business Roundtable, the Council on Foreign Relations, the National Academy of Engineering, the Emergency Committee for American Trade, and the National Petroleum Council. He is secretary of the Energy Advisory Board, the Singapore-US Business Council, the Trilateral Commission, and the University of Wisconsin Foundation. Dr. Raymond graduated in 1960 from the University of Wisconsin with a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering. In 1963, he received a PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Minnesota. ROBERT C. RICHARDSON [NAS] is the F. R. Newman Professor of Physics and the vice provost for research at Cornell University. He received a BS and an MS in physics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute. After serving in the US Army, he obtained his PhD from Duke University in 1966. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He is also member of the Governing Board at Duke University, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Brookhaven Science Associates. Dr. Richardson has served as chair of various committees of the American Physical Society (APS) and recently completed a term on the Governing Board of the National Science Board. Dr. Richardson was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery that liquid helium-3 undergoes a pairing transition similar to that of superconductors. He has also received a Guggenheim fellowship, the Eighth Simon Memorial Prize (of the British Physical Society), the Buckley Prize of the APS, and an honorary doctor of science degree from the Ohio State University. He has published more than 95 scientific articles in major research journals.
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future P. ROY VAGELOS [NAS, IOM] is retired chairman and chief executive officer of Merck & Co., Inc. He received an AB in 1950 from the University of Pennsylvania and an MD in 1954 from Columbia University. After a residency at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, he joined the National Institutes of Health, where from 1956 to 1966 he served as senior surgeon and then section head of comparative biochemistry. In 1966, he became chairman of the Department of Biological Chemistry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis; in 1973, he founded the university’s Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences. He joined Merck Research Laboratories in 1975, where he was president until 1985, when he became CEO and later chairman of the company. He retired in 1994. Dr. Vagelos is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He has received many awards in science and business and 14 honorary doctorates. He has been chairman of the board of the University of Pennsylvania, a member of the Business Council and the Business Roundtable, and a member of the boards of TRW, McDonnell Douglas, Estee Lauder, and Prudential Finance. He also served as cochair of the New Jersey Performing Arts Center and president and CEO of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens. He is chairman of Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Theravance, two biotechnology companies. He is also chairman of the Board of Visitors at Columbia University Medical Center, where he chairs the capital campaign. He serves on a number of public-policy and advisory boards, including the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and Danforth Foundation. CHARLES M. VEST [NAE] is president emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and is a life member of the MIT Corporation, the institute’s board of trustees. He was president of MIT from 1990 to 2004. During his presidency, he emphasized enhancing undergraduate education, exploring new organizational forms to meet emerging directions in research and education, building a stronger international dimension in education and research programs, developing stronger relations with industry, and enhancing racial and cultural diversity at MIT. He also devoted considerable energy to bringing issues concerning education and research to broader public attention and to strengthening national policy on science, engineering, and education. With respect to the latter, Dr. Vest chaired the President’s Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the Space Station and served as a member of the President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, the Massachusetts Governor’s Council on Economic Growth and Technology, and the National Research Council Board on Engineering Education. He chairs the US Department of Energy Task Force on the Future of Science Programs and is vice chair of the Council on
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Competitiveness and immediate past chair of the Association of American Universities. He sits on the board of directors of IBM and E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. In 2004, he was asked by President Bush to serve as a member of the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. He earned his BS in mechanical engineering from West Virginia University in 1963 and his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Michigan in 1964 and 1967, respectively. His research interests are the thermal sciences and the engineering applications of lasers and coherent optics. GEORGE M. WHITESIDES [NAS, NAE] is the Woodford L. and Ann A. Flowers University Professor of Chemistry at Harvard University, where his research interests include materials science, biophysics, complexity, surface science, microfluidics, self-assembly, microtechnology and nanotechnology, and cell-surface biochemistry. He received an AB from Harvard University in 1960 and a PhD from the California Institute of Technology in 1964. He was a member of the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1963 to 1982. He joined the Department of Chemistry of Harvard University in 1982 and was department chairman in 1986-1989. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the New York Academy of Science, a foreign fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, and an honorary fellow of the Chemical Research Society of India. He has served as an adviser to the National Research Council, the National Science Foundation, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency at the Department of Defense. RICHARD N. ZARE [NAS] is the Marguerite Blake Wilbur Professor in Natural Science at Stanford University. He is a graduate of Harvard University, where he received his BA in chemistry and physics in 1961 and his PhD in chemical physics in 1964. In 1965, he became an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He moved to the University of Colorado in 1966 and remained there until 1969 while holding joint appointments in the Departments of Chemistry and Physics and Astrophysics. In 1969, he was appointed to a full professorship in the Chemistry Department at Columbia University, becoming the Higgins Professor of Natural Science in 1975. In 1977, he moved to Stanford University. Dr. Zare is renowned for his research in laser chemistry, which resulted in a greater understanding of chemical reactions at the molecular level. He has received numerous honors and awards and is a member of the American Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Chemical Society. He served as the
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future chair of the President’s Committee on the National Medal of Science in 1997-2000; chaired the National Research Council’s Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications in 1992-1995; and was chair of the National Science Board for the last 2 years of his 1992-1998 service. He is the chairman of the Board of Directors of Annual Reviews, Inc., and he will chair the Department of Chemistry at Stanford University in 2005-2008. STAFF DEBORAH D. STINE (Study Director) is associate director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy; director of the National Academies Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program; and director of the Office of Special Projects. Dr. Stine has received both group and individual achievement awards for her work on various projects throughout the National Academies since 1989. She has directed studies and other activities on science and security in an age of terrorism, human reproductive cloning, presidential and federal advisory committee science and technology appointments, facilitating interdisciplinary research, setting priorities for the National Science Foundation’s large research facilities, advanced research instrumentation and facilities, evaluating federal research programs, international benchmarking of US research, and many other issues. Before coming to the National Academies, she was a mathematician for the Air Force, an air-pollution engineer for the state of Texas, and an air-issues manager for the Chemical Manufacturers Association. She holds a BS in mechanical and environmental engineering from the University of California, Irvine, an MBA from what is now Texas A&M at Corpus Christi, and a PhD in public administration with a focus on science and technology policy analysis from American University. She received the Mitchell Prize Young Scholar Award for her research on international environmental decision-making. ALAN ANDERSON has worked as a consultant writer for the National Academies since 1994, contributing to reports on science policy, education and training, government-industry partnerships, scientific evidence, and other topics primarily for the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy and the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. He is also editorial director of the Millennium Science Initiative, an independent nongovernmental organization whose mission is to strengthen science and technology in developing countries. He has worked in science and medical journalism for over 25 years, serving as reporter, writer, and foreign correspondent for Time magazine, the New York Times Magazine,
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Saturday Review, and other publications. He holds a BA in English from Yale University and an MS in journalism from Columbia University. THOMAS ARRISON is director of the Forum on Information Technology and Research Universities at the National Academies. He holds MAs in public policy and Asian studies and a BA in political science from the University of Michigan. He studied in Japan for 2 years, completing business internships in the banking and semiconductor industries and intensive training in Japanese language. Before being named director of the new forum in 2002, he was associate director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. Mr. Arrison joined the National Academies in 1990 and has served as the study director for numerous activities and publications, including nine committee consensus reports. DAVID ATTIS is director of policy studies at the Council on Competitiveness. He serves as the deputy director of the National Innovation Initiative, a multiyear effort to increase the United States’s capacity for innovation across all sectors of the economy. Before joining the council, Dr. Attis was a consultant with A.T. Kearney, Inc., in its general consulting practice and its Global Business Policy Council. His work included business turnarounds, strategy consulting, information-systems implementation, global risk assessments, and policy analysis. He holds a PhD in the history of science from Princeton University, an MPhil in the history and philosophy of science from Cambridge University, and a BA in physics from the University of Chicago. His doctoral thesis explored the development of mathematics in Ireland from the surveyors of the 17th century through the Celtic Tiger economy of the 1990s. RACHEL COURTLAND is a research associate for the National Academies Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. She earned her BA in physics from the University of Pennsylvania in May 2003 and her MS in physics from Emory University in 2004. In graduate school, she studied the local perturbation of supercooled colloidal suspensions using two-dimensional confocal microscopy and conducted preparatory work for a National and Aeronautics Space Administration payload project. As an undergraduate, she led Women Interested in the Study of Physics, an organization created to help to foster a more comfortable environment for women scientists at undergraduate and graduate levels and dedicated to raising awareness of issues facing women in academe. LAUREL L. HAAK is a program officer for the National Academies Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. She received a BS and an MS in biology from Stanford University. She was the recipient of a pre-
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future doctoral NIH National Research Service Award and received a PhD in neuroscience in 1997 from Stanford University Medical School, where her research focused on calcium signaling and circadian rhythms. She was awarded a National Research Council research associateship to work at NIH on intracellular calcium dynamics in oligodendrocytes. From 2002 to 2003, she was editor of Science’s Next Wave Postdoc Network at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. While a postdoctoral scholar, she was editor of the Women in Neuroscience newsletter and served as president of the organization from 2003 to 2004. She is an ex officio member of the Society for Neuroscience Committee on Women in Neuroscience, has served on the Biophysics Society Early Careers Committee, and was an adviser for the National Postdoctoral Association. PETER HENDERSON is director of the National Academies Board on Higher Education and Workforce (BHEW). His specializations include postsecondary education, the labor market for scientists and engineers, and federal science and technology research funding. He oversees BHEW’s Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Trust Programs in Biomedical Science and Assessment of NIH Minority Research Training Programs and supervises BHEW staff working on studies that examine the community-college pathway to engineering careers. He has contributed as a study director or staff member to Building a Workforce for the Information Economy, Measuring the Science and Engineering Enterprise: Priorities for the Division of Science Resource Studies, Attracting Science and Mathematics PhDs to Secondary School Education, Monitoring International Labor Standards, Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education, and Observations on the President’s Federal Science and Technology Budget. Dr. Henderson holds a master’s degree in public policy (1984) from Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and a PhD in American political history from the Johns Hopkins University (1994). He joined the National Academies staff in 1996 and was a recipient of the National Academies Distinguished Service Award in 2003. JO L. HUSBANDS is a senior project director with Development, Security, and Cooperation of the Policy and Global Affairs division. In that capacity, she is working on a project to engage the international scientific community in addressing the possibility that the results of biotechnology research will be misused to support terrorism or biologic weapons. She is also developing new projects related to defense economics and the proliferation of conventional weapons and technologies. From 1991 through 2004, she was director of the National Academies Committee on International Security and Arms Control and its Working Group on Biological Weapons Control. Dr. Husbands is an adjunct professor in the security studies program at George-
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future town University, where she teaches a course on “The International Arms Trade.” She holds a PhD in political science from the University of Minnesota and a master’s degree in international public policy (international economics) from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. She is a member of the Advisory Board of Women in International Security and a fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. BENJAMIN A. NOVAK (Policy Fellow) is pursuing his MS in public policy and management at Carnegie Mellon University. He received his BA in political science and his BS in biomedical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh, where he was a member of the University Honors College. As an undergraduate student, Mr. Novak had the unusual experience of completing internships in both technical and policy fields working in a variety of places, including the US Congress House of Representatives Committee on Science, the Vascular Research Center of David Vorp, and the Artificial Liver Laboratory of Jack Patzer. STEVE OLSON is the author of Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins (Houghton Mifflin), which was one of five finalists for the 2002 nonfiction National Book Award and received the Science-in-Society Award from the National Association of Science Writers. His most recent book, Count Down: Six Kids Vie for Glory at the World’s Toughest Math Competition (Houghton Mifflin), was named a best science book of 2004 by Discover magazine. He has written several other books, including Evolution in Hawaii and On Being a Scientist. He has been a consultant writer for the National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Institute for Genomic Research, and many other organizations. He is the author of articles in The Atlantic Monthly, Science, The Washington Post, Scientific American, Washingtonian, Slate, Teacher, Astronomy, Science 82-86, and other magazines. He also is coauthor of an article published in Nature in September 2004 that presented a fundamentally new perspective on human ancestry. From 1989 through 1992, he served as special assistant for communications in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He earned a bachelor’s degree in physics from Yale University in 1978. JOHN B. SLANINA (Policy Fellow) is a graduate student at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the National Academies. He is pursuing an MS in public policy, and his research encompasses the incorporation of innovative practices in the manufacturing sector and regional economic
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future development. He previously received an MS in mechanical engineering at Georgia Tech in 2002, where he performed research in sensor design for bioengineering applications. During the 2000-2001 school year, he studied engineering at the École Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers in Metz, France. He earned his undergraduate degrees in mechanical engineering and mathematics from Youngstown State University in 2000.