▲ p<.05, denotes a significant increase.
▼ p<.05, denotes a significant decrease.
1Difference calculated by subtracting 1995 or 1999 from 2003 estimate using unrounded numbers.
2Met international guidelines for participation rates in 2003 only after replacement schools were included.
3Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China.
4Because of national-level changes in the starting age/date for school, 1999 data for Australia and Slovenia cannot be compared to 2003.
5National desired population does not cover all of the international desired population in all years for Lithuania, and in 2003 for Indonesia.
6Designated LSS because only Latvian-speaking schools were included in 1995 and 1999. For this analysis, only Latvian-speaking schools are included in the 2003 average.
7Because of changes in the population tested, 1995 data for Israel and Italy are not shown.
8Because within classroom sampling was not accounted for, 1995 data are not shown for South Africa.
NOTE: Countries are sorted by 2003 average scores. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between averages for one country may be significant while a large difference for another country may not be significant. Parentheses indicate countries that did not meet international sampling and/or other guidelines in 1995, 1999, and/or 2003. See appendix A for details regarding 2003 data. See Gonzales et al. (2000) for details regarding 1995 and 1999 data. Countries were required to sample students in the upper of the two grades that contained the largest number of 13-year-olds. In the United States and most countries, this corresponds to grade 8. See table A1 in appendix A for details. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 1995, 1999, and 2003.
SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study: TIMSS 2003. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education, December 2004. P. 17. Available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005005.pdf.