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ars are funded by federal research grants (see Figure HE-8) and on average have stipends of under $35,000 per year.

However, mentors, institutions, and funding organizations have sometimes been slow to give postdoctoral fellows the status, recognition, and

FIGURE HE-8 Number and percent of postdoctoral scholars, by funding mechanism and field, 1983-2002.

NOTE: Non-federal support: support may be from the institution of higher education, state, and local government, foreign sources, nonprofit institutions, or private industry; research grants: support from federal agencies to a principal investigator, under whom postdoctoral scholars work; traineeships: educational awards given to scholars selected by the institution or by a federal agency; fellowships: competitive awards given directly to scholars for financial support of their graduate or postdoctoral studies.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation. Survey of Earned Doctorates 2002. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2004.

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