Cover Image


View/Hide Left Panel

traveling for short periods to participating countries (in 2004, APEC had 16 member countries, including China). Travel is possible between participating countries after submission of a single application, which is filtered by the applicant’s home country and forwarded to all the participating countries for precertification. Cardholders are checked against police records in their own country as well as against warning lists in participating countries. Approved travelers get cards valid for 3 years that provide special access to fast-track lanes at airports. In 2004, there were over 5,000 cards in circulation.

  1. Student Visas Many OECD countries are determined to attract a larger number of international students. In addition to developing special programs and streamlining application processes, some countries have signed bilateral agreements while others have decided to offer job opportunities to graduates.

    • Canada Students no longer require study permits for stays of less than 6 months.

    • France Since 1999, it has been possible to obtain a 3- to 6-month visa for short-term studies without registration.

  1. Work Permits for International Students and Spouses

    • Canada40 A new off-campus work program allows international students at public postsecondary institutions to work off campus, extending the previous policy enacted earlier in 2005 that allowed students to work on campus while in Canada on a student visa.

    • Germany Since 2003, international students have been allowed to work 180 half-days per year without a work permit.

    • Austria Since 2003, students can work half-time to finance their studies.

  1. Permit to Stay After Graduation to Find a Job

    • Canada41 As of May 16, 2005, a new policy allows certain students to work in their field of study for up to 2 years after graduation. Previously, international students were allowed to stay only 1 year after graduation to work in Canada.


Office of Science and Technology. “Canada: Immigration Policy Change Widens Door for Foreign Students and Scholars.” Bridges 6(July 13, 2005). Available at:



The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement