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and balance of federal funding for science and technology include the following:

  • Create a process in Congress that examines the entire FS&T budget before the total federal budget is aggregated into allocations to appropriations committees and subcommittees.9

  • Establish a stronger coordinating and budgeting role for OSTP to promote cohesion among federal R&D agencies.10

  • Maintain the diversity of FS&T funding in terms of sources of funding, performers, time horizons, and motivations.11

  • Balance funding between basic and applied research and across fields of research to stimulate innovative cross-disciplinary thinking.12

  • Protect funding for high-risk research by setting aside a portion of the R&D budgets of federal agencies for this purpose.13

  • Maintain a favorable economic and regulatory environment for capitalizing on research—for example, by using tax incentives to build stronger partnerships among academe, industry, and government.14

  • Encourage industry to boost its support of research conducted in colleges and universities from 7 to 20% of total academic research over the next 10 years.15

ACHIEVING ADEQUACY IN FEDERAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FUNDING

Given the importance of maintaining balance and diversity in the FS&T budget, the next logical question is, What is the appropriate magnitude of federal support for science and technology?

In 1993, the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

9

Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development, 1995.

10

National Research Council, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

11

NAS/NAE/IOM. Capitalizing on Investments in Science and Technology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.

12

National Academy of Engineering, Committee on the Impact of Academic Research on Industrial Performance. The Impact of Academic Research on Industrial Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.

13

Council on Competitiveness. Innovate America. Washington, DC: Council on Competitiveness, 2004.

14

NAS/NAE/IOM. Capitalizing on Investments in Science and Technology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.

15

National Research Council, Office of Special Projects. Harnessing Science and Technology for America’s Economic Future: National and Regional Priorities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.



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