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FIGURE EL-2 Centers as a percentage of the NSF research and related account.

SOURCE: Based on data in the National Science Foundation. FY 2005 Performance and Accountability Report. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2005.

  • Establish centers in agencies that have not supported centers in the past. Federal mission and regulatory agencies with primary responsibility for the services industries—such as the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Internal Revenue Service, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)—should consider funding academic research in ways that encourage greater participation by the services industries.26


Another mechanism for government–industry collaboration is a collaborative and development agreement (CRADA). The Stevenson–Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1986 allowed federal laboratories to enter into CRADAs with private companies. The legislation has been amended several times and covers most agencies.The National Aeronautics and Space


National Academy of Engineering. The Impact of Academic Research on Industrial Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.

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