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BOX 2-2

Twenty Great Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century

Electricity: steam turbine generators; long-distance, high-voltage transmission lines; pulverized coal; large-scale electric grids

Automotive: machine tools, assembly line, self-starting ignition, balloon tire, safety-glass windshield, electronic fuel injection and ignition, airbags, antilock brakes, fuel cells

Aeronautics: aerodynamic wing and fuselage design, metal alloys and composite materials, stressed-skin construction, jet propulsion, fly-by-wire control systems, collision warning systems, Doppler weather radar

Water supply and distribution: chlorination, wastewater treatment, dams, reservoirs, storage tanks, tunnel-boring equipment, computerized contaminant detection, desalination, large-scale distillation, portable ultraviolet devices

Electronics: triodes, semiconductors, transistors, molecular-beam epitaxy, integrated circuits, digital-to-optical recording (CD-ROM), microprocessors, ceramic chip carriers

Radio and television: alternators, triodes, cathode-ray tubes, super heterodyne circuits, AM/FM, videocassette recorders, flat-screen technology, cable and high-definition television, telecommunication satellites

Agriculture: tractors, power takeoff, rubber tires, diesel engines, combine, corn-head attachments, hay balers, spindle pickers, self-propelled irrigation systems, conservation tillage, global-positioning technology

Computers: electromechanical relays; Boolean operations; stored programs; programming languages; magnetic tape; software, supercomputers, minicomputers, and personal computers; operating systems; the mouse; the Internet

Telephony: automated switchboards, dial calling, touch-tone, loading coils, signal amplifiers, frequency multiplexing, coaxial cables, microwave signal transmission, switching technology, digital systems, optical-fiber signal transmission, cordless telephones, cellular telephones, voice-over-Internet protocols

Air conditioning and refrigeration: humidity-control technology, refrigerant technology, centrifugal compressors, automatic temperature control, frost-free cooling, roof-mounted cooling devices, flash-freezing

Highways: concrete, tar, road location, grading, drainage, soil science, signage, traffic control, traffic lights, bridges, crash barriers

Aerospace: rockets, guidance systems, space docking, lightweight materials for vehicles and spacesuits, solar power cells, rechargeable batteries, satellites, freeze-dried food, Velcro

Internet: packet-switching, ARPANET, e-mail, networking services, transparent peering of networks, standard communication protocols, TCP/IP, World Wide Web, hypertext, web browsers

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