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Imaging: diagnostic x-rays, color photography, holography, digital photography, cameras, camcorders, compact disks, microprocessor etching, electron microscopy, positron-emission tomography, computed axial tomography, magnetic-resonance imaging, sonar, radar, sonography, reflecting telescopes, radiotelescopes, photodiodes, charge-coupled devices

Household appliances: gas ranges, electric ranges, oven thermostats, nickel-chrome resistors, toasters, hot plates, electric irons, electric motors, rotary fans, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, sewing machines, refrigerators, dishwashers, can openers, cavity magnetrons, microwave ovens

Health technology: electrocardiography; heart–lung machines; pacemakers; kidney dialysis; artificial hearts; prosthetic limbs; synthetic heart valves, eye lenses, replacement joints; manufacturing techniques and systems design for large-scale drug delivery; operating microscopy; fiber-optic endoscopy; laparoscopy; radiologic catheters; robotic surgery

Petroleum and petrochemical technology: thermal-cracking oil refining; leaded gasoline; catalytic cracking; oil byproduct compounds; synthetic rubber; coal tar distillation byproduct compounds, plastics, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, synthetic fibers; drilling technologies; drill bits; pipelines; seismic siting; catalytic converters; pollution-control devices

Lasers and fiber optics: maser, laser, pulsed-beam laser, compact-disk players, barcode scanners, surgical lasers, fiber optic communication Nuclear technology: nuclear fission, nuclear reactors, electric-power generation, radioisotopes, radiation therapy, food irradiation

High-performance materials: steel alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium superalloys; synthetic polymers, Bakelite, Plexiglas; synthetic rubbers, neoprene, nylon; polyethylene, polyester, Saran Wrap, Dacron, Lycra spandex fiber, Kevlar; cement, concrete; synthetic diamonds; superconductors; fiberglass, graphite composites, Kevlar composites, aluminum composites

SOURCE: G. Constable and B. Somerville. A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements That Transformed Our Lives. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 2003.

for economic growth and well-being. The knowledge density of modern economies has steadily increased, and the ability of a society to produce, select, adapt, and commercialize knowledge is critical for sustained economic growth and improved quality of life.5,6 Robert Solow demonstrated that pro-


L. B. Holm-Nielsen. Promoting Science and Technology for Development: The World Bank’s Millennium Science Initiative. Paper delivered on April 30, 2002, to the First International Senior Fellows meeting, The Wellcome Trust, London, UK.


The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concludes that “underlying long-term growth rates in OECD economies depend on maintaining and expanding the knowledge base.” OECD. Technology, Productivity, and Job Creation: Best Policy Practices. Paris: OECD, 1998. P. 4.

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