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  • Clear international students and postdoctoral fellows for access to controlled equipment when their visas are issued or shortly thereafter so that their admission to a university academic program is coupled with their access to use of export-controlled equipment.14


In the wake of September 11 and the anthrax mailings, the S&T community, as in past times of crisis and along with other Americans, responded to the new challenges to US security. This response has occurred on many levels, from helping to analyze current and potential threats to working on ways in which advances in S&T can improve national and homeland security.15 This has required active engagement by the S&T community with policy-makers, particularly in national and homeland security, in law enforcement, and in intelligence, where many of the parties at the table are likely to lack experience dealing with one another. It also involves continuing efforts to ensure that highly qualified S&T personnel are attracted to working on problems related to national and homeland security.

Press reports since September 11 have suggested that officials in the DOD and DHS are concerned about attracting eligible workers, especially those with specialties in demand in open parts of the private sector. Since a significant portion of the work may be restricted or classified, this issue is largely a subset of the wider problem addressed in other background papers of ensuring that sufficient qualified US citizens are available to do the work. It also involves ensuring that restrictions on non-US citizens as employees are appropriate.

In addition, attracting personnel requires the creation of a work environment that will enable R&D in particular to be “cutting-edge.” For example, scientists working in a restricted or classified environment, especially at federal laboratories, still need to interact with the wider scientific community, including foreign visitors and collaborators, where much of the innovation most relevant to their work is taking place. In the wake of a series of scandals over alleged security lapses in the DOE nuclear-weapons complex in the late 1990s, the department imposed a number of new and


These recommendations were made by Dan Mote, president of the University of Maryland, at a May 6, 2005, workshop at the National Academies and cited in the letter from the National Academies’ presidents.


For a comprehensive examination of the potential contributions of S&T, see National Research Council. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002. Guides to additional reports and current projects of the National Academies related to homeland security may be found at:

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