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FIGURE NHS-1 Federal spending in defense and nondefense R&D, 1949-2005.

SOURCE: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Chart: Federal Spending on Defense and Nondefense R&D. Washington, DC: AAAS, February 2005. Available at:

the increasing commercialization and globalization of the traditional sources of S&T innovation for security have produced significant challenges for US national and homeland security policies. Many proposals to ensure continuing US S&T leadership see defense funding as essential to supporting this goal, requiring policies that would be able to serve both economic and national and homeland security objectives.

Federal actions that have been proposed include the following:

  • Raise the level of S&T spending to 3% of Department of Defense (DOD) spending and restore DOD’s historical commitment to basic research by directing 20% of its S&T budget to long-term research.

    • Increase the budget for mathematics, the physical sciences, and engineering research by 12% a year for the next 7 years within the research accounts of the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the DOD.

    • Within the DOD, set the balance of support for 6.1 basic research more in favor of unfettered exploration than of research related to short-term needs.

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