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eral cooperation essential to any effective export-control regime; streamline export classification, licensing, and reporting processes; and afford the President the authority and flexibility needed to advance US interests.15

  • Establish a new framework for coordinating multilateral export controls based on harmonized export-control policies and enhanced defense cooperation with close allies and friends.16


Over the course of the Cold War, the United States created a system of national and federal laboratories, some devoted exclusively to research related to national security and some serving multiple roles. The DOE, for example, maintains 10 national laboratories that are managed through contracts with universities and private firms.17 The DOD maintains a much larger system. Other laboratories maintained by such agencies as National Aeronautics and Space Administration may also conduct defense-related work. DHS has turned to some of the existing DOE laboratories to support its new R&D enterprise;18 it also is creating the National Bioterrorism Analysis and Countermeasures Center to handle its large biodefense-research portfolio. Some of these laboratories do a mix of classified and unclassified research, and others carry out only unclassified work, in some cases to ensure the maximal openness for their basic-research programs.

Since the end of the Cold War, questions have arisen periodically about the continuing relevance of the national laboratory system. Periodic reviews of the DOE laboratories, for example, have proposed substantial changes, including consolidation of the laboratories and significant changes in management structures.19 More general concerns include how to ensure the quality of scientific personnel in the laboratories and whether measures should


Center for Strategic and International Studies. Technology and Security in the 21st Century: US Military Export Control Reform. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2001.


Henry L. Stimson Center and Center for Strategic and International Studies. Enhancing Multilateral Export Controls for US National Security. Washington, DC: The Henry L. Stimson Center, 2001.


See, for example,




See, for example, Department of Energy. Task Force on Alternatives Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories (the “Galvin Commission”). Washington, DC: Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, 1995; General Accounting Office. Department of Energy National Laboratories Need Clearer Vision and Better Management. GAO/RCED-95-10. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, January 1995; National Research Council. Maintaining High Scientific Quality at Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004.

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