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negative effects of innovation in, 59

productivity, 46, 59

return on R&D investment, 47, 48

technological innovations, 42, 44, 59

AIDS, 43

Air quality, 58

Alexander, Lamar, 2

Alternative Trade Adjustment for Older Workers Program, 469

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 128 n.39, 322

American Jobs Act of Wisconsin, 27

American Indians/Alaskan Natives, 328, 341, 344, 345, 351

American Intellectual Property Law Association, 188

Anthrax mailings, 66, 481, 483

Apple Corporation, 184

Applied research

corporate funding, 32

defined, 68

federal funding, 141, 397, 403, 408

practical applications in industry, 51

pure, 69

qualitative measures, 419-420

security-related, 141, 150, 485, 486, 487, 490

US leadership, 68

Argonne National Laboratory, 92

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 394-395

Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, 315, 316, 344, 345

AT&T, 35

Atomic Energy Act, 475 n.1

Australia

higher education, 100

immigration policy, 178, 179, 384-385, 393, 394

tax credits for R&D, 195

test scores, 132, 308-311

Austria, AP test scores, 132

Automotive engineering, 44, 57-58, 60, 64, 71, 159, 196, 440

B

Bangalore, 23

Bardhan, Ashok, 211

Barrett, Craig, 17

Basic research

in China, 38

defined, 68

DOD, 7, 89, 90, 92, 137, 140, 141, 143, 150, 151, 402, 426, 431, 484, 486, 487

energy-related, 153

export controls, 35

federal funding, 7, 66-67, 89, 90, 92, 93, 136-143, 146-147, 150, 151-152, 397, 398, 402, 403, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433

high-risk, high-payoff, 8, 149-152, 398, 408, 416, 417, 423, 433, 436, 509

industry, 84, 86, 93, 157

practical applications in industry, 51, 52, 140

pure, 69

qualitative measures, 419

security-related, 90, 137, 140, 141, 150, 483, 484, 485, 487, 488, 490

recommendations, 7, 136

unclassified, 173

US leadership, 68

use-inspired, 69

Bayh–Dole Act, 433, 440-442

Belgium, 100, 310-311

Bell, Alexander Graham, 35

Bell Laboratories, 32, 83, 84, 157, 333

Bingaman, Jeff, 2

Biodefense research, 488, 493

Biological sciences, 76, 101, 336, 337, 338, 343, 351

Biomedical research, 33 n.38, 90, 139, 144, 199, 333, 334, 399, 411, 417, 423, 424

Biotechnology industry, 50, 59, 82, 88, 198, 222, 333, 453

Boehlert, Sherwood, 2

Boeing, 184, 491



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