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FIGURE 3-4 Disciplinary strengths in the United States, the 15 European Union nations in the comparator group (EU15), and the United Kingdom.

NOTE: The distance from the origin to the data point is proportional to citation share.

SOURCE: D. A. King. “The Scientific Impact of Nations.” Nature 430(2004):311-316. Data are from citations in ISI Thompson.

tion—funded primarily by the national sports lottery—to enhance public understanding, knowledge, and acceptance of science and engineering throughout the nation.19 Similarly, the government uses contests and prizes specifically to stimulate the scientific enterprise and public appreciation of scientific knowledge.

Other nations also are spending more on higher education and providing incentives for students to study science and engineering. To attract the best graduate students from around the world, universities in Japan, Switzerland, and elsewhere are offering science and engineering courses in English. In the 1990s, both China and Japan increased the number of students pursuing science and engineering degrees, and there was steady growth in South Korea.20

Some consequences of this new global science and engineering activity are already apparent—not only in manufacturing but also in services. India’s software services exports rose from essentially zero in 1993 to about $10 billion in 2002.21 In broader terms, the US share of global


Korean Ministry of Science and Engineering (MOST). Available at:


National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. NSB 04-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2004. P. 2-35.


S. S. Athreye. “The Indian Software Industry.” Carnegie Mellon Software Industry Center Working Paper 03-04. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, October 2003.

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