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FIGURE 3-12 Department of Defense (DOD) 6.1 expenditures, in millions of constant 2004 dollars, 1994-2005.

SOURCE: National Science Board. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. NSB 04-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2004.


Among the nation’s most significant investments in R&D are some 700 laboratories funded directly by the federal government, about 100 of which are considered significant contributors to the national innovation system.50 Work performed by the government’s own laboratories accounts for about 35% of the total federal R&D investment.51 The largest and best known of these laboratories are run by DOD and DOE. NIH also has an extensive research facility in Maryland. The DOE laboratories focus mainly on national security research, as at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, or more broadly on scientific and engineering research, as at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or Argonne National Laboratory.

The national laboratories could potentially fill the gap left when the


In contrast, there are approximately 14,000 industrial laboratories with about 1,000 that are considered to be substantive contributors to national innovation according to M. Crow and B. Bozeman. Limited by Design: R&D Laboratories and the U.S. National Innovation System. New York: Columbia University, 1998.


Ibid., pp. 5-6.

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