B
Glossary


Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

Established for macronutrients and other dietary components as a percentage of total energy intake associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing recommended intakes of other essential nutrients.

Account Specific Marketing

Retail promotional programs used to achieve incremental display activity and attain incremental sales volumes of select brands, including programs targeted at store personnel, managers, or consumers.

Added Sugars

Sugars and syrups that are added to foods during processing or preparation. These do not include naturally occurring sugars such as lactose in milk or fructose in fruits.

Adequate Intake

The recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate, and is used when a Recommended Dietary Allowance cannot be determined.

Adiposity

A term used to describe body fat.

Advergame

A branded product that is built directly into a game through Internet-based materials, video games, or in print materials.



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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? B Glossary Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range Established for macronutrients and other dietary components as a percentage of total energy intake associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing recommended intakes of other essential nutrients. Account Specific Marketing Retail promotional programs used to achieve incremental display activity and attain incremental sales volumes of select brands, including programs targeted at store personnel, managers, or consumers. Added Sugars Sugars and syrups that are added to foods during processing or preparation. These do not include naturally occurring sugars such as lactose in milk or fructose in fruits. Adequate Intake The recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate, and is used when a Recommended Dietary Allowance cannot be determined. Adiposity A term used to describe body fat. Advergame A branded product that is built directly into a game through Internet-based materials, video games, or in print materials.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Advertising A paid public presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by a sponsor that is intended to bring a product to the attention of consumers through a variety of media channels such as broadcast and cable television, radio, print, billboards, the Internet, or personal contact. Advertising Campaigns A group of advertisements, commercials, and related promotional materials and activities that are designed to be used during the same period of time as part of a coordinated marketing plan to meet specified advertising objectives. Advertising Intensity The ratio of a food’s share of advertising to its share of consumers’ disposable income. Audience Fragmentation When a target group, such as a television viewing audience, watches a greater diversity of television programming and divides its attention and screen time across many media platforms. Away-From-Home Foods Foods categorized according to where they are obtained, such as restaurants and other places with wait service; quick serve restaurants and self-service or take-out eateries; schools, including child-care centers, after-school programs, and summer camp; and other outlets, including vending machines, community feeding programs, and eating at someone else’s home. Baby Boomer The term is most often used to refer to people born during the post-World War II baby boom, 1946–1964, which was a period of increased birth rates relative to preceding or subsequent generations. Balanced Diet The overall dietary pattern of foods consumed that provide all the essential nutrients in the appropriate amounts to support life processes including growth and development in children without promoting excess body fat accumulation and excess weight gain. Behavioral Branding A strategy used by social marketing programs to create brands that individuals associate with a specific behavior or lifestyle. Examples include the VERB™ campaign, which encourages tweens to associate VERB™ with physical activity, and the truth® brand, which represents an aspirational antismoking brand for teens that builds a positive image of youth as nonsmokers, cool and edgy, and rebellious against the tobacco industry. Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is an indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? BMI (kg/m2) = weight (kilograms) ÷ height (meters)2 BMI (lb/in2) = weight (pounds) ÷ height (inches)2 × 703 In children and youth, BMI is based on growth charts for age and gender and is referred to as BMI-for-age which is used to assess underweight, overweight, and risk for overweight. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a child with a BMI-for-age that is equal to or greater than the 95th percentile is considered to be overweight. A child with a BMI-for-age that is equal to or between the 85th and 95th percentile is considered to be at risk of becoming overweight. In this report, the definition of obesity is equivalent to the CDC definition of overweight, and at risk of becoming obese is equivalent to the CDC definition of at risk for becoming overweight. Brand Advantage When marketers determine whether customers think a brand is improving or whether their interest in a specific brand is declining. Also called brand momentum. Brand Awareness Consumer’s awareness about a brand and the competition for it. Also called brand image. Brand Equity When marketers build familiarity of a specific brand among consumers to enhance perceived quality, meet customers’ expectations, or increase purchase intent of the brand. Also called brand relevance and brand performance. Brand Loyalty The degree to which consumers will consistently purchase the same brand within a product category. Also called brand bonding. Brand Preference A consumer preference for a particular brand that results in the continual purchase of it. Branding A marketing feature that provides a name or symbol that legally identifies a company, a single product, or a product line to differentiate it from other companies and products in the marketplace. Buzz Marketing Peer-to-peer marketing. Buzz Spotters A network of young people—from tweens to teens to young adults—who observe youth trends and provide this feedback to youth marketers. Calorie A kilocalorie is defined as the amount of heat required to change

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 degrees Celsius to 15.5 degrees Celsius. In this report, calorie is used synonymously with kilocalorie as a unit of measure for energy obtained from foods and beverages. Carbonated Soft Drinks A common marketing term used to refer to a category of cold, nonalcoholic, sweetened beverages that uses the process of carbonation to enhance its taste and texture. Caregiver An individual, such as a parent, foster parent, or head of a household, who attends to the needs of a child or adolescent. CARU The Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) was founded in 1974 to promote responsible children’s advertising as a component of the strategic alliance with major advertising trade associations through the National Advertising Review Council. CARU is the children’s arm of the advertising industry’s self-regulation program and evaluates child-directed advertising and promotional material in all media to advance accuracy, truthfulness, and consistency of advertisements. Causal Inference In this report, the evidence for a causal relationship between a marketing variable and an outcome precursor, diet, or diet-related health variable. Causal Relationship A relationship between variables in which a change in one variable produces a change in another variable; changes in one variable affect another variable; and changes in one variable depend on changes in another variable. Celebrity Endorsement Popular celebrities who allow their names to be associated with a specific product, brand, or company. Channel One News A 12-minute current events program launched in 1990 that provides 2 minutes of commercials. It is viewed by more than 8 million adolescents daily in an estimated 12,000 U.S. public schools. Character Merchandising The use of popular fictional characters to promote the sale of many types of products. The intellectual rights to the character frequently belong to another company. This form of consumer promotion is also known as out-licensing. Co-branding A technique where two companies partner to create one product. It is used to reach new customers and to extend a company’s name and trademark to new areas of the consumer market.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Commercialism The means of communication that creates consumer awareness and induces the desire for products, thereby increasing consumer demand and commercial profit. Community A social entity that can either be spatial, based on where people live in local neighborhoods, residential districts, or municipalities; or relational, based on common ethnic, cultural, or other characteristics or similar interests. Competitive Foods Foods and beverages offered at schools other than meals and snacks served through the federally reimbursed National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and the after-school snack programs. Competitive foods include food and beverage items sold through a la carte lines, snack bars, student stores, vending machines, and school fundraisers. Consumer Promotion A form of nonpersonal sales promotional efforts that are designed to have an immediate impact on sales. This form of promotion uses media and nonmedia marketing communications for a limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand, or increase product availability. Examples of consumer promotion include coupons, discounts and sales, contests, point of purchase displays, rebates, and gifts and incentive items. Also called sales promotion. COPPA Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 that requires online operators to seek parental permission before collecting personal information from children and to post links to their privacy policy on their homepage and every page where personal information is collected. Correlate To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation. Cross-Promotion A consumer sales promotion technique in which the manufacturer attempts to sell the consumer new or other products related to a product the consumer already uses or which the marketer has available. Deception According to Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission statute, 15 U.S.C. § 45, a representation, omission, act, or practice that is likely to mislead consumers to act reasonably under given circumstances or affect consumers’ conduct or decisions with respect to a product.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Dietary Guidelines Americans A federal summary of the latest dietary guidance for the American public based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge. The Guidelines are issued jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture and revised every 5 years. Dietary Reference Intakes A set of four distinct nutrient-based reference values that replaced the former Recommended Dietary Allowances in the United States. They include Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Adequate Intakes (AIs), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Digital Divide The socioeconomic gap between groups or communities that have access to computers and the Internet and those who do not have access. It also refers to a gap that exists between groups regarding their ability to use information and communications technology effectively due to differing levels of literacy and technical skills. Direct Marketing Sending a promotional message directly to consumers through direct mail or telemarketing rather than through a mass medium such as television or the Internet. Disclaimer A repudiation or denial of responsibility or connection. Disclosure The act or process of revealing or making something evident. Discretionary Fat The ability of a person to selectively add dietary fat (e.g., salad dressing, butter, oil) at one’s own discretion, according to dietary preferences, and which contributes to total calorie intake. This is distinct from obligatory fat that has been added to foods prior to consumption and cannot be removed. It may also represent the amount of fat in a person’s “energy allowance” or discretionary calories after consuming sufficient amounts of high-calorie and low-nutrient foods to meet one’s daily calorie and nutrient needs while promoting weight maintenance. Ecological Validity The extent to which an investigation’s research setting, stimuli, and response demands are similar to those of naturally occurring settings, stimuli, and response characteristics of the behavioral system being studied. Energy Balance A state where calorie intake is equivalent to energy expenditure, resulting in no net weight gain or weight loss. In this report, energy balance in children is used to indicate equality between energy in-

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? take and energy expenditure that supports normal growth and development without promoting excess weight gain. Energy Density The amount of calories stored in a given food per unit volume or mass. Fat stores 9 kilocalories/gram (g), alcohol stores 7 kilocalories/g, carbohydrate and protein each store 4 kilocalories/g, fiber stores 1.5 to 2.5 kilocalories/g, and water has no calories. Foods that are almost entirely composed of fat with minimal water (e.g., butter) are more calorie dense than foods that consist largely of water, fiber, and carbohydrates (e.g., fruits and vegetables). Energy Expenditure Calories used to support the body’s basal metabolic needs plus those used for thermogenesis, growth, and physical activity. Energy Intake Calories ingested as foods and beverages. Environment The aggregate of social and cultural conditions that influence the life of an individual or community. Estimated Average Requirement The average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. Estimated Energy Requirements The calorie needs calculated for different groups based on age, gender, and physical activity level, published by the Institute of Medicine in 2002, which replaced the Recommended Energy Allowance (REA). Exclusive Contracting When a school district enters into an exclusive contract with a soft drink company to sell only a particular beverage product on the school premises. Also called pouring rights. Explicit Learning The ability to acquire knowledge through a fully conscious and hypothesis-driven mode, such as learning a concept or learning how to solve a problem. Fast Food Foods and meals designed for ready availability, use, or consumption and sold at eating establishments for quick availability or take-out. Flavor The sensory impression of a food or other substance that is determined by the chemical senses of taste and smell. A substance added to food to give it a particular taste.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Focus Group A research method whereby a moderator convenes a group of participants who often have common characteristics (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity) to discuss the attributes of a specific concept or product. It is often used in the marketing development phase to generate ideas and provide insights into consumer reactions and perceptions. Food Guide Pyramid An educational tool designed for the public that translates and graphically illustrates recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and nutrient standards such as the Dietary Reference Intakes into food group-based advice that promotes a healthful diet for the U.S. population. In 2005, it was replaced by an interactive food guidance system, MyPyramid. Gatekeeper Refers to the person who controls decisions, such as a parent for a child or teen, by controlling the purchasing or decision-making process. It also refers to the person who controls the flow of information from the mass media to a group or other individuals. Generation X A term used in marketing, the social sciences, and popular culture to describe people born in the 1960s and 1970s. Generation Y People born between 1981 and 1995 in the United States, also know as Echo Boomers and the Millennium Generation. Global Brand Value Represents the total monetary worth of a company’s collective brands. Global Revenues Represent a company’s total sales and earnings worldwide. Health Represents a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health Promotion The process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health through networks and initiatives that create healthy environments. To reach a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living, and is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Healthful Diet For children and adolescents, a healthful diet provides recommended amounts of nutrients and other food components within estimated energy requirements (EER) to promote normal growth and development, a healthy weight trajectory, and energy balance. A healthful diet also reduces the long-term risk for obesity and related chronic diseases associated with aging, including type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Healthy Weight In children and youth, a level of body fat that supports normal growth and development and where there are no observed comorbidities. In adults, a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2. Host Selling Refers to the same character appearing in a television program as well as an advertisement placed next to a television show in which the character appears. Implicit Learning The ability to learn under passive, automatic, and unconscious acquisition of abstract knowledge. This type of learning remains robust over time. Incentive Programs Sponsors that agree to give discounts or free products if students collect a certain number of coupons or shop at certain stores. Integrated Marketing A planning process designed to assure that all promotional activities, including media advertising, direct mail, sales promotion, and public relations, produce a unified, customer-focused promotion message that is relevant to a customer and consistent over time. Interactive Product Placement A technique that merges television and the Internet through channels such as digital television and Web television. Internet Marketing A promotional activity that occurs on the Internet, which connects consumers to companies’ brands and products for the purpose of stimulating sales. Licensing Agreement A contractual agreement that allows copyright holders to loan their intellectual property to another company in exchange for payment. In the children’s media industries, companies can license the characters and images of their media products to food and beverage companies for a fee. Lifestyle Marketing A promotional activity created around the interests, attitudes, opinions, and ways of life of consumers to connect with how they want to live.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Marketing An organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit an organization and its stakeholders. Marketing encompasses a wide range of activities including market research, analyzing the competition, positioning a new product, pricing products and services, and promoting them through advertising, consumer promotion, trade promotions, public relations, and sales. Marketing Mix Combining the four strategy elements of market decision making—product, placement, price, and promotion—to reach consumers. Marketing Research Activities that link the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information that is used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs the method for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyzes the results, and communicates the findings and their implications. Marketplace The set of commercial activities where goods and services are bought and sold. Market Segmentation The division of a market into different groups of consumers that have common characteristics. Measured Media The categories tracked by media research companies including television (e.g., network, spot, cable, syndicated, Spanish-language network), radio (e.g., network, national spot, local), magazines (e.g., local, Sunday magazine), business publications, newspapers (e.g., local, national), outdoor, direct mail, the Yellow Pages, and the Internet. Media Advocacy The strategic use of the mass media to advance a social or public policy initiative. Media Literacy The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in a variety of forms. A media-literate person can understand and think critically about the nature, technique, and impact of the mass media, including print and broadcast media, the Internet, and newly emerging technologies. Also called media education. Mediator The mechanism by which one variable affects another variable.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Millennial A person born between 1981 and 1995 in the United States, also know as an Echo Boomer or Generation Y. Moderator A variable that changes the impact of one variable on another. Naming Rights An owner of an object sells the rights for someone else to name the object. National School Lunch Program The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is a federally funded meal program established in 1946 that operates in public and nonprofit private schools and residential child-care institutions. The NSLP provides nutritionally balanced, reduced-cost, or free lunches to children every school day. Nutrient Density The amount of nutrients that a food contains per unit volume or mass. Nutrient density is independent of energy density although, in practice, the nutrient density of a food is often described in relationship to the food’s energy density. Fruits and vegetables are nutrient dense, but not energy dense. Compared to foods of high fat content, carbonated soft drinks are not particularly energy dense because these are made up primarily of water and carbohydrate, but because they are otherwise low in nutrients, their energy density is high for the nutrient content. Nutrition Facts Panel Standardized detailed nutritional information on the contents and serving sizes of nearly all packaged foods sold in the marketplace. The panel was designed to provide nutrition information to consumers and was mandated by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. Obesity An excess amount of subcutaneous body fat in proportion to lean body mass. In adults, a BMI of 30 or greater is considered obese. In this report, obesity in children and youth refers to the age- and gender-specific BMI that is equal to or greater than the 95th percentile of the CDC BMI charts. At-risk for obesity in children and youth is defined as a BMI-for-age and gender that is between the 85th and 95th percentiles of the CDC BMI curves. In most children, these values are known to indicate elevated body fat and to reflect the co-morbidities associated with excessive body fatness. Obesogenic Environmental factors that may promote obesity and encourage the expression of a genetic predisposition to gain weight. Older Children In this report, refers to children ages 6–11 years.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Overweight Defined by the CDC as a BMI-for-age and gender that is greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the 2000 CDC BMI curves developed for U.S. children and adolescents ages 2 to 20 years. At-risk for overweight is defined by the CDC as a BMI-for-age and gender that is between the 85th and 95th percentiles of the 2000 CDC BMI curves. Persuasive Intent Refers to the cognitive awareness and demonstrated ability of children and youth to recognize and comprehend the inherent bias, exaggeration, and self-interest of commercial messages. They understand that a commercial message has other interests and perspectives than the receiver of the message; that the purveyor of the persuasive message is guided by commercial self-interest; that persuasive messages are biased; and that biased messages demand different interpretive strategies than unbiased messages. Pester Power The ability children have to badger their parents into purchasing items they would otherwise not buy or performing actions they would otherwise not do. Physical Activity Body movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure above the basal level. Physical activity consists of athletic, recreational, housework, transport or occupational activities that require physical skills and utilize strength, power, endurance, speed, flexibility, range of motion, or agility. Portion Size Represents the amount of food an individual is served at home or away from home and chooses to consume for a meal or snack. Portions can be larger or smaller than serving sizes listed on the food label or the Food Guide Pyramid. Pouring Rights When a school district enters into an exclusive contract with a soft drink company to sell only a particular beverage product on the school premises. Also called exclusive contracting. Precision Refers to the sensitivity or coarseness of a measure. Prevention With regard to obesity, primary prevention represents avoiding the occurrence of obesity in a population; secondary prevention represents early detection of disease through screening with the purpose of limiting its occurrence; and tertiary prevention involves preventing the sequelae of obesity in childhood and adulthood.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Product Placement A marketing technique that uses a message, brand logo, or product in a visual or graphic medium in a variety of forms of media entertainment, including television programs, films, music, videos/DVDs, video games, and advergames. Promotion The means by which a business or company communicates with its target audience or customers to inform, persuade, or influence customers’ purchase decisions. Proprietary Privately owned and operated; something that is held under patent, trademark, or copyright by a private person or company. Public Relations A company’s communications and relationships with various groups including customers, employees, suppliers, stockholders, government, general public, and society. Public Service Announcement An advertisement or commercial that is carried by an advertising vehicle at no cost as a public service to its readers, viewers, or listeners. A promotional message for a nonprofit organization or for a social cause printed or broadcast at no charge by the media. Purchase Influence The array of behaviors related to a child’s or an adolescent’s influence on family purchases. Quick Serve Restaurant A category of restaurants characterized by food that is supplied quickly after ordering and with minimal service. Foods and beverages purchased may be consumed at the restaurant or served as takeout. Recommended Dietary Allowance The average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. Recommended Energy Allowance The average energy needs of individuals as presented in the 10th edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances which were updated by the IOM in 2002 and replaced with the estimated energy requirements (EER). Relationship Marketing A marketing approach that acquires information about a customer during the history of that customer’s relationship with a company. This information is used to market to the customer to promote trust and loyalty. Five components of relationship marketing are awareness, recognition, preferences, commitment, and endorsement.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Reliability Assesses the extent to which the same measurement technique, applied repeatedly, is likely to yield the same results. Safety The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury that either may be perceived or objectively defined. Sales Promotion Marketing activities other than advertising, personal selling, and publicity that stimulate consumer purchases at the point-of-sale such as a display, product demonstration, trade show, contest, coupon, premium, prize, toy, or price discount. Also called consumer promotion. School Breakfast Program A federally administered program that provides cash assistance to states to operate nonprofit breakfast programs in U.S. public schools and residential child-care institutions. School Meal Initiative For Healthy Children A program launched by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1995 to improve the nutritional quality of school lunches and breakfasts. Screen Time The number of hours a child or adolescent spends watching various types of electronic media (e.g., broadcast and cable television, video and/or digital video disc, movie, computer) per day, week, month, or year. Secular Trend A long-term trend in numbers (up or down). Sedentary A way of living or lifestyle that requires minimal physical activity and that encourages inactivity through limited choices, disincentives, and/or structural or financial barriers. Serving A standardized unit of measure used to describe the total amount of foods recommended daily from each of the food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid or a specific amount of food that contains the quality of nutrients listed on the Nutrition Facts panel. This may differ from a portion which represents the amount of food an individual is served at home or away from home and chooses to consume for a meal or snack. Social Marketing The application of commercial marketing principles to the analysis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs designed to influence voluntary behavior changes in target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and for the benefit of society. Spam Unwanted, unsolicited e-mail messages that are typically of a commercial nature.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Sponsored Educational Materials Materials in which the sponsor assumes responsibility for the production and usually the content of the materials as well as the advertising that appears within it. Stealth Marketing A marketing strategy used to present products or services that consumers do not identify as an attempt to influence their purchase behaviors. Viral marketing is a form of stealth marketing. Subsidy A monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. A payment that a government makes to a producer to supplement the market price of a commodity. A subsidy can keep consumer prices low while maintaining a higher income for domestic producers. Target Market A group of individuals to whom a company markets its products or ideas that are designed to satisfy their specific needs and preferences. Target markets may be segmented by demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, income, race or ethnicity), psychographic characteristics (i.e., values, attitudes, beliefs, lifestyles), behavioral patterns (e.g., brand loyalty, product usage rates, price), and geographic characteristics (e.g., region, population density). Taste The sense that distinguishes the sweet, sour, salty, and bitter qualities of dissolved substances in contact with the taste buds on the tongue. Teen In this report, refers to young people ages 12–18 years. Tolerable Upper Intake Level The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), the potential risk of adverse effects may increase. Trade Promotion Promotion activities directed to marketing intermediaries, such as grocery stores, convenience stores, and other food retail outlets, and uses strategies that include in-store displays, shelf space and positioning, free merchandise, buy-back allowances, merchandise allowances, and sales contests to encourage wholesalers or retailers to sell more of a company’s specific product or lines. Tween In this report, refers to young people ages 9–13 years. Marketers distinguish the tween market segment from children and teens, defining it

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? as young people who have attitudes and behaviors that are “in between” the ages of 8–12 years or 9–14 years. Unmeasured Media The difference between a company’s reported or estimated advertising costs and its measured media spending. Unmeasured media spending includes activities such as sales promotions, coupons, direct mail, catalogs, and special events, and it is not systematically tracked. Validity Refers to the extent to which an instrument directly and accurately measures what it is intended to measure. Variable Anything that is not constant but that can and does change in different circumstances. Viral Marketing A strategy used to build brand awareness and promote purchases by encouraging people to pass a marketing message to a target audience, often through electronic or digital platforms. Customers act as agents to promote and endorse a company’s products, and incentives are often provided to customers to distribute the promotional messages and offers. Virtual Advertisements Digital advertisements that are inserted into programs, into films, or onto stadium walls at sporting events. Well-being A view of health that takes into account a child’s physical, social, and emotional health. Younger Children In this report, refers to children ages 2–5 years.