as young people who have attitudes and behaviors that are “in between” the ages of 8–12 years or 9–14 years.

Unmeasured Media

The difference between a company’s reported or estimated advertising costs and its measured media spending. Unmeasured media spending includes activities such as sales promotions, coupons, direct mail, catalogs, and special events, and it is not systematically tracked.


Refers to the extent to which an instrument directly and accurately measures what it is intended to measure.


Anything that is not constant but that can and does change in different circumstances.

Viral Marketing

A strategy used to build brand awareness and promote purchases by encouraging people to pass a marketing message to a target audience, often through electronic or digital platforms. Customers act as agents to promote and endorse a company’s products, and incentives are often provided to customers to distribute the promotional messages and offers.

Virtual Advertisements

Digital advertisements that are inserted into programs, into films, or onto stadium walls at sporting events.


A view of health that takes into account a child’s physical, social, and emotional health.

Younger Children

In this report, refers to children ages 2–5 years.

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