C
Literature Review

To conduct a thorough review of the scientific literature, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee and staff conducted online bibliographic searches of relevant databases, including the following: ABI/INFORM, Academic Search Premier, AGRICOLA, Communication and Mass Media Complete, EconLit, EMBASE, ERIC, LexisNexis, MEDLINE, NTIS, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, and WorldCat/FirstSearch (Box C-1).

To begin the process of identifying the primary literature in this field, the IOM staff at the beginning of the study conducted general bibliographic searches on topics related to marketing aimed toward children and youth. These references were categorized and annotated by the staff, and reference lists of key citations were provided to the committee. After examining the initial search in each of the databases, a comprehensive search strategy was designed in consultation with librarians at the George E. Brown Jr. Library of the National Academies. Search terms incorporated relevant MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms as well as terms from the EMBASE thesaurus. To maximize retrieval, the search strategy incorporated synonymous terms on the topics of dietary patterns and factors that shape them; food and/or beverage marketing (e.g., sources, venues, scope, trends, market segmentations, investment); effects of marketing on diets and health; and public policy issues (e.g., self-regulation, monitoring efforts, legal, social, and economical). The searches were limited to English language and targeted to retrieve citations related to infants, children, or youth (less than 18 years of age). The searches were not limited by date of publication.



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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? C Literature Review To conduct a thorough review of the scientific literature, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee and staff conducted online bibliographic searches of relevant databases, including the following: ABI/INFORM, Academic Search Premier, AGRICOLA, Communication and Mass Media Complete, EconLit, EMBASE, ERIC, LexisNexis, MEDLINE, NTIS, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, and WorldCat/FirstSearch (Box C-1). To begin the process of identifying the primary literature in this field, the IOM staff at the beginning of the study conducted general bibliographic searches on topics related to marketing aimed toward children and youth. These references were categorized and annotated by the staff, and reference lists of key citations were provided to the committee. After examining the initial search in each of the databases, a comprehensive search strategy was designed in consultation with librarians at the George E. Brown Jr. Library of the National Academies. Search terms incorporated relevant MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms as well as terms from the EMBASE thesaurus. To maximize retrieval, the search strategy incorporated synonymous terms on the topics of dietary patterns and factors that shape them; food and/or beverage marketing (e.g., sources, venues, scope, trends, market segmentations, investment); effects of marketing on diets and health; and public policy issues (e.g., self-regulation, monitoring efforts, legal, social, and economical). The searches were limited to English language and targeted to retrieve citations related to infants, children, or youth (less than 18 years of age). The searches were not limited by date of publication.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? BOX C-1 Online Databases ABI/INFORM contains information on more than 60,000 companies as well as executive profiles, reports on market conditions, and in-depth case studies of global business trends. The database contains content from thousands of journals that help researchers track business conditions, trends, management techniques, corporate strategies, and industry-specific topics worldwide. Academic Search Premier is a large academic multidisciplinary database. It provides full text for nearly 4,700 publications, including full text for more than 3,600 peer-reviewed journals. Coverage spans virtually every area of academic study and offers information dating as far back as 1975. This database is updated on a daily basis via EBSCOhost. AGRICOLA is a bibliographic database of citations to the agricultural literature. Production of these records in electronic form began in 1970, but the database covers materials in all formats, including printed works from the 15th century. The records describe publications and resources encompassing aspects of agriculture and allied disciplines, such as agricultural economics; animal and veterinary sciences; earth and environmental sciences; entomology; extension and education; farming and farming systems; fisheries and aquaculture; food and human nutrition; forestry; and plant sciences. AGRICOLA indexes more than 2,000 serials as well as books, pamphlets, conference proceedings, and other resources. This database is updated and maintained by the National Agricultural Library. Communication and Mass Media Complete provides research solutions in areas related to communication and mass media. This database originated with the acquisition and subsequent merging of two popular databases in the fields of communication and mass media studies—CommSearch (formerly produced by the National Communication Association) and Mass Media Articles Index (formerly produced by Pennsylvania State University). EconLit is the American Economic Association’s bibliographic database of economics literature published in the United States and other countries from 1969 to the present. EconLit contains citations and abstracts from more than 500 economics journals. Some full-text articles are available. The database also indexes books, book chapters, book reviews, dissertations, essays, and working papers. The database covers subjects including accounting, consumer economics, monetary policy, labor, marketing, demographics, modeling, economic theory, and planning. EconLit contains more than 350,000 records and is updated monthly. EMBASE (Excerpta Medica) database is a major biomedical and pharmaceutical resource containing more than 9 million records from 1974 to the present from over 4,000 journals; approximately 450,000 records are added annually. Over 80 percent of recent records contain full author abstracts. This bibliographic database indexes international journals in the following fields: drug research, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, toxicology, clinical and experimental human medicine, health policy and management, public health, occupational health, environmental

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? health, drug dependence and abuse, psychiatry, forensic medicine, and biomedical engineering/instrumentation. EMBASE is produced by Elsevier Science. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) is a national education database containing nearly 100,000 citations and abstracts published from 1993 to the present. ERIC contains more than 1 million citations of research documents, journal articles, technical reports, program descriptions and evaluations, and curricular materials in the field of education. ERIC is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. LexisNexis provides access to full-text information from more than 5,600 sources, including national and regional newspapers, wire services, broadcast transcripts, international news, and non-English-language sources; U.S. federal and state case law, codes, regulations, legal news, law reviews, and international legal information; and business news journals, company financial information, Securities and Exchange Commission filings and reports, and industry and market news. It is produced by Reed Elsevier, Inc. MEDLINE is the National Library of Medicine’s bibliographic database containing citations from the mid-1960s to the present. It covers the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. PubMed provides online access to more than 12 million MEDLINE citations and additional life science journals. MEDLINE contains bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,600 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full-text articles and related resources. This database can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed. NTIS serves the United States as a central resource for government-funded scientific, technical, engineering, and business-related information available. NTIS offers information on more than 600,000 information products covering over 350 subject areas from 200-plus federal agencies. PsycINFO is a bibliographic database of psychological literature with journal coverage from the 1800s to the present and book coverage from 1987 to the present. It contains more than 1.9 million records including citations and summaries of journal articles, book chapters, books, and technical reports, as well as citations to dissertations, all in the field of psychology and psychological aspects of related disciplines. Journal coverage includes full-text article links to 42 American Psychological Association journals including peer-reviewed international journals. PsycINFO is produced by APA. Science Direct is a large electronic collection of science, technology, and medicine full-text and bibliographic information. Sociological Abstracts indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences from 1963 to the present. This bibliographic database contains citations (from 1963) and abstracts (only after 1974) of journal articles, dissertations, conference reports, books, book chapters, and reviews of books, films, and software. Approximately 1,700 journals and 900 other serials published in the United States and other countries in more than 30

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? languages are screened yearly and added to the database bimonthly. The Sociological Abstracts database contained approximately 600,000 records in 2003. A limited number of full-text references are available. Sociological Abstracts is prepared by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,700 high-impact research journals. Web of Science also provides a unique search method, cited reference searching. WorldCat/FirstSearch is an online service that gives library professionals and end users access to a wide collection of reference databases. With FirstSearch, materials in a library’s collection are highlighted in results from searches in dozens of databases. Underlying FirstSearch is the WorldCat database, a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliographic resource. As the study progressed, additional focused searches were conducted. Topics of these searches included emerging technologies, integrated advertising, stealth advertising, and food preference and intake. Additional references were identified by reviewing the reference lists found in major review articles, key reports, prominent websites (e.g., marketing research and surveys), and relevant books. Committee members, workshop presenters, consultants, and IOM staff also supplied references. Requests for literature suggestions were made to experts in relevant fields. An e-mail request was sent to nearly 50 researchers, academicians, industry professionals, advocates, and policy analysts, seeking their advice on important literature that should be considered for the committee’s review. Requests were also made to individuals who attended a public workshop and forum on marketing foods and beverages to children and youth (Appendix H). Furthermore, public comment on the committee’s task was requested through the National Academies’ website. The committee maintained the reference list in a database that could be searched by keywords, staff annotations, or other criteria. Additionally, an Internet-based website was developed from the search of some of the key resources. Bibliographies were updated throughout the study and as committee members requested the full text of journal articles and other resources as needed for their information and analysis. The literature was categorized into a taxonomy of peer-reviewed articles and marketing firm research or commercial reports, as described in Box C-2. A number of reviews of literature have been published on topics relevant to the committee’s work. Studies included in these literature reviews were considered for inclusion in the committee’s review.

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? BOX C-2 Research Taxonomy Descriptive studies Prevalence of disease, risk, and condition Dietary intakes and trends, including portion sizes Dietary intake influences Other behavioral influences Product profiles and trends Purchaser profiles and trends Television viewing patterns Commercial marketing activities (all forms) Television: placement analyses of advertising Television: content analyses of advertising Print advertising Toys and characters Internet Video games Social marketing activities Economic factors in food availability and choice Industry profiles and practices Ethics, guidelines and adherence Regulatory agencies and actions United States International Surveys Children’s and adolescents’ views Of advertising Of food and nutrition Parents’ views Of advertising Of food and nutrition Marketing surveys

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Observational studies Children’s and adolescents’ development and understanding Relation of diet to disease risk Children’s food and beverage consumption behaviors Influence of advertising Influence of television content Influence of television viewing time Influence of product design and packaging Influence of price Influence of school meals/vending Family variables/parent—child interactions Peer influences Other behaviors among children and youths Methodologic studies Dietary intake estimates Assessing advertising effects Intervention studies On awareness and food preference On food and beverage choices School curriculum Television viewing On other youth behaviors Media literacy Reviews/literature syntheses/recommendations Factors in childhood and youth development Diet and health/children’s health/adolescents’ health Influence of food marketing on children’s and adolescents’ diets Lessons from studies on behaviors other than diet Social marketing Research recommendations