Index

A

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range, 47

Added sugars intake

associated food and nutrient intakes, 64–65

definition, 59n

dental health and, 44

dietary recommendations, 45, 59

infant and toddler diets, 19, 74–75

patterns and trends, 2, 18, 19, 59–60, 61, 62, 375

as percentage of calorie intake, 59–60

recommendations for food and beverage companies, 11, 382

regional variation, 81–82

sources, 65, 66, 68

television commercials and, 184

trends, 61

Adequate intake

actual intakes and, 55–56

definition, 46–47

infant and toddler diets, 73

Adiposity

age factors moderating influence of marketing, 294–295

definition, 231

evidence linking television viewing to, 272, 273–278, 279–292

gender differences moderating influence of marketing on, 298–299

influence of advertising, 9, 278–279, 292–293, 308, 379–380

measurement, 275–276

nonadvertising-related television viewing effects, 284–289, 290–292

as predictive of television viewing time, 273, 280–281

See also Body weight and composition;

Obesity

Advergames, 186, 193–195, 350

Advertising, generally

branded products, 4, 22, 191, 210

branded spokescharacters, 170–171

celebrity endorsements, 175

cereal, 170–171, 175–176

children’s cognitive capacity to recognize and evaluate, 4, 5, 9, 20–21, 30, 231, 295–298, 301, 305, 309, 343, 380

definition, 26, 137

distribution by food category, 164–165

Federal Trade Commission regulation, 5, 29–30, 181, 182–183

goals, 137



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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Index A Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range, 47 Added sugars intake associated food and nutrient intakes, 64–65 definition, 59n dental health and, 44 dietary recommendations, 45, 59 infant and toddler diets, 19, 74–75 patterns and trends, 2, 18, 19, 59–60, 61, 62, 375 as percentage of calorie intake, 59–60 recommendations for food and beverage companies, 11, 382 regional variation, 81–82 sources, 65, 66, 68 television commercials and, 184 trends, 61 Adequate intake actual intakes and, 55–56 definition, 46–47 infant and toddler diets, 73 Adiposity age factors moderating influence of marketing, 294–295 definition, 231 evidence linking television viewing to, 272, 273–278, 279–292 gender differences moderating influence of marketing on, 298–299 influence of advertising, 9, 278–279, 292–293, 308, 379–380 measurement, 275–276 nonadvertising-related television viewing effects, 284–289, 290–292 as predictive of television viewing time, 273, 280–281 See also Body weight and composition; Obesity Advergames, 186, 193–195, 350 Advertising, generally branded products, 4, 22, 191, 210 branded spokescharacters, 170–171 celebrity endorsements, 175 cereal, 170–171, 175–176 children’s cognitive capacity to recognize and evaluate, 4, 5, 9, 20–21, 30, 231, 295–298, 301, 305, 309, 343, 380 definition, 26, 137 distribution by food category, 164–165 Federal Trade Commission regulation, 5, 29–30, 181, 182–183 goals, 137

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? industry self-regulation, 198–201, 210 industry spending, 4, 163–170, 377 intensity, 164–165 leading advertisers, 164 marketing and, 21, 26, 137 most famous advertising images, 171 outdoor, 186–187 rationale for regulating, 29, 32, 341, 344–345, 346–347 vehicles and venues, 4–5, 21, 22–23, 167, 169, 186, 190–191 See also Marketing of food and beverages to youth; Television advertising Advertising Council, 209 Age categories and definitions, 25 as moderator of marketing influence, 294–295, 309 Agriculture production system, 120, 123, 351–352 Alliance for American Advertising, 31, 209 American Association of Diabetes Educators, 209 American Beverage Association, 188, 206–207 American Council for Fitness and Nutrition, 209 American Dietetic Association, 209 American Legacy Foundation, 336, 337 American Marketing Association, 206 Atherosclerosis, 43 Australia, 33, 360 B Balanced diet. See Healthful and balanced diets and meals Beliefs, food and beverage cultural transmission, 117 as diet precursor, 230 evidence of marketing effects on, 254, 258–259 gender differences, 99 health concerns, 99 influence of advertising, 8, 260–261, 307, 379 influence on preferences or behaviors, 117, 271–272 taste related to healthfulness, 95–96 time constraints as obstacle to healthful eating, 104, 150 See also Precursors, dietary Benchmarks and baselines, 7 Benefits of unregulated marketing, 31, 341 Beverage consumption bone health and, 44 brand loyalty, 376 calorie density, 63 demographic patterns, 67 infant and toddler diets, 74–75 new product introductions, 146, 156, 158 nutrient availability, 66–67 patterns and trends, 44, 52, 61, 65–68, 146, 375 quantity consumed per occasion, 71 regional variation, 81–82 research needs, 66 settings for, 68 as source of added sugars, 65, 66, 68 See also Fruit juice consumption; Marketing of food and beverages to youth; Milk and milk consumption; Soft drink consumption Beverage industry, 146. See also Companies, food and beverage Billboards, 186–187 Bitter tastes genetic influence, 93–94 vegetable consumption and, 94, 97 Blogs/blogging, 196 Blood pressure, in metabolic syndrome, 43 Body weight and composition breakfast consumption and, 69, 375 cultural values, 117–119 gender differences in concerns about, 99, 117–119 normal development, 45–46 overweight classification, 17–18 self esteem and, 118 self-perception of, depression and, 100 trends, 41, 42–43 See also Adiposity; Obesity Branded products advertising goals, 103–104, 120, 136, 210 co-branding, 172, 173, 174 nutrient content of, 22, 120 online marketing, 191 in television commercials, 22 trends, 4, 210

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Brand recognition and preference advertising goals, 103, 120, 136, 210 advertising effects, 253 behavioral branding, 336 branded spokescharacters, 170–171 children’s capacity for, 30–31, 103, 376 children’s product requests, 102, 103–104, 376 consumer behavior, 137 nonprocessed foods, 136, 137 processed foods, 136–137 top brands, 146 See also Branded products; Product placement Breakfast consumption associated dietary patterns, 69 body composition related to, 375 economic status and, 79, 107 fat content, 58 food choices in, 69 gender differences, 99 infant and toddler diets, 75 mother’s work status and, 106 patterns and trends, 68–69, 163, 375 perceived time constraints and, 104 product innovations, 163 regional variation, 82 Breast milk, 95 British Medical Association, 33, 302, 357 Buzz marketing, 196. See also Viral marketing C Caffeine, 67 Calcium intake associated food and nutrient intakes, 64–65 bone health and, 44 breakfast consumption, 69 economic status and, 80 infant and toddler diets, 73 obesity risk and, 53 patterns and trends, 2, 18, 19, 50, 54, 55, 56, 82, 375 regional variation, 81 sources, 56, 67 Calorie intake from away-from-home foods, 19, 71–72, 113, 114, 151, 375 beverage sources, 65–68 calorie density, 63 current concerns, 1, 2, 18, 374 eating locations and, 71–72 economic status and, 79, 107 food sources, 52–53, 61–65 health promotion goals, 40 high-calorie low-nutrient foods and beverages in, 53, 63–64 at home, 105 of infants and toddlers, 19, 73–74, 375 measurement, 50–51, 375 neurobiological regulation, 92 nutrient distribution, 52–61 patterns and trends, 49–50, 52–53, 375 possible adiposity–television viewing linkage, 284 recommendations for food and beverage companies, 11, 382 regional variation, 81 in schools, 71–72, 112 snacks as source of, 69–70 sources, 19, 375 See also Nutrient content Calories Count campaign, 324 Canada, 32–33, 354, 359–360 Cancer, diet-related risk, 1–2, 18, 43 Candy availability in schools, 113 calorie intake from, 52 children’s product requests, 103 drug store sales, 151 marketing strategies, 140 new product introductions, 156, 158 purchasing power of children and youth, 155 Carbohydrate intake dietary recommendations and guidelines, 47 infant and toddler diets, 73 sources, 52–53 taste influence, 94 trends, 19, 53–54, 375 Cardiovascular disorders, 1–2, 18, 39, 43 Carotene intake, regional variation, 81 Catalog promotions, 187 Causal inference validity, 240–242 Celebrity endorsements, 175 Cell phones, 22–23, 179, 196–197 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 322, 325

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corporation v. Public Service Commission, 344–346 Cereals advertising spending, 170 branded spokescharacters, 170–171 children’s product requests, 102, 103 diet correlations, 69 infant and toddler diets, 74 market size, 170 new product introductions, 156 portion size, 71 premium offers, 175–176 purchasing power of children and youth, 154 regional variation in consumption, 81 Channel One, 188–190 Character merchandising, 377 branded spokescharacters, 170–171 definition, 172 developmental considerations, 172–173 goals, 172 host-selling format, 294 industry self-regulation, 198 to promote healthful products, 173–174, 175, 377 recommendations for, 12, 383 uses of, 4, 175, 377 Child and Adult Care Food Program, 14, 111–112, 121, 122, 328, 386 Child-care settings, 14, 111–112, 328, 386 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act, 122, 326 Child Nutrition Labeling Program, 328 Child Nutrition Programs, 122, 321, 327 Children’s Advertising Review Unit, 198–201 company compliance with guidelines of, 200 current efforts, 378 effectiveness, 200–201 guidelines, 198–200 organizational structure and function, 198 purpose, 198, 378 recommendations for, 12, 383 Children’s Online Privacy Act, 191, 349 Children’s Television Act, 181, 348 Cholesterol intake dietary recommendations and guidelines, 58 economic status and, 79 healthy and balanced diet, 45 patterns and trends, 54, 58 sources, 56 Circulatory disorders, 1–2 Club sponsorship, 187 Coalition for Healthy Children, 209 Co-branding, 172, 173, 174 Cognitive functioning brand recognition, 30–31, 103, 376 children’s capacity to recognize and evaluate advertising, 4, 5, 9, 20–21, 30, 231, 295–298, 301, 305, 309, 343, 380 learning process, 20 media literacy training, 326–327 moderators of marketing influence, 231, 295–298 nutrition knowledge and eating behavior, 100 research needs, 305 See also Beliefs, food and beverage; Consumer socialization Commercial speech, 344–345 Committee on Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth, 6 Community-based interventions, recommendations for, 13, 384 Companies, food and beverage economic significance, 119 educational materials sponsored by, 190, 326 employment, 119 food processing, 120 food supply characteristics, 120, 351, 352 health and wellness advisory groups, 208 healthful product promotion, 10, 146–150, 201–202, 374 health promotion activities, 209, 210–211, 378 incentives for health promotion, 14, 385 mergers and acquisitions, 146 nutrition labeling requirements, 323–324 recommendations for health promotion activities, 10–11, 14, 382, 385 revenues, 4, 144, 146, 156 self-regulation of advertising, 198–201, 206–207, 355 See also Marketing of food and beverages to youth; Trade associations

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Computer use, 177–178. See also Internet Conditioning, 98 Consumer promotion, 137, 167 Consumers, children as purchasing power, 5, 21–22, 153–155 social and cultural trends, 31 Consumer socialization children’s product requests, 102–104 definition, 102 media literacy education, 326–327 process, 20 skills, 4 social benefits of marketing, 31 Containers, serving, 102 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 50, 51 Convenience, 104, 114, 150, 162–163 Convenience stores, 151 Cookies, Internet, 191 Copper intake, 56 Cost of food food choices and, 104–105, 269–270 growth, 144n as obstacle to healthier diets, 107–108 research needs, 108 Cost of obesity-associated medical care, 41 Coupons event and loyalty marketing, 187 industry spending, 169 wireless, 197 Cross promotion, 172, 348 D Dairy product consumption economic status and, 107 as nutrient source, 56 parental, 109 patterns and trends, 61–62, 63 regional variation, 81 strategies for improving youth health, 2 See also Milk and milk consumption Data sources access to industry research, 7, 15, 34, 143, 377, 387 beverage consumption, 66 evaluation methodology, 6, 33–34 on marketing practices and trends, 24–25, 33, 34, 133–134 media use patterns, 176 new product introductions, 156 nutrient and food intake information, 50–61 shortcomings, 7 for systematic evidence review, 227, 232–237, 243–247 Demand for healthier food choices, 201, 204 Denmark, 358 Dental health, 39, 40, 44–45 Department of Agriculture, U.S. education and information programs, 320–321, 322, 323, 326 food assistance programs, 121, 122–123 recommendations for, 14, 15, 386–387 Department of Defense, U.S., 329 Department of Education, U.S., 322, 325, 381 Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Children’s Advertising Review Unit and, 200–201 education and information programs, 320, 321, 322, 323 recommendations for, 15, 16, 386–387, 387 Depression, 78, 100 Development, individual beverage consumption patterns, 66, 67 brand recognition, 103–104 breakfast consumption patterns, 68 character merchandising and, 172–173 cognitive capacity to recognize and evaluate advertising, 4, 5, 9, 20–21, 30, 231, 295–298, 301, 305, 309, 343, 380 definition of health, 19 food preferences, 96, 97, 123–124, 305, 376 normal weight gain, 45–46 obesity risk, 18 research needs, 305 See also Consumer socialization Diabetes associated conditions, 41–42 diet-related risk, 1, 18 federal educational interventions to prevent, 322 metabolic syndrome and, 43 trends, 1, 17, 39, 82 Diet. See Eating behavior and dietary intake Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, 48

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 47–48, 49, 320 Dietary reference intakes, 46–47 actual intakes and, 55–56 Dietary supplements. See Supplements, dietary Dieting, 100–101 Digital television, 195–196 Dinner, children’s influence on food choices, 103 Discretionary fat, 59n Drug stores, 151 E Eating behavior and dietary intake accessibility of food and, 108 age factors moderating influence of marketing on, 294 assessment methods, 50–51 biological factors, 92–93 in child-care settings, 111 consumer socialization effects, 102–104 cost factors, 104–105, 107–108 data sources, 50, 230 determinants of, 1, 2–4, 8, 19–20, 123, 373, 376, 379 developmental change, 96–97, 305 dietary recommendations and guidelines, 45, 46–49, 320–321 dieting practices, 100–101 diet precursors and, 261, 270–272 eating occasions per day, 75, 79, 80 ecological perspective in outcome evaluation, 26–28, 91–92, 123 evidence of marketing influence, 261–264 family factors, 105–110 food/beverage type, intake distribution by, 52–53, 61–68, 74–75 gender differences in, 98–99 gender differences moderating influence of marketing on, 298 genetic factors, 93–94 government policy effects, 123 health outcomes, 2, 39–40, 374 individual health concerns and, 99 influence of marketing, 8–9, 265–272, 379 mother’s work status and, 106–107 neighborhood food retail outlets and, 115–116 normal development, 45–46 nutrition knowledge and, 100 parental, 109 patterns and trends, 18, 19, 61–62, 375 peer influence, 110–111 portion size and, 101–102 psychosocial factors, 97–100 quantity consumed per eating occasion, 70–71 regional variation, 81 in restaurants, 113–115 in schools, 112–113 sensory influences, 94–96 settings, 71–72, 105 sociocultural factors, 116–119 strategies for improving youth health, 2, 374 time constraints and, 104, 150 See also Breakfast consumption; Calorie intake; Nutrient intake; Portion sizes; Precursors, dietary; Snacks and snacking Eating disorders, 100 Eat Smart, Play Hard™ Campaign, 321 Ecological perspective, 26–28, 91–92, 123 Ecological validity, 242–243 Educational interventions effectiveness, 326, 361 federal programs, 320, 321–323, 325–326 in food assistance programs, 121 learning process, 20 media literacy, 326–327 MyPyramid, 48–49, 320–321 nutrition labeling, 323–325 recommendations for schools, 13–14, 385 in schools, 325–327 scope of, 361 See also Social marketing Electrolytes, 47 Embedded marketing, 141 Emotional appeals, 170 Energy balance current patterns, 19 definition, 45n estimated energy requirements, 45 Entertainment industry celebrity endorsements, 175 children’s, 164 interest in youth market, 23

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? recommendations for, 12–13, 384 self-regulation of marketing activities by, 207–208 See also Character merchandising Estimated average requirements, 46 actual intakes and, 55 Estimated energy requirements, 45, 47 actual intake and, 56 calorie requirement calculations, 56–57 infant and toddler intakes, 73 European Heart Network, 32, 301, 302, 355 European Union, 355–356 Event and loyalty marketing, 4, 169, 187 Evolutionary theory, 93, 94 Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program, 321 F Fast food and quick serve restaurants branded spokescharacters, 171 co-branding campaigns, 174–175 consumer lawsuits against, 341–342 consumer spending, 151 definition, 31n, 151n, 406 industry leaders, 151 in-school sales, 188 number of, 151 nutrition labeling requirements for, 323–324 premium offers, 175–176 promotion of healthful diets in, 204–205 revenues, 151 sociodemographic characteristics, 114–115 See also Restaurants Fat, dietary intake of in away-from-home meals, 114 biological influences, 93, 94–95 dietary recommendations and guidelines, 45, 47, 57, 58 economic status and, 79, 80, 107 in family meals, 109 food assistance program meals, 328 gender differences, 98 health and nutrition attitudes as factors in, 99 infant and toddler diets, 73–74 patterns and trends, 2, 19, 53, 54, 58, 62, 375 as percentage of caloric intake, 54 school food choices and, 113 social marketing programs to reduce, 335 sources, 52–53, 56 See also Saturated fats in youth diet; Trans fats in youth diet Federal Advisory Committee Act, 7 Federal Communications Commission, 181–182, 348–349 Federal Trade Commission Internet regulation, 349 recommendations for, 12, 15, 383, 386–387 regulatory role, 342–343 rulemaking in 1970s, 5, 29–30, 342–344 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study, 62, 73 Fiber intake breakfast consumption, 69 current concerns, 2, 50, 82 current patterns, 59 dietary recommendations and guidelines, 58–59 infant and toddler diets, 74 mother’s work status and, 106 overall diet quality and, 59 regional variation, 81 Finland, 359 First Amendment rights, 30, 31, 341, 344, 345, 346, 347–348, 349, 350 Five a Day for Better Health, 322, 334–335, 361 Fluoride, 40, 44, 45 Folate/folic acid current concerns, 50 current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 regional variation, 81 sources, 56 Food and Drug Administration, 323, 380 Food Guide Pyramid, 48–49, 120 actual intake vs., 62–63 Food insecurity economic status and, 76–78 obesity patterns and, 78 psychosocial outcomes, 78 Food Products Association, 206 Food Stamp Program, 41, 79, 121, 122, 123, 321 Forbidden foods, 110 France, 357, 358 French fries, 52, 71, 74, 114

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program, 122, 123, 328–329 Fruit consumption accessibility as factor in home consumption, 108, 271 advertising intensity, 165 away-from-home dining and, 115 branding strategies to influence, 136, 137 character merchandising to promote, 173–174 children’s product requests, 103 determinants of, 271 development of food preferences, 22 economic status and, 79, 107 in family meals, 108–109 healthy and balanced diet, 45 infant and toddler diets, 74 neighborhood retail outlets and, 115 nutrition knowledge and, 100 packaging innovations to encourage, 203 parental, 109 patterns and trends, 19, 61–62, 63, 375 price factors, 105, 108 recommendations for government to improve access, 14, 386 regional variation, 81 school food choices and, 113 school programs to promote, 122, 328–329 social marketing programs to promote, 334–335 strategies for improving youth health, 2, 374 Fruit juice consumption infant and toddler diets, 62, 74 marketing strategies, 140 new product introductions, 156 portion size, 71 quantity consumed per occasion, 63, 71 trends, 63, 65, 66, 67 G Gender differences average weight, 41 beverage consumption, 67 body image concerns, 99, 117–119 breakfast consumption, 68 current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56, 57 diabetes risk trends, 39 dieting behaviors, 100–101 eating behaviors, 98–99 food shopping, 150 health and nutrition attitudes, 99 in influence of marketing, 298–299 micronutrient intake, 55, 376 online use, 195 Genetic influence on eating behaviors, 93–94, 109 Geographic variation in nutrient and calorie intakes, 80–82 Germany, 358 Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, 32 Glucose metabolism, in metabolic syndrome, 43 Greece, 358 Grocery Manufacturers Association, 200, 205–206 H Hamburgers, 71 Head Start, 111, 323, 328 Health, defined, 19 Health, diet-related associated diseases, 1–2, 18, 43 beverages in, 65 broad conclusions, 9, 374 environmental influences on, 2–4, 6, 19–20 evidence of marketing linkage, 272–278 food insecurity and, 78 influence of marketing on, 8, 10, 278–293, 308, 374, 379–380 research methodology, 230–231 trends, 1, 17, 39, 41, 82 See also Adiposity; Diabetes; Obesity Healthful and balanced diets and meals agricultural policy and, 351–352 consumer demand, 201, 204 cost, 108 definition, 2, 82, 374 dietary recommendations and guidelines, 45, 46–49, 320–321 federal educational programs, 320, 321–323 marketing of, 29, 143, 146–150, 173–175, 324–325, 362, 378

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? multisectoral involvement to promote, 10, 124, 374 new product design for, 10, 156, 201–203, 210–211, 374 opportunities to improve food assistance programs, 122–123 recommendations for food and beverage companies, 10–11, 382 recommendations for media and entertainment industry, 12–13, 384 recommendations for parents and families, 13, 384 recommendations for public policy, 14–15, 385–386 recommendations for restaurants, 11, 382 recommendations for schools, 13–14, 385 recommendations for trade associations, 11–12, 383 research needs, 304 social marketing programs to promote, 334–335, 340, 381 time constraints as obstacles to, 104, 150 youth attitudes toward, 95–96, 99 See also Health promotion HealthierUS School Challenge, 322, 361 Health insurance, poverty and, 76 Health promotion broad conclusions, 9, 374 cultural values and, 119 goals, 39–40 industry advisory groups for, 208 international efforts, 32–33, 354–361 multisectoral approach, 124 outcomes of food assistance programs, 40–41 public–private partnerships, 208–209 school programs, 325–332 social marketing campaigns, 334–338, 340, 381 use of marketing techniques for, 29, 143 See also Healthful and balanced diets and meals Healthy People 2010 initiative, 42 Heart disease, 1–2, 18, 43. See also Cardiovascular disorders Height, 41 Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 335 High-calorie low-nutrient foods and beverages associated health risks, 1–2, 18 consumption patterns and trends, 2, 19, 63–65, 375, 377 development of food preferences, 22 influence of television advertising on diet precursors, 8, 307 in-school marketing, 113, 190 marketing strategies, 139–140 marketing trends, 4, 377 new product introductions, 158, 210 as portion of total calorie intake, 53, 63–64 predictors of consumption of, 64 tax policy, 352–354 television commercial content, 22, 184 types of, 63 Host-selling format, 294 Hungary, 358 Hypermarkets, 150n I Immersive advertising, 195 Infants and toddlers brand marketing to, 194 calorie and nutrient intakes, 19, 73–74, 375 definition, 25 dietary imbalances, 19, 376 eating occasions per day, 75 food/beverage type intake, 74–75, 375 food preference formation, 96 population size, 139 taste preferences, 94, 95 Influence of marketing on adiposity, 9, 379–380 age differences and, 294–295 on beliefs about food and beverages, 8, 254, 256–257, 258–259, 379 children’s cognitive capacity and, 4, 5, 9, 20–21, 30, 231, 295–298, 301, 305, 309, 343, 380 on dietary intake, 8–9, 261–272, 308, 379 on diet precursors, 8, 230, 232, 251–261, 307, 379 on diet-related health, 8, 9, 10, 308, 374, 379–380

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? on food and beverage preferences, 8, 21, 22, 253, 256–258, 258, 261, 307, 379 on food and beverage requests, 8, 253–254, 256–257, 307, 379 gender differences and, 298–299 methodology for reviewing evidence of, 227–250 moderator effects, 231, 293–294 products other than food and beverage, 234–235 racial/ethnic differences and, 299 recommendations for research, 303–306 research limitations, 302–303 on short-term eating behavior, 308 socioeconomic status as moderator of, 300 on teen diet, 8–9, 96, 307, 308, 379 Interactive Healthy Eating Index, 49 Interactive product placement, 195–196 International Chamber of Commerce, 355 International research and action, 32–33, 300–302, 354–361 Internet advertising trends, 4–5, 22–23, 194, 358 children’s exposure to food and beverage advertising, 194 children’s use of, 4–5 cognitive capacity to recognize and evaluate advertising on, 296 embedded commerce, 195–196 interactive product placement, 195 marketing strategies, 186, 190–191 online gaming, 193–195 product placement, 193 regulation, 349–350, 359, 381 use patterns, 177–178 Ireland, 356, 358, 359 Iron intake current concerns, 2, 50 deficiency patterns, 80 economic status and, 80 infant and toddler diets, 73 mother’s work status and, 106 regional variation, 81 sources, 56 trends, 54, 55 J Junk food, 31n. See also High-calorie low-nutrient foods and beverages K Kidvid, 30, 343–344 L Labeling, nutrient consumer use of, 324 design and content, 323, 324 effectiveness of, 324, 325, 380 federal food assistance programs, 328 goals, 323 health claims, 324 opportunities for improving, 324 to promote healthful diet, 361 recommendations for, 11, 382 regulation, 323, 324, 325, 361 research needs, 378 restaurant requirements, 323–324 shortcomings, 324–325 use of proprietary logos and icons, 202–203, 324–325, 378 Learning process, 20 parental role-modeling, 109 Legume intake, 2, 62 Lipoprotein levels, in metabolic syndrome, 43 Logos and icons, 202–203, 324–325, 378 Low-income families access to healthful foods and beverages, 124 computer access and use, 177, 178 dental health, 44–45 diet characteristics, 107–108 diet-related health risks, 2 eating occasions per day among, 79, 80 food assistance programs, 40–41, 121–123, 327–328 food insecurity risk, 76–78 health insurance coverage, 76 marketing influence moderated by economic status, 300 neighborhood grocery store characteristics, 115–116

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? neighborhood restaurant characteristics, 115 nutrient intake patterns, 76, 79, 80, 376 nutrition education programs, 321 obesity patterns among, 76, 78–79 prevalence, 75, 107 Lunch fat content, 58 food assistance programs, 122, 326, 327–328 infant and toddler diets, 75 ready-to-eat meals, 163 Luxembourg, 358 M Magazine advertising, 185–186 Magnesium intake current concerns, 2, 50, 82 current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 sources, 56 trends, 54 Marketing of food and beverages to youth, 209–210 assessing effectiveness of, 141–142 audience fragmentation, 165, 186 broad conclusions, 9, 374 children’s exposure to, 4–5, 21, 120–121 components of, 26, 28, 135 consumer promotion, 137, 167 in consumer socialization process, 20 cross promotion, 172, 348 cultural groups as target markets, 140–141 current concerns, 1, 5–6, 373 current promotion of healthful diets in, 10, 201–209, 374 data sources and research base, 6, 7, 23, 24–25, 30, 33, 34, 133–134, 302–303 definition, 25–26, 134–135 diet mediators/precursors, 230 ecological perspective in outcome evaluation of, 26–28, 91–92 economic significance, 119, 153, 156 embedded marketing, 141 emerging trends, 186, 190–198, 210 event sponsorship, 4, 169, 187 healthful products, 146–150, 173–174, 202, 362 for health promotion, 29, 143, 202 historical development, 168–169 industry spending, 4, 146, 163–164, 165–168, 169, 377 international research and action, 5–6, 32–33, 300–302, 354–361 marketing research, 135, 142–143, 190–191, 233, 376–377 parent-targeted advertising and, 169 premium offers, 175–176 public opinion on regulation of, 29 recommendations for food and beverage companies, 10–11, 382 recommendations for practice standards, 11, 12, 383 recommendations for research, 15, 386–387 regulation of, 29–32, 340–341, 342–350, 354–361 research goals, 23–24 research methodology, 24–28 in retail, 150 in schools, 187–190, 377 scope of activities in, 21, 22–23, 26 social benefits of, 31, 341 strategic elements, 135–136 strategic trends in, 4, 21, 146 target markets and market segmentation, 138–141 trade association guidelines, 206 trade promotion, 137–138 youth market characteristics, 138–139 See also Advertising, generally; Branded products; Influence of marketing; New product introductions Meat and protein consumption infant and toddler diets, 73 patterns and trends, 52, 53, 61, 62, 63, 351 portion sizes, 71 as source of trans fatty acids, 58 Media advertising vehicles, 4–5, 21, 22–23, 186, 190–191, 377 character merchandising, 172 children’s exposure to, 4–5, 120–121, 276–277 co-branding campaigns, 174–175 ideals of beauty, 118–119 influence on dietary patterns, 2–4, 376 in-school advertising, 188–190

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? literacy, 326–327 marketing trends, 4, 167, 191, 377 measured/unmeasured, 141–142, 167 print, 185–186 product placement, 4, 141, 167–168, 192–195 recommendations for industry, 12–13, 384 self-regulation of youth marketing, 207–208 social marketing use of, 333 use patterns, 176–179 See also Television advertising Menus, 11, 380, 382 Metabolic syndrome associated health risks, 43 definition, 43 prevalence, 39, 43 risk factors, 43 trends, 17 Micronutrients, intake of associated food and nutrient intakes, 64–65 at-risk subgroups, 44, 80, 376 current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56–57 dietary recommendations and guidelines, 47 dietary supplement use, 61 health implications, 44 past public health interventions, 40, 41 trends, 54–55 See also specific micronutrient Milk and milk consumption agricultural policy, 351–352 celebrity endorsement advertising, 175 demographic patterns, 67 health outcomes, 44 infant and toddler diets, 74 patterns and trends, 19, 52, 61, 65–66, 67, 68, 375 regional variation, 82 See also Dairy product consumption Milk Matters Calcium Education Campaign, 322 Mineral supplements, 61 Mobile phones, 179, 196–197 Moderators of marketing influence, 293–294, 308–309 age differences, 294–295 children’s cognitive capacity, 295–298 gender differences, 298–299 racial/ethnic differences, 299 significance of, 300 socioeconomic status, 300 Monitoring progress in marketing benchmarks and baselines, 7 recommendations for, 15–16, 387 Mortality, 2, 39, 40 Music, product placement in, 193 MyPyramid, 48–49, 320–321, 361 N National Advertising Review Council, 198 National Children’s Study, 304–305 National Governors Association, 14, 385 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 50, 51 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 322 National Institutes of Health, 322–323 National Parent Teacher Association, 14, 385 National School Lunch Program, 14, 78–79, 112, 121, 122, 326, 327–328, 386 National School Meals Program, 41 National Science Foundation, recommendations for, 15, 386–387 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 337 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 50, 51 Neighborhood characteristics food retail outlets, 115–116 restaurants, 114–115 Netherlands, 358 Neurobiology of eating, 92–93 New product introductions beverages, 146 branding in product development, 136 children and youth as targets of, 156–158 healthful products, 156 market segmentation in product development, 141 product type distribution, 156, 158 ready-to-eat meals, 163 repackaging of classic products, 161–162 trends, 4, 146, 156–158, 210 Niacin intake, 54–55 Norway, 32–33, 354, 358

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Nutrient content American food supply, 120 beverages, 65, 66–67 food assistance program meals, 121–123, 328 of home-prepared vs. away-from-home foods, 71–72 neighborhood retail outlets and, 115, 116 processed foods, 120 recommendations for food and beverage companies, 11, 382 recommendations for labeling, 11, 382 regulation of products available in schools, 330–332 See also High-calorie low-nutrient foods and beverages; Labeling, nutrient Nutrient intake assessment methods, 50–51 in child-care settings, 111–112 dietary recommendations and guidelines, 45, 46–49, 320–321 dietary supplement use, 61 dieting behaviors and, 101 economic status and, 76 in family meals, 108–109 fast food consumption and, 114 goals of dietary guidance, 40, 45 health and nutrition attitudes as factors in, 99 infants and toddlers, 73–74 maternal employment and, 106 patterns and trends, 19, 49–50, 52–61, 82–83, 375 regional variation, 81 See also Eating behavior and dietary intake; Healthful and balanced diets and meals; specific nutrient Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, 323–324 O Obesity associated health risks, 41–42, 43 at-risk population, 1, 41 cultural values and, 117, 119 definition and classification, 17–18, 39, 41 economic status and, 76, 78–79 federal educational interventions to prevent, 322 food and beverage industry coalitions to address, 209 food insufficiency and, 78 international research and intervention, 32, 33, 301–302 lawsuits against food industry for causing, 341–342 metabolic syndrome risk, 43 mother’s work status and, 106–107 prevalence, 1, 42 public opinion on causality, 29 racial/ethnic risk, 76 risk factors, 17, 18, 22, 53 severe, 18 social costs, 41 strategies for preventing, 18, 24 trends, 1, 5, 9, 17, 18, 39, 41, 42, 49–50, 82, 378 See also Adiposity; Body weight and composition Oil, cooking, 58 Older children, defined, 25 Osteomalacia, 44 Osteoporosis, 1–2, 18, 44 Outdoor advertising, 186–187 P Packaging consumer response to products labeled “healthy,” 169 industry spending, 169 logos and icons to identify healthy products, 202–203, 324–325, 378 recommendations for, 11, 382 See also Labeling, nutrient Pagers, 179 Parents and families accessibility of food in home, 108 child feeding practices, 109–110, 305 family meals, 108–109 influence of children and youth on purchasing, 21–22, 103, 155 influences on eating behaviors of children and youth, 105–110 maternal employment, 106–107 parents as eating behavior role models, 109 parent-targeted marketing, 169, 172 recommendations for health promotion practices, 13, 384

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? research needs, 305, 306 in socialization process, 20 Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, 58 Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 337 Pasta, 61 Peer relationship eating behaviors and, 110–111 food preferences and, 98 Personal digital assistants, 179 Phosphorus intake current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 trends, 54 Physical activity estimated energy requirement calculations, 56–57 health outcomes, 2, 24, 28, 39, 374 health promotion strategy, 40 obesity and, 16, 53, 388 possible adiposity–television viewing linkage, 273, 284, 288, 291 research needs, 303 social marketing programs to promote, 335–336 Pizza, 52, 61, 71 Portion sizes eating behavior and, 101–102 patterns and trends, 70–71, 101, 102, 376 recommendations for research, 15, 386 snacks, 69, 70 Portugal, 358 Potassium intake dietary recommendations, 60 patterns, 2, 50, 60, 82 sources, 56 Potatoes, 62, 115 in away-from-home diets, 115 consumption trends, 61, 62 infant and toddler diets, 19, 74, 75, 376 school food choices, 113 Pouring rights, 188, 329–332 Powerful Bones, Powerful Girls™, 322 Precursors, dietary age factors moderating influence of marketing, 294 behavior and, 261, 270–272 definition, 230 evidence of marketing effects on, 251–261 influence of marketing, 8, 307, 379 See also Beliefs, food and beverage; Preferences, food and beverage; Requests, food and beverage Preferences, food and beverage biological predispositions, 93 brand recognition and, 376 capacity for change, 95, 97–98 determinants of, 98, 260 developmental factors, 96–97 as diet precursor, 230 effect of food reward systems, 98, 109–110 evidence of marketing effects on, 253, 256–258 food behavior and, 270–271 formation of, 22, 96, 97, 123–124, 376 genetic factors, 93–94 health and nutrition attitudes and, 99 influence of advertising, 8, 21, 22, 258, 260–261, 307, 379 neurobiological basis, 92–93 parental, 109 prenatal factors, 95 psychosocial factors, 97–98 taste factors, 94–96 See also Eating behavior and dietary intake; Precursors, dietary Pregnant women, 116 Premium advertising, 175–176 Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance, 20, 24 Print media, 4, 185–186 Privacy, regulation of online exchanges, 349–350 Processed foods branding, 136–137 economic significance, 144 nutrient content, 120 Produce for Better Health Foundation, 335 Product placement, 4, 141, 167–168, 190, 192–195, 210, 267 ProductScan®, 134, 156 Project LEAN, 335 Protein intake. See Meat and protein consumption Psychosocial functioning food insecurity effects, 78 food preferences, 97–98 food reward systems, 98, 109–110 influence on eating behavior, 100 See also Beliefs, food and beverage; Cognitive functioning Public opinion on obesity causes, 29 regulation of advertising, 340

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Public policy agriculture supports and restrictions, 120, 123, 351–352 current shortcomings, 10, 374 diet behavior and, 123 federal nutrition education programs, 320–325, 361 food assistance programs, 40–41, 121–123, 327–328 goals, 14, 16, 24, 385, 388 international marketing regulation, 354–361 opportunities for improving, 380–381 public–private partnerships for health promotion, 208–209 recommendations for health promotion, 14–15, 385–386 regulation of products available in schools, 330–332 school-based programs for health promotion, 325–329 significance of, in shaping nutritional environment, 319, 361 social marketing initiatives, 332–340 tax law, 352–354 See also Regulation Public service announcements, 333 Purchasing power of children and youth, 5, 21–22, 153–155 Q Quick serve restaurants. See Fast food and quick serve restaurants R Race/ethnicity beverage consumption patterns, 67 body satisfaction and, 117–118 breakfast consumption patterns, 68–69 calorie intake data, 52 computer access and use patterns, 177, 178 dental health and, 45 fast food/quick serve restaurant locations and, 115 fat intake patterns, 54, 58 influence of marketing moderated by, 299 marketing trends, 140 media use patterns, 178 neighborhood grocery store characteristics, 115, 116 nutrient intake patterns, 81 obesity and, 76 poverty risk and, 75 regional variation in diet, 81 snacking behaviors, 69 sociocultural diversity and, 117 sodium intake and, 60 target marketing, 139–141 teen spending patterns, 154 television advertising and, 185 Radio, 4, 181 Recommended Dietary Allowances, 46 Recommended energy allowances, 56, 62 Regulation arguments against, 31, 341, 344, 345 current legal environment, 340–341 Federal Trade Commission actions, 5, 29–30, 343–344 of food and beverage products in schools, 200, 203, 206–207, 330–332, 358 government authority for, 342–343 indications for, 14–15, 381, 386 industry compliance, 182–183 industry self-regulation, 198–201, 203, 206–208, 210, 341, 355 international practice, 354–361 of marketing, 6, 14–15, 29–33, 340–341, 342–350, 354–361, 381, 386 media innovation and, 349–350, 358–359, 381 obesity-related lawsuits against food industry, 341–342 public opinion, 340 rationale, 5, 29, 32, 341, 342, 344–345, 346–347 Requests, food and beverage for branded products, 376 diet behavior and, 270 as diet precursor, 230 distribution by product type, 102–103 earliest manifestations, 102 evidence of marketing effects on, 253–254, 256–257, 258 influence of advertising, 8, 258, 260–261, 307, 379 See also Precursors, dietary

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Research dietary assessment methods, 50–51 ecological perspective, 26–28 goals, 23–24 on healthful diet promotion, 304 international efforts, 32–33, 300–302 on labeling to communicate nutritional content, 378 on marketing other than television, 302, 304 on marketing products other than food and beverage, 234–235 marketing research by food and beverage industry, 135, 142–143, 190–191, 233, 376–377 on marketing to youth, 6, 23, 33–34, 380 measurement issues, 303, 304, 309 methodology, 24–28 proprietary, 7, 15, 34, 143, 377, 387 recommendations for, 15, 303–306, 309, 386–387 shortcomings of, 7, 30, 302–303, 374–375 for social marketing, 334, 339 See also Data sources; Systematic evidence review Restaurants advertising spending, 164 beverage consumption patterns in, 68 brand loyalty, 104 calorie intake from, 71–72, 113, 375 consumption patterns and trends in, 113–115, 151 diet quality in, 114 neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and, 114–115 nutrition labeling requirements for, 323–324 portion sizes, 71, 102 promotion of healthful diets in, 10, 204–205, 210–211, 374 proximity to schools, 114 recommendations for health promoting practices, 11, 382 regional variation in eating behaviors, 82 sales, 113–114, 151 See also Fast food and quick serve restaurants Retail outlets children’s influence on food choices, 103, 155 consumer behavior, 150, 151 consumer use of food labels, 324 food sales, 144 health promotion efforts, 205, 378 in-store product requests, 102–104 marketing strategies, 150 neighborhood characteristics, 115–116 product offerings, 146 recommendations for product displays, 11–12, 383 supermarket revenues, 150 trade promotion in, 137–138 trends, 151 Riboflavin intake current sources, 56 regional variation, 81 trends, 54–55 Rice, 61 Rickets, 44 S Sales promotion, 137 Salty taste, 94 Saturated fats in youth diet associated health risks, 1–2, 43 current concerns, 2, 18 dietary recommendations and guidelines, 57, 58 economic status and, 80 family meal contents, 109 healthy and balanced diet, 45 patterns, 19, 49, 57, 58, 82 sources, 56 School Breakfast Program, 14, 78–79, 112, 121, 122, 326, 328, 386 School Meals Initiative, 322 Schools, 112–113 after-school programs, 14, 111, 386 calorie intake in, 71–72, 112 contracts for food and beverage sales, 188, 329–330 food choices in, 112–113 food programs, 14, 41, 64, 79, 111, 112, 121, 122, 327–328, 386 industry self-regulation of marketing in, 200, 203, 206–207 industry-sponsored educational materials, 190, 326 marketing practices and trends, 187–190, 377 media literacy training in, 326–327 nutrition education interventions, 322, 323, 325–326

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? promoting vegetable and fruit consumption in, 328–329 quick serve restaurant locations, 114 recommendations for health promotion practices, 13–14, 14, 385, 386 revenue from “pouring rights” contracts, 329 snack food availability and consumption, 95, 113, 329–331 standards for product marketing in, 14, 188, 330–332, 358, 361–362, 381, 385 SEMs, 190, 326 Sensory system, 92–93, 94–96. See also Taste Shopping malls, 155 Single-parent households, 106 Small Step program, 322, 361 Snacks and snacking calories from, 375 children’s product requests, 102–103 in home, 105 infant and toddler diets, 75 influence of children and youth on purchasing, 155 new product introductions, 158 patterns and trends, 19, 69–70, 375 portion of calorie intake from, 69–70 possible adiposity–television viewing linkage, 284 preference factors, 95 price factors, 105, 269–270 product size, 69, 70 purchasing power of children and youth, 21–22, 154, 155 quantity consumed per eating occasion, 70–71 regional variation, 81 research needs, 305 school food choices, 113, 329–331 short-term influence of advertising, 263, 265 Social and cultural norms body image, 117–119 children as consumers, 31 ecological perspective in outcome evaluation, 28 food behavior and, 117–119 food preferences and, 98 gender identity, 118 health promotion considerations, 119 influence of, 116–117 socialization process, 20 target markets, 140–141 Socialization. See Consumer socialization Social marketing applications, 332 conceptual basis, 332–333 effectiveness, 338–340, 362, 381 health promotion programs, 334–336 marketing mix, 334 outcome assessment, 339 recommendations for health promotion, 13, 384 to reduce tobacco and substance use, 337–338 research for, 334, 339 scope of program, 339 strategies and goals, 333–334, 362 target audiences, 333 Sodium intake associated health risks, 43 biological influences, 94 current concerns, 2, 18 dietary recommendations, 60 economic status and, 79, 80 healthy and balanced diet, 45 patterns and trends, 19, 49, 55, 60–61, 82, 375 recommendations for food and beverage companies, 11, 382 Soft drink consumption accessibility as factor in home consumption, 108 advertising intensity, 165 age-related patterns, 66 bone health and, 44 brand loyalty, 104 celebrity endorsement advertising, 175 children’s product requests, 103 demographic patterns, 67 in fast food and quick serve restaurants, 114 gender differences, 98 industry leaders, 146 industry self-regulation, 206–207 infant and toddler diets, 74 marketing expenditures, 146 marketing strategies, 140 nutrient content, 63 parental, 109 patterns and trends, 52, 53, 61, 63–64, 65, 66, 67, 375 portion size, 71 purchasing power of children and youth, 22, 154

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? in schools, 113, 188, 206–207 See also Added sugar intake; Beverage consumption Special Milk Program, 14, 386 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 41, 79, 121–122, 321 Spending advertising and marketing, 4, 119, 146, 163–164, 377 away-from-home food, 113–114, 119, 144, 151 beverage marketing, 146 on branded products, 137 consumer trends, 144 cost factors in eating behavior, 104–105 ethnic marketing, 140 federal nutrition education and promotion, 321 food assistance programs, 121 household food expenditures, 144 measured/unmeasured media, 141–142 obesity-associated medical care, 41 online promotions, 186 portion of disposable income spent on food, 119 product placement, 192, 193 purchasing power of children and youth, 5, 21–22, 153–155, 377 retail food sales, 144 in shopping malls, 155 Sponsored educational materials, 190, 326 Sports drinks, 146, 163 Standards current Children’s Advertising Review Unit, 378 industry self-regulation in advertising, 198–201, 210 nutrient labeling, 324, 325 for products available in schools, 14, 188, 190, 330–332, 361–362, 381, 385 recommendations for marketing practice, 11, 12, 383 for wireless marketing, 196–197 Stealth marketing, 196 Stress, 100 Stroke, diet-related risk, 1–2, 18, 43 Substance use reduction programs, 337 Sugar. See Added sugar intake; Soft drink consumption Summer Food Programs, 122 Supplements, dietary, 61 infant and toddler diets, 73 Surgeon General, 323 Sweden, 32–33, 354, 357–358 Sweet taste, 94, 95 Systematic evidence review advantages, 228 analytic framework, 228–232 British study, 302 causal inference validity rating, 240–242, 243 characteristics of, 227, 306 characteristics of studies used in, 243–247, 306–307 coding of studies in, 33–34, 243 consideration of moderator effects, 293–300, 308–309 criteria for evidence inclusion, 232–237 dimensions of, 237–238 ecological validity rating, 242–243 evaluation of evidence relevance in, 239–240 findings on diet–marketing linkages, 261–272, 307, 308 findings on diet precursor–marketing linkages, 250–261, 307 findings on diet-related health–marketing linkages, 272–293, 307, 308 identification of cause and effect variables for, 238–239 interpretation methodology, 247–250 measure quality rating, 242 presentation of findings, 250 research design types for, 239 T Target markets, 138–141 Taste exposure to, and taste preference, 95, 97–98 genetic predisposition, 93–94 neurobiology, 92–93 youth beliefs about healthfulness and, 95–96 Tax policy, 352–354 T-commerce, 195 Teenagers beliefs about food taste and healthfulness, 95–96

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? brand choice, 104 cost considerations in food choices, 104–105 definition, 25 food and beverage purchases, 22 health and nutrition attitudes and beliefs, 95–96, 99 influence of advertising on dietary patterns and outcomes, 8–9, 96, 258, 259, 266–267, 268–272, 279, 307, 308, 379 influence on family food purchases, 103, 155 Internet use, 177 magazine advertising for, 185–186 media use patterns, 178–179 nutritional needs, 46 population size, 139 purchasing power, 154 shopping behavior, 155 time pressures, 104 word-of-mouth marketing, 196 Television advertising age factors moderating influence of, 294–295 children’s exposure to, 4–5, 176–177, 179–185, 234, 248–249, 272–273, 276, 308 demographic variables in health linkage, 289 entertainment industry self-regulation of youth marketing, 207–208 Federal Communications Commission regulation, 348–349 Federal Trade Commission regulation, 5, 29–30, 181, 342–344 food and beverage commercials, 22, 181, 183–184, 185 gender factors moderating influence of, 298–299 for healthful products, 377 historical development, 180 indications for legislative interventions to promote health, 14–15, 381, 386 industry and restaurant spending, 4, 165–166, 167, 169 influence on dietary intake, 8–9, 265–272, 308, 379 influence on diet precursors, 8, 251–261, 307, 379 influence on diet-related health, 9, 308, 379–380 international research and action, 301–302, 354 length of commercials, 181 nonadvertising-related television viewing effects, 284–289, 290–292 product appeals, 169–170 product placement, 192–193 racial/ethnic factors moderating influence of, 299 regulation, 6, 14–15, 30, 32–33, 182–183, 343–344, 348–349, 354, 356, 357–358, 359–360, 361, 381, 386 research needs, 15, 386 research shortcomings, 7 short-term eating behavior and, 8, 248, 263, 265, 266–267, 308, 379 socioeconomic factors moderating influence of, 300 systematic evidence review, 233–234 trends, 4, 165–166, 167, 210, 377 See also Advertising, generally Text messaging, 197 Thiamin intake, 54 Tobacco advertising regulation, 29 anti-smoking campaigns, 337–338, 353 Tolerable upper intake level, 47 Toy co-branding, 174 Trade associations, 153 current efforts to promote healthful diets, 205–207 recommendations for health promoting practices, 11–12, 14, 383, 385 Trade promotion, 137–138, 166–167 Trans fats in youth diet associated health risks, 43 current concerns, 18 family meal contents, 109 healthy and balanced diet, 45 patterns and trends, 49, 58, 82 sources, 58 Triglyceride levels, in metabolic syndrome, 43 truth® campaign, 336, 337–338 TV dinners, 162–163 Tweens definition, 25 Internet use, 177 population size, 139

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Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? U Underweight persons, 78 United Kingdom, 6, 33, 300–301, 302, 356–357, 359 V Vegetable consumption accessibility as factor in home consumption, 108, 271 advertising intensity, 165 away-from-home dining and, 115 branding strategies to influence, 136, 137 children’s product requests, 103 determinants of, 271 development of food preferences, 22 in family meals, 108–109 food preference factors, 97 healthy and balanced diet, 45 infant and toddler diets, 19, 74, 376 neighborhood retail outlets and, 115 nutrition knowledge and, 100 packaging innovations to encourage, 203 parental, 109 patterns and trends, 18, 19, 61–62, 63, 375 price factors, 105, 108 recommendations for government to improve access, 14, 386 regional variation, 81 school food choices and, 113 school programs to promote, 122, 328–329 social marketing programs to promote, 334–335 strategies for improving youth health, 2, 374 VERB™, 322, 335–336, 339 Video games, 193–195, 207, 276 Video news release, 191 Viral marketing, 141, 190, 196, 210 Vitamin A intake current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 infant and toddler diets, 73 regional variation, 81 sources, 56 trends, 54 Vitamin B6 intake current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 regional variation, 81 trends, 55 Vitamin B12, 54 Vitamin C intake beverage sources, 67 current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 dietary supplement use, 61 regional variation, 81 trends, 54–55 Vitamin D, 44, 73 Vitamin E intake current concerns, 2, 50, 82 current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 infant and toddler diets, 73 Vitamin supplements, 61 W Water, bottled, 146 Water intake, 47, 74 We Can!, 322–323, 361 Whole grains intake advertising intensity, 165 current concerns, 2, 18, 374 healthy and balanced diet, 45 packaging innovations to encourage, 203 patterns, 19, 62, 63, 375 strategies for improving youth health, 2 WIC. See Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Wireless communications devices, 179, 196–197 World Health Assembly, 6, 32 World Health Organization, 32, 301, 354, 355 Y Yogurt, 162 Younger children, defined, 25 Z Zinc intake current intake vs. dietary guidelines, 56 current sources, 56 infant and toddler diets, 73