References

ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment). 2005. Impacts of a Warming Climate. Source: http://www.acia.uaf.edu.


Booz Allen Hamilton. 2005. Mission Analysis Report: Polar Ice Operations, Final Report. Washington, D.C., June 10, 2005.


Executive Office of the President. 1990. Polar Icebreaker Requirements. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, D.C., October 1990.


Helsinki Commission (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission). 2003. Helsinki Commission Ice EWG. Source: http://www.helcom.fi. February 2003.

Holland, M.M., and C.M. Bitz. 2003. Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models, Climate Dynamics Vol. 21, 221-232.


NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2004. Scientists Report Increased Thinning of West Antarctic Glaciers. September 23, 2004. Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2004/2004092317623.html.

New York Times. 2005. As Polar Ice Turns to Water, Dreams of Treasure Abound. October 10, 2005.

NSC/NSDD-90 (National Security Council-National Security Decision Directive 90). 1994. Review of U.S. Arctic Policy.

NSF (National Science Foundation), Office of Polar Programs Advisory Committee. 2005. Report of the SubCommittee on U.S. Antarctic Program Resupply, August 2005. Source: http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/opp_advisory/final_report/oac_resupply_report_081205.pdf.

NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2005. Source: http://www.nsidc.org.

NSTC (National Science and Technology Council). 1996. U.S. Antarctic Program, Committee on Fundamental Science, NSTC (Appendix IV). April 1996. Source: http://128.150.4.107/pubs/1996/nstc96rp/start.htm.



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Polar Icebreaker Roles and U.S. Future Needs: A Preliminary Assessment References ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment). 2005. Impacts of a Warming Climate. Source: http://www.acia.uaf.edu. Booz Allen Hamilton. 2005. Mission Analysis Report: Polar Ice Operations, Final Report. Washington, D.C., June 10, 2005. Executive Office of the President. 1990. Polar Icebreaker Requirements. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, D.C., October 1990. Helsinki Commission (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission). 2003. Helsinki Commission Ice EWG. Source: http://www.helcom.fi. February 2003. Holland, M.M., and C.M. Bitz. 2003. Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models, Climate Dynamics Vol. 21, 221-232. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2004. Scientists Report Increased Thinning of West Antarctic Glaciers. September 23, 2004. Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2004/2004092317623.html. New York Times. 2005. As Polar Ice Turns to Water, Dreams of Treasure Abound. October 10, 2005. NSC/NSDD-90 (National Security Council-National Security Decision Directive 90). 1994. Review of U.S. Arctic Policy. NSF (National Science Foundation), Office of Polar Programs Advisory Committee. 2005. Report of the SubCommittee on U.S. Antarctic Program Resupply, August 2005. Source: http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/opp_advisory/final_report/oac_resupply_report_081205.pdf. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2005. Source: http://www.nsidc.org. NSTC (National Science and Technology Council). 1996. U.S. Antarctic Program, Committee on Fundamental Science, NSTC (Appendix IV). April 1996. Source: http://128.150.4.107/pubs/1996/nstc96rp/start.htm.

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Polar Icebreaker Roles and U.S. Future Needs: A Preliminary Assessment Overpeck, J.T., M. Sturm, J.A. Francis, D.K. Perovich, M.C. Serreze, R. Benner, E.C. Carmack, S. Chapin III, S.C. Gerlach, L.C. Hamilton, L.D. Hinzman, M. Holland, H.P. Huntington, J.R. Key, A.H. Lloyd, G.M. MacDonald, J. McFadden, D. Noone, T.D. Prowse, P. Schlosser, and C. Vörösmarty. 2005. Arctic System on Trajectory to New, Seasonally Ice-Free State. Eos Trans. AGU, Vol. 86, No. 34, 10.1029/2005EO340001. PDD/NSC-26 (Presidential Decision Directive/National Security Council 26). 1996. U.S. Antarctica Policy, dated March 9, 1996. Source: http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd26.htm. Presidential Memorandum 6466 Regarding Antarctica, February 5, 1982. Report of the U.S. Antarctic Program External Panel. 1997. The United States in Antarctica. April 1997. Source: http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/antpanel. Science, Technology, Physics, Space News (PhysOrg.com). 2004. West Antarctic Glaciers Are Increasingly Thinning. September 25, 2004. Source: http://www.physorg.com/news1321.html. Sodhi, D.S., D. Griggs, and W.B. Tucker. 2001. Ice Performance Tests of USCGC Healy. Proceedings, 16th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (editor: G.W. Timco). Ottawa, Canada, August 12-17, Vol. 2, pp. 893–907. Stroeve, J., M.C. Serreze, F. Fetterer, T. Arbetter, W. Meier, J. Maslanik, and K. Knowles. 2005. Tracking the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover; another extreme September sea ice minimum in 2004. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L04501, doi:10.1029/2004GL021810. U.S. Arctic Marine Transport Workshop, 28-30 September 2004, Cambridge University, United Kingdom. Anchorage, Alaska: Northern Printing. USCG (United States Coast Guard). 1984. United States Polar Icebreaker Requirements Study, Interagency Report. USCG, Washington, D.C., July 1984.