ments of fluoride in soft tissues are based on short-term exposures and some atypically high values have been reported. Thus, more studies are needed on fluoride concentrations in soft tissues (e.g., brain, thyroid, kidney) following chronic exposure.

  • Research is needed on fluoride plasma and bone concentrations in people with small to moderate changes in renal function as well as patients with serious renal deficiency. Other potentially sensitive populations should be evaluated, including the elderly, postmenopausal women, and people with altered acid-base balance.

  • Improved and readily available pharmacokinetic models should be developed.

  • Additional studies comparing pharmacokinetics across species are needed.

  • More work is needed on the potential for release of fluoride by the metabolism of organofluorines.

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