TABLE 6-1 Reproductive Toxicity Studies

Species, Sex, Number

Exposure Route


Exposure Duration



Mice, F, 15/group


10 mg/kg/day (NaF)

30 days

Decreased protein in liver, muscle, and small intestine were observed. Significant accumulation of glycogen in gastrocnemius muscle and liver. Decline in succinate dehydrogenase activity in pectoralis muscle of treated mice. Administration of ascorbic acid and calcium to NaF-treated mice caused significant recovery from fluoride toxicity.

Chinoy et al. 1994

Mice, F, 25/group

Orally, feeding tube attached to hypodermic syringe

5 mg/kg/day (NaF)

45 days

Fluoride concentrations were increased in the urine, serum, and ovary compared with controls. In the ovary, there was impaired production of gluthathione and impaired function of the protective enzymes—namely, gluthathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. There was increased ovarian lipid peroxidation. Enhanced concentrations of potassium and sodium were observed in the serum. The concentrations of serum calcium showed significant depletion. Withdrawal of NaF for 45 days showed partial recovery. Recovery was enhanced by treatment with ascorbic acid, calcium, vitamin E, and vitamin D.

Chinoy and Patel 1998

Mice, F, 20/group


10 mg/kg/day (NaF)

30 days

Significant decline of ovarian protein and 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Hypocholesterolemic effect in serum detected. Accumulation of glycogen in uterus.

Chinoy and Patel 2001

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