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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards 8 Effects on the Endocrine System The endocrine system, apart from reproductive aspects, was not considered in detail in recent major reviews of the health effects of fluoride (PHS 1991; NRC 1993; Locker 1999; McDonagh et al. 2000a; WHO 2002; ATSDR 2003). Both the Public Health Service (PHS 1991) and the World Health Organization (WHO 2002) mentioned secondary hyperparathyroidism in connection with discussions of skeletal fluorosis, but neither report examined endocrine effects any further. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR 2003) discussed four papers on thyroid effects and two papers on parathyroid effects and concluded that “there are some data to suggest that fluoride does adversely affect some endocrine glands.” McDonagh et al. (2000a) reviewed a number of human studies of fluoride effects, including three that dealt with goiter and one that dealt with age at menarche. The following section reviews material on the effects of fluoride on the endocrine system—in particular, the thyroid (both follicular cells and parafollicular cells), parathyroid, and pineal glands. Each of these sections has its own discussion section. Detailed information about study designs, exposure conditions, and results is provided in Appendix E. THYROID FOLLICULAR CELLS The follicular cells of the thyroid gland produce the classic thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3); these hormones modulate a variety of physiological processes, including but not limited to normal growth and development (Larsen et al. 2002; Larsen and Davies 2002; Goodman 2003). Between 4% and 5% of the U.S. population may be af-
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards fected by deranged thyroid function (Goodman 2003), making it among the most prevalent of endocrine diseases (Larsen et al. 2002). The prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction in various populations is 1.3-17.5% for subclinical hypothyroidism and 0.6-16% for subclinical hyperthyroidism; the reported rates depend on age, sex, iodine intake, sensitivity of measurements, and definition used (Biondi et al. 2002). Normal thyroid function requires sufficient intake of iodine (at least 100 micrograms/day [µg/d]), and areas of endemic iodine deficiency are associated with disorders such as endemic goiter and cretinism (Larsen et al. 2002; Larsen and Davies 2002; Goodman 2003). Iodine intake in the United States (where iodine is added to table salt) is decreasing (CDC 2002d; Larsen et al. 2002), and an estimated 12% of the population has low concentrations of urinary iodine (Larsen et al. 2002). The principal regulator of thyroid function is the pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn is controlled by positive input from the hypothalamic hormone thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and by negative input from T4 and T3. TSH binds to G-protein-coupled receptors in the surface membranes of thyroid follicular cells (Goodman 2003), which leads to increases in both the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and diacylglycerol/inositol trisphosphate second messenger pathways (Goodman 2003). T3, rather than T4, probably is responsible for the feedback response for TSH production (Schneider et al. 2001). Some T3, the active form of thyroid hormone, is secreted directly by the thyroid along with T4, but most T3 is produced from T4 by one of two deiodinases (Types I and II1) in the peripheral tissue (Schneider et al. 2001; Larsen et al. 2002; Goodman 2003). T3 enters the nucleus of the target cells and binds to specific receptors, which activate specific genes. Background An effect of fluoride exposure on the thyroid was first reported approximately 150 years ago (Maumené 1854, 1866; as cited in various reports). In 1923, the director of the Idaho Public Health Service, in a letter to the Surgeon General, reported enlarged thyroids in many children between the ages of 12 and 15 using city water in the village of Oakley, Idaho (Almond 1923); in addition, the children using city water had severe enamel deficiencies in their permanent teeth. The dental problems were eventually attributed to the presence in the city water of 6 mg/L fluoride, and children born after a change in water supply (to water with <0.5 mg/L fluoride) were not 1 Type I deiodinase, along with Type III, is also responsible for deactivating T4 and T3 by removing the iodine atoms (Schneider et al. 2001; Larsen et al. 2002; Goodman 2003).
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards so affected (McKay 1933); however, there seems to have been no further report on thyroid conditions in the village. More recently, Demole (1970) argued that a specific toxicity of fluoride for the thyroid gland does not exist, because (1) fluoride does not accumulate in the thyroid; (2) fluoride does not affect the uptake of iodine by thyroid tissue; (3) pathologic changes in the thyroid show no increased frequency in regions where water is fluoridated (naturally or artificially); (4) administration of fluoride does not interfere with the prophylactic action of iodine on endemic goiter; and (5) the beneficial effect of iodine in threshold dosage to experimental animals is not inhibited by administration of fluoride, even in excessive amounts. Bürgi et al. (1984) also stated that fluoride does not potentiate the consequences of iodine deficiency in populations with a borderline or low iodine intake and that published data fail to support the hypothesis that fluoride has adverse effects on the thyroid (at doses recommended for caries prevention). McLaren (1976), however, pointed out the complexity of the system, the difficulties in making adequate comparisons of the various studies of fluoride and the thyroid, and evidence for fluoride accumulation in the thyroid and morphological and functional changes (e.g., changes in activity of adenylyl cyclase), suggesting that analytical methods could have limited the definitiveness of the data to date. His review suggested that physiological or functional changes might occur at fluoride intakes of 5 mg/day. Although fluoride does not accumulate significantly in most soft tissue (as compared to bones and teeth), several older studies found that fluoride concentrations in thyroid tissue generally exceed those in most other tissue except kidney (e.g., Chang et al. 1934; Hein et al. 1954, 1956); more recent information with improved analytic methods for fluoride was not located. Several studies have reported no effect of fluoride treatment on thyroid weight or morphology (Gedalia et al. 1960; Stolc and Podoba 1960; Saka et al. 1965; Bobek et al. 1976; Hara 1980), while others have reported such morphological changes as mild atrophy of the follicular epithelium (Ogilvie 1953), distended endoplasmic reticulum in follicular cells (Sundström 1971), and “morphological changes suggesting hormonal hypofunction” (Jonderko et al. 1983). Fluoride was once thought to compete with iodide for transport into the thyroid, but several studies have demonstrated that this does not occur (Harris and Hayes 1955; Levi and Silberstein 1955; Anbar et al. 1959; Saka et al. 1965). The iodide transporter accepts other negatively charged ions besides iodide (e.g., perchlorate), but they are about the same size as iodide (Anbar et al. 1959); fluoride ion is considerably smaller and does not appear to displace iodide in the transporter.
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards Animal Studies A number of studies have examined the effects of fluoride on thyroid function in experimental animals or livestock (for details, see Appendix E, Tables E-1, E-2, and E-3). Of these, the most informative are those that have considered both the fluoride and iodine intakes. Guan et al. (1988) found that a fluoride intake of 10 mg/L in drinking water had little apparent effect on Wistar rats with sufficient iodine intake, but a fluoride intake of 30 mg/L in drinking water resulted in significant decreases in thyroid function (decreases in T4, T3, thyroid peroxidase, and 3H-leucine), as well as a decrease in thyroid weight and effects on thyroid morphology (Table E-2). In iodine-deficient rats, fluoride intake of 10 mg/L in drinking water produced abnormalities in thyroid function beyond that attributable to low iodine, including decreased thyroid peroxidase, and low T4 without compensatory transformation of T4 to T3. Zhao et al. (1998), using male Kunmin mice, found that both iodine-deficient and iodine-excess conditions produced goiters, but, under iodine-deficient conditions, the goiter incidence at 100 days increased with increased intake of fluoride. At 100 days, the high-fluoride groups had elevated serum T4 at all concentrations of iodine intake and elevated T3 in iodine-deficient animals. High fluoride intake significantly inhibited the radioiodine uptake in the low- and normal-iodine groups. Stolc and Podoba (1960) found a decrease in protein-bound iodine in blood in fluoride-treated female rats (3-4 mg/kg/day) fed a low-iodine diet but not in corresponding rats fed a larger amount of iodine. Both groups (low- and high-iodine) of fluoride-treated rats showed a reduced rate of biogenesis of T3 and T4 after administration of 131I compared with controls (Stolc and Podoba 1960). Bobek et al. (1976) found decreases in plasma T4 and T3 as well as a decrease in free T4 index and an increase in T3-resin uptake in male rats given 0.1 or 1 mg of fluoride per day (0.4-0.6 or 4-6 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 60 days.2 The authors suggested the possibility of decreased binding capabilities and altered thyroid hormone transport in blood. Decreases in T4 and T3 concentrations have been reported in dairy cows at estimated fluoride doses up to 0.7 mg/kg/day with possible iodine deficiency (Hillman et al. 1979; Table E-3). Reduced T3 (Swarup et al. 1998) and reduced T3, T4, and protein-bound iodine (Cinar and Selcuk 2005) have also been reported in cows diagnosed with chronic fluorosis in India and Turkey, respectively. 2 The decrease in T3 in the group receiving 0.1 mg/day was not statistically significant (Table E-1). Note that ATSDR (2003) stated that an intermediate-duration minimal risk level (MRL) derived from this study of thyroid effects in rats would have been lower (more protective) than the chronic-duration MRL derived from a human study of bone effects (0.05 mg/kg/day).
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards Hara (1980) found elevated T3 and T4 at the lowest dose (approximately 0.1 mg/kg/day), decreased T3 and normal T4 at intermediate doses (3-4 mg/kg/day), and decreased TSH and growth hormone (indicating possible effects on pituitary function) at the highest doses (10-20 mg/kg/day). This was the only animal study of fluoride effects on thyroid function to measure TSH concentrations; however, full details (e.g., iodine intake) are not available in English. Other studies have shown no effect of fluoride on the end points examined (Gedalia et al. 1960; Siebenhüner et al. 1984; Clay and Suttie 1987; Choubisa 1999; Table E-1). Choubisa (1999) looked only for clinical evidence of goiter in domestic animals (cattle and buffaloes) showing signs of enamel or skeletal fluorosis; no hormone parameters (e.g., T4, T3, TSH) were measured. Gedalia et al. (1960) also did not measure T4, T3, or TSH; radioiodine uptake, protein-bound iodine, and total blood iodine were all normal in rats receiving fluoride doses up to approximately 1 milligram per kilogram of body weight per day (mg/kg/day). Clay and Suttie (1987) reported no significant differences from control values for T4 concentration and T3 uptake in heifers fed up to 1.4 mg/kg/day; iodine intake is not stated but probably was adequate, and TSH was not measured. Siebenhüner et al. (1984) carried out a special experiment involving iodine depletion of the thyroid before 6 days of fluoride treatment. No effects were seen on the parameters measured, including T3 and T4 concentrations; however, TSH was not measured. In addition, propylthiouracil (PTU), the agent used to deplete the thyroid of iodine, also has an inhibitory effect on deiodinases (Larsen et al. 2002; Larsen and Davies 2002); Siebenhüner et al. (1984) did not mention this second action of PTU and its relevance to the interpretation of the experimental results, and there was no control group without the PTU treatment. Human Studies Several authors have reported an association between endemic goiter and fluoride exposure or enamel fluorosis in human populations in India (Wilson 1941; Siddiqui 1960; Desai et al. 1993), Nepal (Day and Powell-Jackson 1972), England (Wilson 1941; Murray et al. 1948), South Africa (Steyn 1948; Steyn et al. 1955; Jooste et al. 1999), and Kenya (Obel 1982). Although endemic goiter is now generally attributed to iodine deficiency (Murray et al. 1948; Obel 1982; Larsen et al. 2002; Belchetz and Hammond 2003), some of the goitrogenic areas associated with fluoride exposure were not considered to be iodine deficient (Steyn 1948; Steyn et al. 1955; Obel 1982; Jooste et al. 1999). Obel (1982) indicated that many cases of fluorosis in Kenya occur concurrently with goiter. Several authors raise the possibility that the goitrous effect, if not due to fluoride, is due to some other substance
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards in the water (e.g., calcium or water hardness) that was associated with the fluoride concentration (Murray et al. 1948; Day and Powell-Jackson 1972) or that enhanced the effect of fluoride (Steyn 1948; Steyn et al. 1955). Dietary selenium deficiencies (e.g., endemic in parts of China and Africa or due to protein-restricted diets) can also affect normal thyroid function3 (Larsen et al. 2002); no information on dietary selenium is available in any of the fluoride studies. Appendix E summarizes a number of studies of the effects of fluoride on thyroid function in humans (see Table E-4). Three studies illustrated the range of results that have been reported: (1) Gedalia and Brand (1963) found an association between endemic goiter in Israeli girls and iodine concentrations in water but found no association with fluoride concentrations (<0.1-0.9 mg/L). (2) Siddiqui (1960) found goiters only in persons aged 14-17 years; the goiters, which became less visible or invisible after puberty, were associated with mean fluorine content of the water (5.4-10.7 mg/L) and were inversely associated with mean iodine content of the water. (3) Desai et al. (1993) found a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between prevalence of goiter (9.5-37.5%) and enamel fluorosis (6.0-59.0%), but no correlation between prevalence of goiter and water iodine concentration (P > 0.05). Day and Powell Jackson (1972) surveyed 13 villages in Nepal where the water supply was uniformly low in iodine (≤1 µg/L; see Figure 8-1). Here the goiter prevalence (5-69%, all age groups) was directly associated with the fluoride concentration (<0.1 to 0.36 mg/L; P < 0.01) or with hardness, calcium concentration, or magnesium concentration of the water (all P < 0.01). Goiter prevalence of at least 20% was associated with all fluoride concentrations ≥ 0.19 mg/L, suggesting that fluoride might influence the prevalence of goiter in an area where goiter is endemic because of low iodine intake. The possibility of a nutritional component (undernutrition or protein deficiency) to the development of goiter was also suggested. Jooste et al. (1999) examined children (ages 6, 12, and 15) who had spent their entire lives in one of six towns in South Africa where iodine concentrations in drinking water were considered adequate (median urinary iodine concentration exceeding 201 µg/L [1.58 µmol/L]; see Appendix E, Tables E-4 and E-5; Figure 8-2). For towns with low (0.3-0.5 mg/L) or near “optimal” (0.9-1.1 mg/L) fluoride concentrations in water, no relationship between fluoride and prevalence of mild goiter was found (5-18%); for the other two towns (1.7 and 2.6 mg/L fluoride), however, goiter prevalences were 28% and 29%, respectively, and most children had severe enamel mottling. These two towns (and one low-fluoride town) had very low proportions (0-2.2%) of children with iodine deficiency, defined as urinary 3 All three deiodinases contain selenocysteine at the active sites and therefore have a minimum requirement for selenium for normal function (Larsen et al. 2002).
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards FIGURE 8-1 Goiter prevalence versus fluoride (left) and calcium (right) concentration in drinking water for 13 villages in Nepal with very low iodine concentrations. SOURCE: Day and Powell-Jackson 1972. iodine concentrations <100 µg/L (<0.79 µmol/L). The town with the lowest prevalence of goiter also had the lowest prevalence of undernutrition; the two towns with the highest prevalence of goiter (and highest fluoride concentrations) did not differ greatly from the remaining three towns with FIGURE 8-2 Goiter prevalence versus drinking water fluoride concentrations in six South African towns with adequate iodine concentrations. One town had a significantly lower prevalence of undernutrition than the other five towns and is not included in the line fitting. SOURCE: Jooste et al. 1999.
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards respect to prevalence of undernutrition. The authors suggested that fluoride or an associated goitrogen might be responsible for the goiters seen in the two towns with the highest fluoride concentrations but that some other factor(s) was involved in development of goiter in the other towns. Several studies have compared various aspects of thyroid status in populations with different fluoride intakes (for details, see Appendix E, Table E-4). Leone et al. (1964) and Baum et al. (1981) reported no significant differences in thyroid status between populations with low (0.09-0.2 mg/L) and high (3-3.5 mg/L) fluoride concentrations in the drinking water. Leone et al. (1964) looked only at protein-bound iodine and physical examination of the thyroid in adults; Baum et al. (1981) measured a number of parameters in teenagers, including T4, T3, and TSH. Neither study reported iodine status of the groups. Baum et al. (1981) showed but did not explain a decrease in thyroglobulin in girls in the high-fluoride group. Bachinskii et al. (1985) examined 47 healthy persons, 43 persons with hyperthyroidism, and 33 persons with hypothyroidism. Prolonged consumption of “high-fluoride” drinking water (2.3 mg/L, as opposed to “normal” concentrations of 1 mg/L) by healthy persons was associated with statistically significant changes in TSH concentrations (increased), T3 concentrations (decreased), and uptake of radioiodine (increased), although the mean values for TSH and T3 were still within normal ranges (see Appendix E, Table E-6). The mean value of TSH for the healthy group (4.3 ± 0.6 milliunits/L; Table E-6) is high enough that one expects a few individuals to have been above the normal range (typically 0.5-5 milliunits/L; Larsen et al. 2002). These results were interpreted as indicating disruption of iodine metabolism, stress in the pituitary-thyroid system, and increased risk of developing thyroidopathy (Bachinskii et al. 1985). Lin et al. (1991) examined 769 children (7-14 years old) for mental retardation in three areas of China, including an area with “high” fluoride (0.88 mg/L) and low iodine, an area with “normal” fluoride (0.34 mg/L) and low iodine, and an area where iodine supplementation was routine (fluoride concentration not stated). Ten to twelve children in each area received detailed examinations, including measuring thyroid 131I uptake and thyroid hormone concentrations. Children in the first area had higher TSH, slightly higher 131I uptake, and lower mean IQ than children in the second area. Children in the first area also had reduced T3 and elevated reverse T3, compared with children in the second area. The authors suggested that high fluoride might exacerbate the effects of iodine deficiency. In addition, the authors reported a difference in T3/rT3 (T3/reverse-T3) ratios between high- and low-fluoride areas and suggested that excess fluoride ion affects normal deiodination. A recent study by Susheela et al. (2005) compared thyroid hormone status (free T4, free T3, and TSH) of 90 children with enamel fluorosis
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards (drinking water fluoride ranging from 1.1 to 14.3 mg/L) and 21 children without enamel fluorosis (0.14-0.81 mg/L fluoride in drinking water) in areas where iodine supplementation was considered adequate.4 Forty-nine children (54.4%) in the sample group had “well-defined hormonal derangements”; findings were borderline in the remaining 41 children. The types of hormonal derangements included elevated TSH and normal T4 and T3 (subclinical hypothyroidism); low T3 and normal T4 and TSH (“low T3 syndrome”); elevated T3 and TSH and normal T4 (possible T3 toxicosis); elevated TSH, low T4, and normal T3 (usually indicative of primary hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency); and low T3, high TSH, and normal T4. All but the first category are considered to be associated with or potentially caused by abnormal activity of deiodinases. The authors concluded that fluoride in excess may be inducing diseases that have usually been attributed to iodine deficiency and that iodine supplementation may not be adequate when excess fluoride is being consumed. Thyroid hormone disturbances were also noted in the control children, and urine and fluoride concentrations in the control children reflect higher fluoride intake than can be accounted for by the drinking water alone (Susheela et al. 2005). Thus, the authors recommend that end points such as hormone concentrations should be examined with respect to serum or urinary fluoride concentrations, not just drinking water fluoride concentrations. In addition, they note that all hormone endpoints (T3, T4, and TSH) should be examined, lest some of the abnormalities be missed. Mikhailets et al. (1996) detected thyroid abnormalities (moderate reduction of iodine uptake, low T3, normal T4, and increased TSH) in 165 aluminum workers with signs of chronic fluorosis and an estimated average fluoride intake of 10 mg/working day. A tendency toward increased TSH was observed with increased exposure time and with more severe fluorosis. Workers with more than 10 years of service had a significant decrease in T3 concentration in comparison to controls. The frequency of individuals with low concentrations of T3 (corresponding to hypothyroidism) was 65% among workers with more than 10 years of service and 54% among workers with Stage 2 fluorosis. The highest frequency of occurrence of low T3 (76%) was observed in people with chronic fluoride intoxication including liver damage (moderate cytolysis), suggesting a disorder in peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodination). The possibility of indirect effects of fluorine on enzymatic deiodination was also suggested. Tokar′ et al. (1989) and Balabolkin et al. (1995) have also reported 4 The lower range of fluoride in drinking water in the fluorosis group is not much different from the higher range for the controls; however, in India, fluoride concentrations below 1 mg/L in drinking water are considered “safe” (Trivedi et al. 1993; Susheela et al. 2005) so the demarcation is at least a logical one.
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards thyroid effects in fluoride- or fluorine-exposed workers; full details of these studies are not available in English. Balabolkin et al. (1995) found that 51% of the workers examined had subclinical hypothyroidism with reduced T3. No changes in thyroid function were detected in two studies of osteoporosis patients treated with NaF for 6 months or several years (Eichner et al. 1981; Hasling et al. 1987; for details, see Appendix E, Table E-7). These study populations are not necessarily representative of the general population, especially with respect to age and the fact that they usually receive calcium supplements. In an earlier clinical study to examine the reported effects of fluoride on individuals with hyperthyroidism, Galletti and Joyet (1958) found that, in 6 of 15 patients, both basal metabolic rate and protein-bound iodine fell to normal concentrations, and the symptoms of hyperthyroidism were relieved after fluoride treatment. Fluoride was considered clinically ineffective in the other 9 patients, although improvement in basal metabolic rate or protein-bound iodine was observed in some of them. In the 6 patients for whom fluoride was effective, tachycardia and tremor disappeared within 4-8 weeks, and weight loss was stopped. The greatest clinical improvement was observed in women between 40 and 60 years old with a moderate degree of thyrotoxicosis; young patients with the classic symptoms of Graves’ disease did not respond to fluoride therapy. Radioiodine uptake tests were performed on 10 of the patients, 7 of whom showed an inhibitory effect on initial 131I uptake by the thyroid. Discussion (Effects on Thyroid Function) In studies of animals with dietary iodine sufficiency, effects on thyroid function were seen at fluoride doses of 3-6 mg/kg/day (Stolc and Podoba 1960; Bobek et al. 1976; Guan et al. 1988; Zhao et al. 1998); in one study, effects were seen at doses as low as 0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day (Bobek et al. 1976). In low-iodine situations, more severe effects on thyroid function were seen at these doses (Stolc and Podoba 1960; Guan et al. 1988; Zhao et al. 1998). Effects on thyroid function in low-iodine situations have also been noted at fluoride doses as low as 0.06 mg/kg/day (Zhao et al. 1998), ≤0.7 mg/kg/day (Hillman et al. 1979), and 1 mg/kg/day (Guan et al. 1988). Studies showing no effect of fluoride on thyroid function did not measure actual hormone concentrations (Gedalia et al. 1960; Choubisa 1999), did not report iodine intakes (Gedalia et al. 1960; Clay and Suttie 1987; Choubisa 1999), used fluoride doses (<1.5 mg/kg/day) below those (3-6 mg/kg/day) associated with effects in other studies (Gedalia et al. 1960; Clay and Suttie 1987), or did not discuss a possibly complicating factor of the experimental procedure used (Siebenhüner et al. 1984). Only one animal study (Hara 1980) measured TSH concentrations, although that is considered a “precise and
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards specific barometer” of thyroid status in most situations (Larsen et al. 2002). Full details of Hara’s report are not available in English. Goiter prevalence of at least 20% has been reported in humans exposed to water fluoride concentrations ≥ 0.2 mg/L (low-iodine situation; Day and Powell-Jackson 1972) or 1.5-3 mg/L (undernutrition, but adequate iodine; Jooste et al. 1999); however, other causes of goiter have not been ruled out. Bachinskii et al. (1985) showed increased TSH concentrations and reduced T3 concentrations in a population with a fluoride concentration of 2.3 mg/L in their drinking water (in comparison to a group with 1.0 mg/L), and Lin et al. (1991) showed similar results for a population with 0.88 mg/L fluoride in the drinking water (in comparison to a group with 0.34 mg/L); another study showed no effect at 3 mg/L (Baum et al. 1981). Among children considered to have adequate iodine supplementation, Susheela et al. (2005) found derangements of thyroid hormones in 54% of children with enamel fluorosis (1.1-14.3 mg/L fluoride in drinking water), and in 45-50% of “control” children without enamel fluorosis but with elevated serum fluoride concentrations. Mikhailets et al. (1996) observed an increase in TSH in workers with increased exposure time and with more severe fluorosis; low T3 was found in 65% of workers with more than 10 years of service and in 54% of workers with Stage 2 fluorosis. Several studies do not include measurements of T4, T3, or TSH (Siddiqui 1960; Gedalia and Brand 1963; Leone et al. 1964; Day and Powell-Jackson 1972; Teotia et al. 1978; Desai et al. 1993; Jooste et al. 1999). Nutritional information (especially the adequacy of iodine and selenium intake) is lacking for many (iodine) or all (selenium) of the available studies on humans. As with the animal studies, high fluoride intake appears to exacerbate the effects of low iodine concentrations (Day and Powell-Jackson 1972; Lin et al. 1991). Uncertainty about total fluoride exposures based on water fluoride concentrations, variability in exposures within population groups, and variability in response among individuals generally have not been addressed. Although no thyroid effects were reported in studies using controlled doses of fluoride for osteoporosis therapy, the study populations are not necessarily representative of the general population with respect to age, calcium intake, and the presence of metabolic bone disease. Thus, several lines of information indicate an effect of fluoride exposure on thyroid function. However, because of the complexity of interpretation of various parameters of thyroid function (Larsen et al. 2002), the possibility of peripheral effects on thyroid function instead of or in addition to direct effects on the thyroid, the absence of TSH measurements in most of the animal studies, the difficulties of exposure estimation in human studies, and the lack of information in most studies on nutritional factors (iodine, selenium) that are known to affect thyroid function, it is difficult to predict
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards in a previous study with Sprague-Dawley rats but that there were “strain-specific differences in fluoride sensitivity”; these differences were not defined or explained. The Zucker fatty diabetic rat is considered to be an animal model for human Type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, although the diabetic rats in this study did not experience renal insufficiency, and the study was terminated before an age that might be more comparable to ages associated with late-onset diabetes and diabetic complications in humans. The authors concluded that the diabetic rats “were not at increased risk of fluorosis,” even though femoral fluoride concentrations (2,700-9,500 µg/g in ash for diabetic rats given fluoride at 15 or 50 mg/L versus 2,500-3,600 in normal rats given fluoride at 50 mg/L) were in the range associated with fluorosis in humans and exceeded concentrations of bone fluoride associated with decreased bone strength in rabbits (6,500-8,000 ppm in ash; Turner et al. 1997); no basis for their conclusion was given. In the second study, Boros et al. (1998) compared the effects of fluoride at 10 mg/L in drinking water for 3 weeks on young female rats (Charles River, Wistar), either normal (nondiabetic) or with streptozotocin-induced, untreated diabetes. An additional group of normal rats was given an amount of fluoride in drinking water corresponding to the fluoride intake by the diabetic rats (up to about 3 mg/day per rat). Both feed and water consumption increased significantly in the diabetic rats (with and without fluoridated water); water consumption was significantly higher in the diabetic rats on fluoridated water than in those on nonfluoridated water. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were increased significantly in both diabetic groups, but more so in the group on fluoridated water. Fluoride treatment of non-diabetic animals did not cause any significant alteration in blood glucose concentrations. Plasma fluoride was higher, and bone fluoride was lower, in diabetic than in nondiabetic animals given the same amount of fluoride, indicating lower deposition of fluoride into bone and lower renal clearance of fluoride in the diabetic animals. The increased kidney weight found in diabetic animals on nonfluoridated water was not seen in the fluoride-treated diabetic animals. Additional biochemical and hormonal parameters were not measured. In contrast to the Zucker fatty diabetic rats in the study by Dunipace et al. (1996), the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in this study (Boros et al., 1998) provide an animal model considered representative of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in humans. In these rats, the general severity of the diabetes (blood glucose concentrations, kidney function, weight loss) was worse in animals given fluoride at 10 mg/L in their drinking water. In both types of diabetic rats, fluoride intake was very high because of the several-fold increase in water consumption, and corresponding plasma, soft tissue, and bone fluoride concentrations were elevated accordingly. Thus, any health effects related to plasma or bone fluoride
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards concentrations, for example, would be expected to occur in animals or humans with uncontrolled (or inadequately controlled) diabetes at lower fluoride concentrations in drinking water than for nondiabetics, because of the elevated water intakes. In addition, the results reported by Boros et al. (1998) suggested that, for some situations (e.g., diabetes in which kidney function is compromised), the severity of the diabetes could be increased with increasing fluoride exposure. Animal Studies (Normal Animals) Turner et al. (1997) reported a 17% increase in serum glucose in female rabbits given fluoride in drinking water at 100 mg/L for 6 months. IGF-1 was also significantly increased (40%) in these rabbits, but other regulators of serum glucose, such as insulin, were not measured. The authors suggested that IGF-1 concentrations might have changed in response to changes in serum glucose concentrations. Dunipace et al. (1995, 1998) found no significant differences with chronic fluoride treatment in mean blood glucose concentrations in rats; specific data by treatment group were not reported, and parameters such as insulin and IGF-1 were not measured. Suketa et al. (1985) and Grucka-Mamczar et al. (2005) have reported increases in blood glucose concentrations following intraperitoneal injections of NaF; Suketa et al. (1985) attributed these increases to fluoride stimulation of adrenal function. Rigalli et al. (1990, 1992, 1995), in experiments with rats, reported decreases in insulin, increases in plasma glucose, and disturbance of glucose tolerance associated with increased plasma fluoride concentrations. The effect of high plasma fluoride (0.1-0.3 mg/L) appeared to be transient, and the decreased response to a glucose challenge occurred only when fluoride was administered before (as opposed to together with or immediately after) the glucose administration (Rigalli et al. 1990). In chronic exposures, effects on glucose metabolism occurred when plasma fluoride concentrations exceeded 0.1 mg/L (5 µmol/L) (Rigalli et al. 1992, 1995). The in vivo effect appeared to be one of inhibition of insulin secretion rather than one of insulin-receptor interaction (Rigalli et al. 1990). Insulin secretion (both basal and glucose-stimulated) by isolated islets of Langerhans in vitro was also inhibited as a function of fluoride concentrations (Rigalli et al. 1990, 1995). Rigalli et al. (1990) pointed out that recommended plasma fluoride concentrations for treatment of osteoporosis are similar to those shown to affect insulin secretion. Human Studies Jackson et al. (1994) reported no differences in mean fasting blood glucose concentrations between osteoporosis patients treated with fluoride and
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards untreated controls, although 3 of 25 treated individuals had values outside the normal range (versus 1 of 38 controls). No significant differences were found between groups of older adults with different fluoride concentrations in drinking water in studies in China (Li et al. 1995; subjects described as “healthy” adults) and the United States (Jackson et al. 1997), and all mean values were within normal ranges.16 Glucose tolerance tests were not conducted in these studies. Trivedi et al. (1993) reported impaired glucose tolerance in 40% of young adults with endemic fluorosis, with fasting serum glucose concentrations related to serum fluoride concentrations; the impaired glucose tolerance was reversed after 6 months of drinking water with “acceptable” fluoride concentrations (<1 mg/L). It is not clear whether individuals with elevated serum fluoride and impaired glucose tolerance had the highest fluoride intakes of the group with endemic fluorosis or a greater susceptibility than the others to the effects of fluoride. For all 25 endemic fluorosis patients examined, a significant positive correlation between serum fluoride and fasting serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) was observed, along with a significant negative correlation between serum fluoride and fasting glucose/ insulin ratio (Trivedi et al. 1993). The finding of increased IRI contrasts with findings of decreased insulin in humans after exposure to fluoride (Rigalli et al. 1990; de la Sota et al. 1997) and inhibition of insulin secretion by rats, both in vivo and in vitro (Rigalli et al. 1990, 1995). However, the assay for IRI used by Trivedi et al. (1993) could not distinguish between insulin and proinsulin, and the authors suggested that the observed increases in both IRI and serum glucose indicate either biologically inactive insulin—perhaps elevated proinsulin—or insulin resistance. Inhibition of one of the prohormone convertases (the enzymes that convert proinsulin to insulin) would result in both elevated proinsulin secretion and increased blood glucose concentrations and would be consistent with the decreased insulin secretion reported by Rigalli et al. (1990, 1995) and de la Sota et al. (1997). Although Turner et al. (1997) suggested fluoride inhibition of insulin-receptor activity as a mechanism for increased blood glucose concentrations, Rigalli et al. (1990) found no difference in response to exogenous insulin in fluoride-treated versus control rats, consistent with no interference of fluoride with the insulin-receptor interaction. Discussion (Other Endocrine Function) More than one mechanism for diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance exists in humans, and a variety of responses to fluoride are in keeping with 16 In the study by Jackson et al. (1997), samples were nonfasting; in the study by Li et al. (1995), it is not clear whether samples were fasting or nonfasting.
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards variability among strains of experimental animals and among the human population. The conclusion from the available studies is that sufficient fluoride exposure appears to bring about increases in blood glucose or impaired glucose tolerance in some individuals and to increase the severity of some types of diabetes. In general, impaired glucose metabolism appears to be associated with serum or plasma fluoride concentrations of about 0.1 mg/L or greater in both animals and humans (Rigalli et al. 1990, 1995; Trivedi et al. 1993; de al Sota et al. 1997). In addition, diabetic individuals will often have higher than normal water intake, and consequently, will have higher than normal fluoride intake for a given concentration of fluoride in drinking water. An estimated 16-20 million people in the United States have diabetes mellitus (Brownlee et al. 2002; Buse et al. 2002; American Diabetes Association 2004; Chapter 2); therefore, any role of fluoride exposure in the development of impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes is potentially significant. SUMMARY The major endocrine effects of fluoride exposures reported in humans include elevated TSH with altered concentrations of T3 and T4, increased calcitonin activity, increased PTH activity, secondary hyperparathyroidism, impaired glucose tolerance, and possible effects on timing of sexual maturity; similar effects have been reported in experimental animals. These effects are summarized in Tables 8-1 and 8-2, together with the approximate intakes or physiological fluoride concentrations that have been typically associated with them thus far. Table 8-2 shows that several of the effects are associated with average or typical fluoride intakes of 0.05-0.1 mg/kg/day (0.03 with iodine deficiency), others with intakes of 0.15 mg/kg/day or higher. A comparison with Chapter 2 (Tables 2-13, 2-14, and 2-15) will show that the 0.03-0.1 mg/kg/day range will be reached by persons with average exposures at fluoride concentrations of 1-4 mg/L in drinking water, especially the children. The highest intakes (>0.1 mg/kg/d) will be reached by some individuals with high water intakes at 1 mg/L and by many or most individuals with high water intakes at 4 mg/L, as well as by young children with average exposures at 2 or 4 mg/L. Most of the studies cited in this chapter were designed to ascertain whether certain effects occurred (or in cases of skeletal fluorosis, to see what endocrine disturbances might be associated), not to determine the lowest exposures at which they do occur or could occur. Estimates of exposure listed in these tables and in Appendix E are, in most cases, estimates of average values for groups based on assumptions about body weight and water intake. Thus, individual responses could occur at lower or higher exposures than those listed. Although the comparisons are incomplete, similar effects
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards TABLE 8-1 Summary of Major Observed Endocrine Effects of Fluoride in Experimental Animals, with Typical Associated Intakes and Physiological Fluoride Concentrations End Point Fluoride Intake, mg/kg/day Fluoride in Serum or Plasma, mg/L Fluoride in Urine, mg/L Fluoride in Bone, ppm in ash Key References Altered thyroid function (altered T4 and T3 concentrations) 3-6 (lower with iodine deficiency) NAa ≥6 (possibly ≥2-3) ≥2,400 Stolc and Podoba 1960; Bobek et al. 1976; Hillman et al. 1979; Guan et al. 1988; Zhao et al. 1998; Cinar and Selcuk 2005 Altered calcitonin activity 2 NA NA 3,200-3,500b Rantanen et al. 1972 Altered melatonin production; altered timing of sexual maturity 3.7 NA NA 2,800 Luke 1997 Inhibited parathyroid function 5.4 NA NA NA Rosenquist et al. 1983 Increased serum glucose; increased severity of diabetes 7-10.5 0.1-0.7c,d NA >1,000 Rigalli et al. 1990, 1992, 1995; Turner et al. 1997; Boros et al. 1998 Increased parathyroid hormone concentrations, secondary hyperparathyroidism 9-10 ≥0.2c NA 2,700-3,200 Faccini and Care 1965; Chavassieux et al. 1991 aNot available. bppm. cSerum. dPlasma. are seen in humans at much lower fluoride intakes (or lower water fluoride concentrations) than in rats or mice, but at similar fluoride concentrations in blood and urine. This is in keeping with the different pharmacokinetic behavior of fluoride in rodents and in humans (Chapter 3) and with the variability in intake, especially for humans.
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards TABLE 8-2 Summary of Major Observed Endocrine Effects of Fluoride in Humans, with Typical Associated Intakes and Physiological Fluoride Concentrations End Point Fluoride Intake, mg/kg/daya Fluoride in Serum or Plasma, mg/L Fluoride in Urine, mg/L Key References Altered thyroid function (altered T4 and/or T3 concentrations) 0.05-0.1 (0.03 with iodine deficiency) ≥0.25a 2.4 Bachinskii et al. 1985; Lin et al. 1991; Yang et al. 1994; Michael et al. 1996; Susheela et al. 2005 Elevated TSH concentrations 0.05-0.1 (0.03 with iodine deficiency) ≥0.25a ≥2 Bachinskii et al. 1985; Lin et al. 1991; Yang et al. 1994; Susheela et al. 2005 Elevated calcitonin concentrations 0.06-0.87 0.11-0.26b 2.2-18.5 mg/day Teotia et al. 1978 Goiter prevalence ≥ 20% 0.07-0.13 (≥ 0.01 with iodine deficiency) NAc NA Day and Powell-Jackson 1972; Desai et al. 1993; Jooste et al. 1999 Impaired glucose tolerance in some individuals 0.07-0.4 0.08a 0.1-0.3b 2-8 Rigalli et al. 1990, 1995; Trivedi et al. 1993; de la Sota 1997 Increased parathyroid hormone concentrations, secondary hyperparathyroidism, in some individuals 0.15-0.87 0.14-0.45b 3-18.5 mg/day Juncos and Donadio 1972; Teotia and Teotia 1973; Larsen et al. 1978; Teotia et al. 1978; Duursma et al. 1987; Dandona et al. 1988; Stamp et al. 1988, 1990; Pettifor et al. 1989; Srivastava et al. 1989; Dure-Smith et al. 1996; Gupta et al. 2001 aSerum. bPlasma. cNot available. Thyroid Function Fluoride exposure in humans is associated with elevated TSH concentrations, increased goiter prevalence, and altered T4 and T3 concentrations; similar effects on T4 and T3 are reported in experimental animals, but TSH has not been measured in most studies. In animals, effects on thyroid function have been reported at fluoride doses of 3-6 mg/kg/day (some effects at
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards 0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) when iodine intake was adequate (Table 8-1); effects on thyroid function were more severe or occurred at lower doses when iodine intake was inadequate. In humans, effects on thyroid function were associated with fluoride exposures of 0.05-0.13 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was adequate and 0.01-0.03 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was inadequate (Table 8-2). Several sets of results are consistent with inhibition of deiodinase activity, but other mechanisms of action are also possible, and more than one might be operative in a given situation. In many cases, mean hormone concentrations for groups are within normal limits, but individuals may have clinically important situations. In particular, the inverse correlation between asymptomatic hypothyroidism in pregnant mothers and the IQ of the offspring (Klein et al. 2001) is a cause for concern. The recent decline in iodine intake in the United States (CDC 2002d; Larsen et al. 2002) could contribute to increased toxicity of fluoride for some individuals. Thyroid Parafollicular Cell Function Only one study has reported calcitonin concentrations in fluoride-exposed individuals. This study found elevated calcitonin in all patients with fluoride exposures above about 0.15 mg/kg/day and in one patient with a current intake of approximately 0.06 mg/kg/day (Table 8-2); these exposures corresponded to plasma fluoride concentrations of 0.11-0.26 mg/L. Results attributed to altered calcitonin activity have also been found in experimental animals at a fluoride exposure of 2 mg/kg/day (Table 8-1). It is not clear whether elevated calcitonin is a direct or indirect result of fluoride exposure, nor is it clear what the clinical significance of elevated calcitonin concentrations might be in individuals. Parathyroid Function In humans, depending on the calcium intake, elevated concentrations of PTH are routinely found at fluoride exposures of 0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day and at exposures as low as 0.15 mg/kg/day in some individuals (Table 8-2). Similar effects and exposures have been found in a variety of human studies; these studies indicate that elevated PTH and secondary hyperparathyroidism occur at fluoride intakes higher than those associated with other endocrine effects. In the single study that measured both calcitonin and PTH, all individuals with elevated PTH also had elevated calcitonin, and several individuals had elevated calcitonin without elevated PTH (Teotia et al. 1978). Elevated concentrations of PTH and secondary hyperparathyroidism have also been reported at fluoride intakes of 9-10 mg/kg/day (and as low as 0.45-2.3 mg/kg/day in one study) in experimental animals (Table 8-1). One
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards animal study found what appears to be inhibition of the normal parathyroid response to calcium deficiency at a fluoride intake of 5.4 mg/kg/day. As with calcitonin, it is not clear whether altered parathyroid function is a direct or indirect result of fluoride exposure. An indirect effect of fluoride by causing an increased requirement for calcium is probable, but direct effects could occur as well. Also, although most individuals with skeletal fluorosis appear to have elevated PTH, it is not clear whether parathyroid function is affected before development of skeletal fluorosis or at lower concentrations of fluoride exposure than those associated with skeletal fluorosis. Recent U.S. reports of nutritional (calcium-deficiency) rickets associated with elevated PTH (DeLucia et al. 2003) suggest the possibility that fluoride exposure, together with increasingly calcium-deficient diets, could have an adverse impact on the health of some individuals. Pineal Function The single animal study of pineal function indicates that fluoride exposure results in altered melatonin production and altered timing of sexual maturity (Table 8-1). Whether fluoride affects pineal function in humans remains to be demonstrated. The two studies of menarcheal age in humans show the possibility of earlier menarche in some individuals exposed to fluoride, but no definitive statement can be made. Recent information on the role of the pineal organ in humans suggests that any agent that affects pineal function could affect human health in a variety of ways, including effects on sexual maturation, calcium metabolism, parathyroid function, postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer, and psychiatric disease. Glucose Metabolism Increased serum glucose and increased severity of existing diabetes have been reported in animal studies at fluoride intakes of 7-10.5 mg/kg/day (Table 8-1). Impaired glucose tolerance in humans has been reported in separate studies at fluoride intakes of 0.07-0.4 mg/kg/day, corresponding to serum fluoride concentrations above about 0.1 mg/L. The primary mechanism appears to involve inhibition of insulin production. General Considerations The available studies of the effects of fluoride exposure on endocrine function have several limitations. In particular, many studies did not measure actual hormone concentrations, several studies did not report nutritional status (e.g., iodine or calcium intake), and, for thyroid function, other possible goitrogenic factors have not been ruled out. Most studies have too
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards few exposure groups, with, for example, the “high”-fluoride group in one study having lower concentrations of fluoride in drinking water than the “normal”-fluoride group in another study. In general, the human exposures are not well characterized. Nevertheless, there is consistency among the available studies in the types of effects seen in humans and animals and in the concentrations or fluoride exposures associated with the effects in humans. For all the endocrine effects reported to occur from fluoride exposure, the variability in exposure and response among populations (or strains of an experimental animal) or within a human population requires further attention. For example, correlations between the fluoride intake or the presence or degree of fluorosis and the presence (or prevalence) or severity of other effects generally have not been examined on an individual basis, which could permit identification of individual differences in susceptibility or response. Several reports have identified subgroups within an exposed population or group, in terms of the response observed, even when group means are not statistically different. Variability in response to fluoride exposures could be due to differences in genetic background, age, sex, nutrient intake (e.g., calcium, iodine, selenium), general dietary status, or other factors. Intake of nutrients such as calcium and iodine often is not reported in studies of fluoride effects. The effects of fluoride on thyroid function, for instance, might depend on whether iodine intake is low, adequate, or high, or whether dietary selenium is adequate. Dietary calcium affects the absorption of fluoride (Chapter 3); in addition, fluoride causes an increase in the dietary requirements for calcium, and insufficient calcium intake increases fluoride toxicity. Available information now indicates a role for aluminum in the interaction of fluoride on the second messenger system; thus, differences in aluminum exposure might explain some of the differences in response to fluoride exposures among individuals and populations. The clinical significance of fluoride-related endocrine effects requires further attention. For example, most studies have not mentioned the clinical significance for individuals of hormone values out of the normal range, and some studies have been limited to consideration of “healthy” individuals. As discussed in the various sections of this chapter, recent work on borderline hormonal imbalances and endocrine-disrupting chemicals indicates that significant adverse health effects, or an increased risk for development of clearly adverse health outcomes, could be associated with seemingly mild imbalances or perturbations in hormone concentrations (Brucker-Davis et al. 2001). In addition, the different endocrine organs do not function entirely separately: thyroid effects (especially elevated TSH) may be associated with parathyroid effects (Stoffer et al. 1982; Paloyan Walker et al. 1997), and glucose metabolism may be affected by thyroid or parathyroid status
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards (e.g., McCarty and Thomas 2003; Procopio and Borretta 2003; Cettour-Rose et al. 2005). Adverse effects in individuals might occur when hormone concentrations are still in the normal ranges for a population but are low or high for that individual (Brucker-Davis et al. 2001; Belchetz and Hammond 2003). Some investigators suggest that endocrine-disrupting chemicals could be associated with nonmonotonic dose-response curves (e.g., U-shaped or inverted-U-shaped curves resulting from the superimposition of multiple dose-response curves) and that a threshold for effects cannot be assumed (Bigsby et al. 1999; Brucker-Davis et al. 2001). In summary, evidence of several types indicates that fluoride affects normal endocrine function or response; the effects of the fluoride-induced changes vary in degree and kind in different individuals. Fluoride is therefore an endocrine disruptor in the broad sense of altering normal endocrine function or response, although probably not in the sense of mimicking a normal hormone. The mechanisms of action remain to be worked out and appear to include both direct and indirect mechanisms, for example, direct stimulation or inhibition of hormone secretion by interference with second messenger function, indirect stimulation or inhibition of hormone secretion by effects on things such as calcium balance, and inhibition of peripheral enzymes that are necessary for activation of the normal hormone. RECOMMENDATIONS Further effort is necessary to characterize the direct and indirect mechanisms of fluoride’s action on the endocrine system and the factors that determine the response, if any, in a given individual. Such studies would address the following: the in vivo effects of fluoride on second messenger function the in vivo effects of fluoride on various enzymes the integration of the endocrine system (both internally and with other systems such as the neurological system) identification of those factors, endogenous (e.g., age, sex, genetic factors, or preexisting disease) or exogenous (e.g., dietary calcium or iodine concentrations, malnutrition), associated with increased likelihood of effects of fluoride exposures in individuals consideration of the impact of multiple contaminants (e.g., fluoride and perchlorate) that affect the same endocrine system or mechanism examination of effects at several time points in the same individuals to identify any transient, reversible, or adaptive responses to fluoride exposure. Better characterization of exposure to fluoride is needed in epidemiology studies investigating potential endocrine effects of fluoride. Important exposure aspects of such studies would include the following:
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards collecting data on general dietary status and dietary factors that could influence the response, such as calcium, iodine, selenium, and aluminum intakes characterizing and grouping individuals by estimated (total) exposure, rather than by source of exposure, location of residence, fluoride concentration in drinking water, or other surrogates reporting intakes or exposures with and without normalization for body weight (e.g., mg/day and mg/kg/day), to reduce some of the uncertainty associated with comparisons of separate studies addressing uncertainties associated with exposure and response, including uncertainties in measurements of fluoride concentrations in bodily fluids and tissues and uncertainties in responses (e.g., hormone concentrations) reporting data in terms of individual correlations between intake and effect, differences in subgroups, and differences in percentages of individuals showing an effect and not just differences in group or population means. examining a range of exposures, with normal or control groups having very low fluoride exposures (below those associated with 1 mg/L in drinking water for humans). The effects of fluoride on various aspects of endocrine function should be examined further, particularly with respect to a possible role in the development of several diseases or mental states in the United States. Major areas for investigation include the following: thyroid disease (especially in light of decreasing iodine intake by the U.S. population); nutritional (calcium deficiency) rickets; calcium metabolism (including measurements of both calcitonin and PTH); pineal function (including, but not limited to, melatonin production); and development of glucose intolerance and diabetes.
Representative terms from entire chapter:
rat rat rat