. "Appendix B Measures of Exposure to Fluoride in the United States: Supplementary Information." Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’S Standards
FIGURE B-1 Level of artificial fluoridation in 1992 by state (Table B-2; CDC 1993) versus area-weighted annual average temperature (°F) for that state over the period 1971-2000 (NCDC 2002a). Temperature for the District of Columbia is for Climate District 4 of the state of Maryland (NCDC 2002b). States with a range of artificial fluoride levels (Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Iowa, Montana, New Hampshire, Texas, and Wyoming) are included at each relevant fluoride level. Arkansas and Puerto Rico are not included because of the lack of information on fluoride levels. Thin line indicates the “recommended optimal fluoride levels” for the given range of “annual average of maximum daily air temperatures” (emphasis added; Table B-1; CDC 1995).
EPA’s estimates are based on U.S. Department of Agriculture surveys taken in 1994, 1995, and 1996 of food ingestion data for two nonconsecutive days for a sample of more than 15,000 individuals in the 50 states and the District of Columbia selected to represent the entire U.S. population based on 1990 census data (EPA 2000a). (An additional survey of children in 1998 was included in the estimates used in Chapter 2.) Because these estimates were developed for the purpose of estimating people’s exposures to substances in drinking water and also are based on relatively recent data,