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Summary of a Workshop on the: Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems Appendixes
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Summary of a Workshop on the: Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems A Workshop Agenda WORKSHOP ON TECHNICAL, POLICY, AND CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS March 15-16, 2005 Washington, D.C Tuesday, March 15 9:15 a.m. Welcome: Joe Pato 9:30-noon Session 1: Scientific and Technical Challenges for Biometric Technologies and Systems, Including System Integration, Architecture, and Contexts of Use Moderator: Anil Jain Potential Discussion Topics Are there major technological breakthroughs on the horizon regarding new modalities, multimodal biometrics, new recognition algorithms, and/or new decision algorithms? What might emerging sensors, MEMS, and nanotechnology offer to biometric systems? Do you think biometrics can reliably solve the identity authentication/identification problem, especially when the user is an adversary? What are the challenges regarding signal quality, feature persistence over time, statistical dependence among measurements of features within and across times and method of database indexing? How do these challenges relate to the performance of a biometric system? What are the advantages or disadvantages of using biometrics to enhance or replace cryptographic authentication protocols? How does the context of use impact systems choice, integration and interoperability options, and effectiveness? How does system architecture influence effectiveness?
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Summary of a Workshop on the: Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems What are the most significant open research questions and hard problems in biometrics, and how should they be prioritized? Is the current research infrastructure adequate for the needs of biometrics researchers? What kinds of expertise are required (e.g., biology and statistics)? To what extent should biometrics research be a part of federal IT and security research efforts, and which agencies should emphasize which aspects? Panelists: Jean-Christophe Fondeur, SAGEM James Matey, Sarnoff Labs Sharath Pankanti, IBM Jonathon Phillips, National Institute of Standards and Technology David Scott, Rice University Noon-1:00 p.m. Lunch 1:00-3:30 Session 2: Measurement, Statistics, Testing, and Evaluation Moderator: Joe Campbell Potential Discussion Topics How can the quality of biometric data capture be assessed with sensitivity to human rights, accessibility, and due process? How can such assessments be used to improve the operation and performance of a biometric system? What do we have to know about biometric features in populations in order to accurately estimate the probability that (1) two individuals will be indistinguishable for a particular feature, (2) an individual who expresses one particular feature will also express another particular feature, (3) a particular combination of features is unique to one specific individual, (4) an individual does not express a particular feature, and (5) an individual’s ethnic or family background predicts expression of a particular feature? What kind of studies do we need to conduct to collect this information? How large a population will be required for each of the necessary studies? Are the statistical methods currently used for modeling, representing, and reporting the performance of biometric systems fully appropriate? If not, what analytic technologies are available to improve them? Is there a role for standard biometric databases made available for research, testing, and development? What are good strategies for reducing the costs associated with compiling test data for biometrics systems? What is the appropriate role of government in biometrics testing outside of a procurement process? Should the government test products and should it test the vulnerabilities of biometric products? If so, are there any classification issues that arise, and what are they? How effective are current government-led testing programs, and is their funding structure appropriate to the task?
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Summary of a Workshop on the: Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems To what extent should vendor-specific (and potentially market-affecting) information be made available together with the results of government/public tests of biometric systems? What are reasonable time-frame expectations for the development, testing, and deployment of standards, technologies, and systems, and how should the public and Congress be educated about these expectations? Should biometric deployments be certified in some way, and what might that mean? Panelists: George Doddington, National Institute of Standards and Technology Michele Freadman, Massport Patrick Grother, National Institute of Standards and Technology Austin Hicklin, Mitretek Systems Nell Sedransk, National Institute of Standards and Technology 3:30 Break 3:45-6:15 Session 3: Legislative, Policy, Human, and Cultural Factors Moderator: Jeanette Blomberg Potential Discussion Topics What usability, interface, social, and human factors issues arise with the deployment of biometrics systems, and how might they be addressed? How can these factors be used to inform system and interface design? How can or should cultural factors be taken into account when designing and deploying biometrics systems? What have been the effects of legislative changes that necessitate the increased use of biometric technologies? What new legal issues might be raised by more widespread use? What recent policies have shaped the current and near-term use of biometrics technology deployments? What are the policies’ desired and actual effects? What privacy and autonomy concerns does the increased use of biometrics technologies raise? What are the implications and how can they be addressed? What is the relationship between bodily integrity (personal space) and information privacy concerns? What biometrics use principles should be developed regarding contexts of operation, appropriate use guidelines, application domains, economic and social factors, and usability concerns? Are there domain-specific issues that arise (in connection with voting, e-commerce, large-crowd settings, or counterterrorism, for instance) that should be taken into account? How does due process enter into the policy framework for biometric systems? What approaches are courts likely to use in assessing the reliability of biometric evidence?
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Summary of a Workshop on the: Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems From an economic perspective, how can government and private inputs and markets best be utilized to ensure the development of biometric technologies and human capital in this area? Panelists: Tora Bikson, RAND Corporation David Kaye, Arizona State University Lisa Nelson, University of Pittsburgh Peter Swire, Ohio State University 6:30 Reception for committee and workshop participants Wednesday, March 16 9:00 a.m. Welcome back: Joe Pato 9:15-11:45 Session 4: Scenarios and Applications Moderator: Gordon Levin Potential Discussion Topics What characteristics have contributed to various biometric systems successes and failures? Are there any general lessons that can be learned? Are biometrics more or less appropriate for different application contexts (e.g., closed versus open systems, large versus small deployments, as password substitutes) and/or security environments (e.g., government versus commercial), and what characterizes those differences? What kind of threat models do different application contexts presume, and how are they dealt with? Have multibiometric fusion approaches been used successfully, and how might they be applied in the future? What strategies and approaches have been or are expected to be most successful in practice for overcoming biometric false rejection without compromising system security? What principles should be taken into account when determining how best to integrate biometrics into particular systems and/or environments? What role should training play for system users? Panelists: Joseph Atick, Identix Rick Lazarick, Transportation Security Agency Tony Mansfield, U.K. National Physical Laboratory Cynthia Musselman, Authenti-Corp Marek Rejman-Greene, British Telecommunications 11:45 a.m.-12:30 p.m. Lunch
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Summary of a Workshop on the: Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems 12:30-2:15 Session 5: Information Sharing and Cooperation: Technical and Policy Aspects Moderator: Peter Higgins Potential Discussion Topics What are the major challenges associated with “terrorist list” file sharing and aggregation, and how are they impacted or mitigated by the inclusion of biometrics? What are current biometric data-sharing activities, and to what extent have they been successful or unsuccessful (and why)? What should data policy look like in terms of database integration, data mining, and data privacy aspects in biometric system development and integration? What are the data policy implications of using and comparing biometrics data with other data sources? How does policy deal with sensitive but unclassified sources and methods as well as third-party ownership of biometric data (such as NATO countries providing fingerprints of terrorists to add to watch lists)? How is biometrics data- and information-sharing policy being shaped, and what should inform its development? What is missing from the national policy discussion that could facilitate the desired security objectives? If the issues center on legal policy, are they being addressed in a timely fashion or would a higher priority or higher-level legal authority help disposition of these issues? What is the role of your organization in international standards setting, forensics standards compliance, and cross-jurisdictional cooperation? Panelists: William Casey, Boston Police Department Patty Cogswell and Neal Latta, US-VISIT K.A. Taipale, Center for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology Policy John Woodward, Department of Defense Biometrics Management Office, Biometrics Fusion Center 2:15-3:00 Group Brainstorm (This session did not take place due to lack of time; follow-up input in writing was solicited from participants.) Moderator: Joe Pato Potential Discussion Topics What are the important questions and issues that have come out of this workshop that the committee should seek to address in the rest of its study? Who should the committee be sure to hear from (individuals, groups, institutions, or areas of expertise)? How can this committee’s work be most helpful to the broader community?
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