offers a means by which to consolidate questions by topic, reference person, and reference period without overburdening the interviewer. For example, should USDA wish to maintain questions concerning both 12-month and 30-day reference periods, all the 12-month questions could be grouped together. Items that were affirmed for the 12-month reference period could be followed up, focusing exclusively on a 30-day reference period.

Recommendation 4-2: USDA should revise the wording and ordering of the questions in the Household Food Security Survey Module. Examples of possible revisions that should be considered include improvements in the consistent treatment of reference periods, reference units, and response options across questions. The revised questions should reflect modern cognitive questionnaire design principles and new data collection technology and should be tested prior to implementation.

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