The comprehensive study of whole sets of genes and their interactions rather than single genes or proteins.

High throughput2

Rapid (and simultaneous) processing of large sample sets.


The global analysis of metabolites and metabolic networks in cells, tissues, and organ systems.


The genomic analyses of assemblages of uncultured microorganisms.


A microscope slide or other solid support on which many distinct cDNAs or DNA oligonucleotides are patterned at high density in an addressable array. Microarrays are interrogated by hybridization to fluorescently labeled cDNAs or RNAs to detect the genes that are actively transcribed.

Open reading frame4

A reading frame in a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that contains no termination codons and so can potentially translate as a polypeptide chain.


Polymerase chain reaction: a technique for amplifying a piece of DNA quickly and cheaply.


The study of full set of proteins encoded by a genome.


Determination of the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule or the order of amino acids in a protein.

Shotgun assembly1

Breaking DNA into many small pieces, sequencing the pieces, and assembling the fragments.

Structural genomics1

The effort to determine the 3D structures of large numbers of proteins using both experimental techniques and computer simulation.


An increase in the number of receptors on the surface of target cells, making the cells more sensitive to a hormone or another agent.

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