Appendix C
Summary of Milestones in CARB Mobile-Source Emissions Regulations and Comparison with EPA

TABLE C-1 Heavy-Duty On-Road Vehicles

Model Year

Requirement

Result

EPA

Model Year

Comparison with California

1999

Carl Moyer Program

Incentive program to reduce NOx and PM emissions (funded 7,000 projects to date)

EPA has no comparable program

2000

School bus program

Incentive program to retrofit or purchase improved buses (3,475 buses improved)

2004

Federal enforcement settlement with Toyota provided funding for retrofit of school buses

2004

Vehicle computer software upgrade

Required 1993-1999 trucks to modify software to reduce excessive NOx emissions

EPA has no comparable program

2004

Particulate filters on refuse trucks

Reduced PM by up to 85% in residential neighborhoods

EPA has no comparable program

2005

Additional test procedures for certification

Reduce potential of excessive emissions during real-world driving

2007

Adopted a similar program (2 years later)

2007

First diagnostic system

Identifies failed emission control parts

EPA has no comparable program



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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions Appendix C Summary of Milestones in CARB Mobile-Source Emissions Regulations and Comparison with EPA TABLE C-1 Heavy-Duty On-Road Vehicles Model Year Requirement Result EPA Model Year Comparison with California 1999 Carl Moyer Program Incentive program to reduce NOx and PM emissions (funded 7,000 projects to date) — EPA has no comparable program 2000 School bus program Incentive program to retrofit or purchase improved buses (3,475 buses improved) 2004 Federal enforcement settlement with Toyota provided funding for retrofit of school buses 2004 Vehicle computer software upgrade Required 1993-1999 trucks to modify software to reduce excessive NOx emissions — EPA has no comparable program 2004 Particulate filters on refuse trucks Reduced PM by up to 85% in residential neighborhoods — EPA has no comparable program 2005 Additional test procedures for certification Reduce potential of excessive emissions during real-world driving 2007 Adopted a similar program (2 years later) 2007 First diagnostic system Identifies failed emission control parts — EPA has no comparable program

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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions TABLE C-2 Small Off-Road and Utility Engines Model Year Requirement Result EPA Model Year Comparison with California 1995 First small off-road engine emission standards Improved engine design reduced emissions 30-70% 1997 EPA adopted similar program (2 years later) 2000 First small off-road engine durability requirement Use of catalysts, advanced two-stroke design and increased use of four-stroke engines for handheld equipment. Improved engine technologies for non-handheld equipment 2001 EPA adopted similar program (1 year later) 2005 California aligned with federal standards Improved engine design and requirements similar in all 50 states for engines smaller than 50 cc 2005 Initiated at the federal level first and then adopted by CARB 2006 First small off-road engine evaporative emission requirements Low fuel permeation fuel tank and fuel lines and use of carbon canister — Federal standards in development 2007-2008 HC and NOx standards reduced for engines greater than 80 cc in displacement Emissions reduced by 33-38% using catalyst — Federal standards in development

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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions TABLE C-3 Off-Road Diesel Engines Model Year Requirement Result EPA Model Year Comparison with California 1996 First emission standards for engines over 175 hp (130 kW) Improved engine design technologies 1996 Adopted California requirements from 50-175 hp (37-130 kW) 1999 Carl Moyer Program Incentive program to reduce NOx and PM (as noted earlier 7,000 projects to date) — EPA has no comparable program 2000 Agreement with manufacturers to align California and federal standards Similar requirements in all 50 states — EPA and CARB standards aligned TABLE C-4 Recreational Marine Engines Model Year Requirement Result EPA Model Year Comparison with California 2001 Set Tier 1 outboard marine and personal watercraft engines Improved engine technologies reducing HC and NOx emissions by 75% from uncontrolled 2006 EPA adopted similar requirements but will not fully match California until 2006 (5 years later) 2003 Tier 1 standard for inboard and sterndrive marine engines Improved engine technologies with minor emission reductions — EPA has no comparable requirement but notice of advanced rulemaking issued in 2002 2004 Tier 2 outboard marine and personal watercraft engines Improved engine design resulting in 80% HC and NOx emission reductions compared to uncontrolled — EPA has no comparable requirement

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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions Model Year Requirement Result EPA Model Year Comparison with California 2007 Tier 2 inboard and stern drive marine engine requirements Use of catalysts producing 67% emission reduction compared with uncontrolled — EPA has no comparable requirements but notice of advanced rulemaking issued in 2002 2008 Tier 3 outboard and personal watercraft engine requirements Increases use of four-stroke engines and use of direct injection two-stroke engines — EPA has no comparable requirements TABLE C-5 Fuels and Vapor Recovery Model Year Requirement Result EPA Model Year Comparison with California 1971 Fuel volatility limit of 9 RVP during ozone season Large evaporative emission reductions 1989 EPA adopted similar program (18 years later) — — — 1974 Federal regulations required large service stations to sell unleaded gasoline nationwide 1976 Stage 1 and Stage 2 vapor recovery required (transfer from cargo to service station and transfer to vehicle respectively) Evaporative emission reductions 1990 Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 set similar requirements in non-attainment areas outside of California 1992 Phase 1 of cleaner burning gasoline Full phase-out of lead, deposit control additives, RVP of 7.8, and wintertime oxygenates 1992 EPA adopted a partial program at the same time

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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions Model Year Requirement Result EPA Model Year Comparison with California 1993 Cleaner burning diesel fuel Sulfur content limit of 500 ppmw and aromatic hydrocarbon limit of 10% by volume (20% for smaller refiners) 1993 EPA adopted a partial program at the same time 1996 Phase 2 of clean burning gasoline Control of 8 major fuel properties: RVP 7.0 cap in ozone season, oxygenates, benzene limits, aromatic limits, olefin limits, sulfur limits, and 50% and 90% distillation limits 2000 EPA adopted a partial program 4 years later 2001 Enhanced Stage 1 vapor recovery (98% capture efficiency) VOC emissions reduced — EPA has no similar requirement but many states have adopted the California requirement 2003 Phase 2 vapor recovery must be compatible with ORVR systems on vehicles Improves nozzle design or processor to minimize tank pressure — EPA has no similar requirement but many states are adopting California requirement 2006 Reduce sulfur in diesel fuel to 15 ppmw Enables the use of advanced after-treatment devices to meet 2007 heavy-duty vehicle requirements 2006 EPA adopted 1 year before California but not applied to nonroad sources until 2010, not to stationary sources, and no aromatic hydrocarbon limit All tables adapted from CARB, unpublished material, 2005.