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E Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Robert M. Russell, M.D., (Chair) is a professor of medicine and nutrition at Tufts University and director of the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Re- search Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts. As a se- nior scientist at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Dr. Russell's primary work involves studying the effects of aging on gastrointestinal absorptive function. He is a noted expert in the area of human metabolism of retinoids and carotenoids. Dr. Russell is a member of numerous professional societies and has served as a councilor and president to the Ameri- can Society for Clinical Nutrition and a member of the Board of Directors of the American College of Nutrition. Dr. Russell co-authored the standards for parenteral and enteral nutrition to be used in U.S. long-term care facilities. He has served on the editorial boards of five professional journals and is a staff gastroenterologist at the New England Medical Center Hospitals. He has served on national and international advisory boards including the F.D.A., National Digestive Diseases Advisory Board, USDA Human Investigation Committee (chairman), U.S. Pharmacopoeia Convention, National Dairy Council Scienti- fic Advisory Board, and the American Board of Internal Medicine. He received his B.S. degree from Harvard University and his M.D. degree from Columbia University. John L. Beard, Ph.D., is a professor of nutrition in the Department of Nutrition at Pennsylvania State University. He earned degrees in organic chemistry in 1970 (B.S.) and 1972 (M.S.) from the Stevens Institute of Technology and the University of CaliforniaSanta Cruz, respectively; and his Ph.D. degree from Cornell University (1979) in human nutrition. His research interests include: role 479

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480 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL of iron in dopamine metabolism and action; effect of early life iron deficiency on brain development and functioning; relationship of brain iron metabolism to monoamine metabolism in Restless Legs Syndrome and; food-based approaches to the eradication of iron deficiency. Melinda Beck, Ph.D., is a professor in the Departments of Nutrition and Pediat- rics at the University of North CarolinaChapel Hill. Dr. Beck's research fo- cuses on the exploration of the relationship between antioxidant nutrition and infectious disease. She received her Ph.D. degree in immunology from Ohio State University in 1987. Dr. Beck's research focuses on the exploration of the relationship between antioxidant nutrition and infectious disease. She is particu- larly interested in determining the mechanism of viral genetic mutation that is driven by replication in an oxidatively stressed host. In addition, she conducts collaborative research involving the use of technology of homologous recombi- nation to knockout specific genes of interest. These studies will assist in defining the role inflammation plays in specific viral infections, and by using both knock- out mice and dietary manipulations; further understanding of the effect of oxida- tive stress on both the host and pathogen can be explored. Bruce R. Bistrian, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and chief of clinical nutrition at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Cen- ter. Formerly he was co-director of hyperalimentation services at the New En- gland Deaconess Hospital, and a lecturer in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He earned his M.D. degree from Cornell University, his M.P.H. degree from Johns Hopkins Univer- sity, and his Ph.D. degree in nutritional biochemistry and metabolism from MIT. Dr. Bistrian is board certified in Internal Medicine and Critical Care Medicine. Dr. Bistrian's primary research interests include nutritional assessment, meta- bolic effects of acute infections, nutritional support of hospitalized patients, and the pathophysiology of protein-calorie malnutrition. He is a fellow of the Ameri- can College of Physicians, and has received an honorary M.A. degree from Harvard University. Dr. Bistrian is the 2004 recipient of the Goldberger Award of the American Medical Association. Dr. Bistrian has been president of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, President of the Ameri- can Society of Clinical Nutrition, and is President-Elect of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology. Dr. Bistrian has served on the editorial boards of numerous nutrition and medical journals, and is the author or co-author of over 400 articles in scientific publications. Joseph G. Cannon, Ph.D., is a professor in the Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Technologies at the Medical College of Georgia (MCG), and associ- ate dean for research in the School of Allied Health Sciences at MCG. Formerly, he was a professor of applied physiology at the Pennsylvania State University.

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APPENDIX E 481 He earned his Ph.D. degree in physiology from the University of Michigan, his M.S. degree in engineering from the University of CaliforniaLos Angeles, and his B.S. degree in engineering from Michigan State University. Dr. Cannon's primary research interests include the immunological mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle repair following injury, and nutritional and hormonal influences on leukocyte function. He holds the Kellett Chair in Allied Health Sciences at MCG. Dr. Cannon has served on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Physiology and Journal of Applied Physiology, and is the author or co-author of over 100 articles in scientific publications. Gerald F. Combs, Jr., Ph.D., is center director of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. He also is Profes- sor Emeritus at the Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, and an adjunct professor in the School of Medicine at the University of North Dakota. Previously, he was a professor of nutrition in the Division of Nutritional Sci- ences at Cornell University, having been on that faculty since 1975. Dr. Combs earned his B.S. degree in zoology in 1969, his M.S. degree in entomology in 1971, and his Ph.D. degree in nutrition in 1973. Dr. Combs is internationally recognized for his research on the nutritional biochemistry of trace elements and vitamins. His special interests have concerned the metabolism and physiological actions of the antioxidant nutrients selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, and factors that can affect their metabolic functions and dietary needs (e.g., vitamin A, caro- tenoids, iron, copper, zinc), particularly as they relate to health maintenance in and reduction of chronic disease (e.g., cancer) risks in humans and animals. Johanna T. Dwyer, D.Sc., R.D., is director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Cen- ter at New England Medical Center and is a professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Community Health at the Tufts Medical School and the School of Nutrition Science and Policy in Boston. She is also a senior scientist at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts Univer- sity. She is currently on part-time assignment to the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Dr. Dwyer's work centers on life-cycle related concerns such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adoles- cents and maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. Dr. Dwyer is currently the editor of Nutrition Today and on the editorial boards of Family Economics and Nutrition Reviews. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Harvard School of Public Health, her M.S. degree from the University of Wisconsin, and completed her undergraduate degree with distinction from Cornell University. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the Technical Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Screening Initiative, past president of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, past secretary of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and past president of the Society for Nutrition Education.

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482 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL John W. Erdman, Jr., Ph.D., is a professor of nutrition and food science in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and a professor in the Depart- ment of Internal Medicine at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. His research interests include the effects of food processing on nutrient retention, the metabolic roles of lycopene and beta-carotene, and the bioavailability of minerals from foods. Dr. Erdman has published over 140 peer-reviewed research papers. He chaired the 1988 Gordon Conference on Carotenoids, and has served as a Burroughs Wellcome Visiting Professor in Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Geor- gia, and the G. Malcolm Trout Visiting Scholar at Michigan State University. His awards include the Borden Award from the American Society for Nutritional Sci- ences and the Babcock-Hart Award from the Institute of Food Technologists. Dr. Erdman has served on many editorial boards, and he has served as president of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and on various committees of the Insti- tute of Food Technologists and the National Academy of Sciences. He was elected a fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists and the American Heart Association. Dr Erdman was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 2003. Dr. Erdman received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in food science from Rutgers University. Emily M. Haymes, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences at Florida State University. She received her B.A. degree from Drury College in 1961, her M.S. degree from Florida State University in 1962, and her Ph.D. degree from Pennsylvania State University in 1973. Prior to joining the faculty at Florida State in 1979, she taught at the University of Colo- rado at Boulder for five years. An exercise physiologist, her primary research interests are iron depletion in athletes, field measurements of physical activity and energy expenditure, and the response of males and females to exercise in warm and cold environments. She co-authored the book The Environment and Human Performance with Christine Wells. Dr. Haymes has published papers in several journals including the Journal of Applied Physiology, Medicine and Sci- ence in Sports and Exercise, International Journal of Sports Medicine, Interna- tional Journal of Sport Nutrition, and the Physician and Sportsmedicine. Dr. Haymes served a three-year term as president of the Research Consortium and a two-year term as vice president of the American College of Sports Medicine. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Educa- tion, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. Janet R. Hunt, Ph.D., R.D., is the research leader of the Micronutrient Absorp- tion and Metabolism Unit at the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS) Human Nutrition Research Center in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and is an adjunct professor of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Dakota. Dr. Hunt received her Ph.D. degree in nutrition from the University of Minnesota. An active member of the American Society

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APPENDIX E 483 for Clinical Nutrition, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the Inter- national BioIron Society and the American Dietetic Association (ADA), she has served on the ADA board of directors and the ADA journal's editorial board, and has co-authored ADA's Position Statements on Vitamin and Mineral Supple- ments. Dr. Hunt investigates human iron and zinc requirements as influenced by dietary bioavailability, and has published extensively on these topics. Helen W. Lane, Ph.D., R.D., is the Chief Nutritionist for the National Aeronau- tics and Space Administration, and Chief Scientist for the Johnson Space Center's Habitability, Environmental Factors, and Bioastronautics Office. She has served as the assistant to the director for Advanced Program Coordination and Research and branch chief for Biomedical Operations and Countermeasures. Dr. Lane was an associate professor of nutrition at the University of Texas Medical Center from 1977 to 1984, and a professor of nutrition at Auburn University from 1984 to 1989. At present, she serves as an adjunct professor, Department of Preven- tive Medicine and Community Health, at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. She has led efforts to define nutritional requirements for healthy crew members during spaceflight. Dr. Lane has completed research on body composition and on nutritional requirements for energy, water, electrolytes, pro- tein, calcium, and iron, as well as clinical and basic research on selenium and breast cancer. As a registered dietitian, she is active in the American Dietetic Association (ADA). She is also a member of the American Society for Nutri- tional Sciences and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. James G. Penland, Ph.D., is a research psychologist and acting research leader of the Micronutrient Determinants of Health Unit at the USDA Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, and adjunct professor of psychology at the University of North Dakota, where he received his doctoral degree in experimental cognitive psychology in 1984. Dr. Penland directs a comprehensive research program to study the effects of mineral nutrition (including copper, iron, magnesium, selenium, and zinc) on a broad range of human and animal neuropsychological function and be- havior throughout the life span. During the past 20 years, Dr. Penland has con- ducted metabolic unit and community based feeding and supplementation studies, and designed and implemented a mobile nutrition laboratory for studies in schools, nursing homes, and rural communities. In addition to many research collaborations in the United States, Dr. Penland has participated in nutrition studies in Guatemala, New Zealand and the Peoples Republic of China. Dr. Penland has authored or co- authored nearly 100 scientific publications. Dr. Penland is a recipient of the USDA Honor Award for Excellence. Susan S. Percival, Ph.D., is a professor in the Food Science and Human Nutri- tion Department at the University of Florida. Her research interests include: nutrition and immunity; effects of botanicals, phytochemicals, and trace ele-

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484 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL ments on immune function; antioxidant bioavailability and impact on immunity; efficacy of dietary supplements in humans; and mechanistic studies in animal and cell culture models. Dr. Percival earned her B.S. degree in foods and nutri- tion from the University of Rhode Island in 1976, her M.S. degree in nutritional sciences in 1978 from the University of CaliforniaDavis, and her Ph.D. degree in biological sciences from the University of TexasAustin in 1985. Connie M. Weaver, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor and head of the Depart- ment of Foods & Nutrition at Purdue University. In 2000, she became the direc- tor of a National Institutes of Health funded Botanical Center to study dietary supplements containing polyphenolics for age-related diseases. Her research in- terests include mineral bioavailability, calcium metabolism, and bone health. She has published over 100 research articles. She was a member of the Institute of Medicine panel to develop new recommendations for requirements for cal- cium and related minerals. Dr. Weaver is past-president of American Society for Nutritional Sciences and is on the Board of Trustees of the International Life Sciences Institute. Dr. Weaver earned her B.S. (1972) and M.S. (1974) degrees in nutrition from Oregon State University, and her Ph.D. degree in nutrition (1978) from Florida State University. Dr. Weaver was a member of the 2005 U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Institute of Medicine Staff Maria P. Oria, Ph.D., is the study director for the Committee on Military Nutri- tion Research and its related committees. She is also the director of the Food Forum, an Institute of Medicine activity by which expert members from the various sectors dialogue about issues of concern in food and nutrition areas. She joined the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in February 2002. Her work with the FNB has included serving as program officer for Scientific Criteria to Ensure Safe Food and as study director for Infant For- mula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients, and for Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance. Prior to joining the National Academies she was a staff scientist for the Institute of Food Technologists, coordinating projects on food safety and human nutrition under a contract with the Food and Drug Administration. She received her B.S. degree in biology from the University of Navarra (Spain), her M.S. degree in animal science from the University of Wyoming, and her Ph.D. degree in food science and nutrition from Purdue University. Her research interests include the cross-cutting areas between food production and food safety/quality and the im- pact of food production systems in the environment. Jon Q. Sanders, B.A., is a senior program assistant with the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Since joining the National Academies in

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APPENDIX E 485 2001, Mr. Sanders has worked on a variety of studies ranging from Everglades restoration to review of the WIC food packages. He is currently working on two FNB studies--the first is assessing the progress in childhood obesity prevention efforts at local, state, and national levels based on the recommendations of the IOM report Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance (2005), and the second is a military nutrition study to asses the mineral requirements for cognitive and physical performance of military personnel. Mr. Sanders received his B.A. degree in anthropology from Trinity University, and is currently doing graduate work at Johns Hopkins University. He is a member of the Society for Applied Anthropology and the American Indian Science and Engineering Soci- ety. He is coauthor of Sitting Down at the Table: Mediation and Resolution of Water Conflicts (2001). Mr. Sanders' research interests include political ecology and environmental decision making. Leslie J. Sim, B.S., is a research associate in the FNB at the IOM and also provides web support for all of the FNB activities. In 2003, she received recogni- tion within the FNB as a recipient of an IOM inspirational staff award. Leslie has previously worked both as a teaching assistant and laboratory assistant for an undergraduate Food Science Laboratory class. She is currently working on two IOM studies--the first is directing a workshop on the impact of pregnancy weight on maternal and child health, and the second is a military nutrition study on mineral requirements for cognitive and physical performance of military person- nel. Previously, she has worked on other military nutrition reports including: Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance; High-Energy, NutrientDense Emergency Relief Food Product; Weight Management: State of the Science and Opportunities for Military Programs; Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance; and Nutrient Composition of Rations for Short-Term, High-Intensity Combat Opera- tions. Leslie also provided research support for the IOM reports, Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients; Dietary Reference Intakes: Applica- tions in Dietary Planning; and Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? She received her B.S. degree in biology with an emphasis on food science from Virginia Tech University and took classes in food science at North Carolina State University.