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Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem
specialties is not meant to be exclusive or exhaustive but should be modified as relevant specialties and training programs emerge. Although it is important that generalists and the key specialists are capable of treating individuals with sleep disorders, programs should also ensure that patients are referred to relevant specialists as needed. The medical director of each program should be certified in sleep medicine, and it should be a goal of each program that all physicians also be certified.
Type II Training and Research Interdisciplinary Sleep Program
A Type II Training and Research Interdisciplinary Sleep Program includes the characteristics of a Type I program but in addition is designed to provide optimal education, training, and research in somnology and sleep medicine. Nurses and psychologists should be included in the programs. Further, a Type II program should have an accredited fellowship program for all eligible physician rotations through the sleep program for all pulmonology, neurology, otolaryngology, and psychiatry residents. In addition, as described in Chapter 8, a Type II program would serve as an active member of the proposed National Somnology and Sleep Medicine Research and Clinical Network through at least an active basic or clinical research program. Research areas of emphasis should include, but not be limited to, science in the biological basis of sleep and population-based research on sleep patterns and problems.
Type III Regional Interdisciplinary Sleep Program
A Type III Regional Interdisciplinary Sleep Program includes the characteristics of Type I and II programs; however, in addition, a Type III program is designed to serve as a center for public health education, training for clinical care and research, basic research, patient-oriented research, translational research, and clinical care. As described in Chapter 8 the committee envisions that this type of program would act as a regional coordinator for the proposed National Somnology and Sleep Medicine Research and Clinical Network for education, training, mentoring, clinical care, research, clinical research studies, and large-scale population genetics studies. The committee does not recommend a specific number of Type III programs but recognizes that only a minimum number of programs currently have the necessary resources. However, as the field grows, more programs should develop the resources necessary to become a Type III program. Establishing these programs will not only require a significant investment from academic programs, but also, as described in Chapter 8, a long-term commitment by the NIH.