Index

A

Academic performance, sleep loss and, 82, 108, 142-144, 145, 184, 266

Academic programs. See Interdisciplinary sleep programs;

Sleep centers and laboratories

Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, 177

Accreditation, 18, 321

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), 9, 22, 145, 202

fellowship training programs, 196-197, 199, 200, 296, 314

program requirements for residency training, 191

restriction of resident work hours, 139, 189

Sleep Medicine Working Group, 196

Acute stress disorder, 91

ADHD. See Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Adolescents

academic performance, 82, 108, 142-144, 266

behavioral problems, 63

delayed sleep phase syndrome, 108-109, 143, 266

diabetes and glucose tolerance, 61

employment, 142

grants for research on, 274

health education campaign, 177

hypersomnia, 85, 87

insomnia, 77, 265

medication safety issues, 65, 78, 87, 100

mood disorders, 63, 79, 108, 143

motor vehicle accidents, 148

narcolepsy, 82, 85, 87

nightmares, 91

obesity, 74

OSA, 72, 74

psychological and social pressures, 142

quality of life, 153

research programs, 186

RLS, 98

school start times, 143, 266

sleep deprivation, 46, 57, 60, 61, 63, 142-144, 210

sleep-disordered breathing, 56, 74

sleep-onset abnormalities, 79

sleep patterns, 46-47, 48, 142, 143

sleep requirements, 46, 57, 142

Adults

advanced sleep phase syndrome, 110

alcohol use, 63

cognitive impairment, 146-147

mood disorders, 63

parasomnias, 88

obesity, 59-60, 61

OSA, 61, 66



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 387
Index A grants for research on, 274 health education campaign, 177 Academic performance, sleep loss and, 82, hypersomnia, 85, 87 108, 142-144, 145, 184, 266 insomnia, 77, 265 Academic programs. See Interdisciplinary medication safety issues, 65, 78, 87, 100 sleep programs; Sleep centers and mood disorders, 63, 79, 108, 143 laboratories motor vehicle accidents, 148 Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, 177 narcolepsy, 82, 85, 87 Accreditation, 18, 321 nightmares, 91 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical obesity, 74 Education (ACGME), 9, 22, 145, OSA, 72, 74 202 psychological and social pressures, 142 fellowship training programs, 196-197, quality of life, 153 199, 200, 296, 314 research programs, 186 program requirements for residency RLS, 98 training, 191 school start times, 143, 266 restriction of resident work hours, 139, sleep deprivation, 46, 57, 60, 61, 63, 189 142-144, 210 Sleep Medicine Working Group, 196 sleep-disordered breathing, 56, 74 Acute stress disorder, 91 sleep-onset abnormalities, 79 ADHD. See Attention-deficit/hyperactivity sleep patterns, 46-47, 48, 142, 143 disorder sleep requirements, 46, 57, 142 Adolescents Adults academic performance, 82, 108, 142- advanced sleep phase syndrome, 110 144, 266 alcohol use, 63 behavioral problems, 63 cognitive impairment, 146-147 delayed sleep phase syndrome, 108-109, mood disorders, 63 143, 266 parasomnias, 88 diabetes and glucose tolerance, 61 obesity, 59-60, 61 employment, 142 OSA, 61, 66 387

OCR for page 387
388 INDEX periodic limb movement, 100 American Board of Sleep Medicine, 9, 196, sleep-disordered breathing, 146-147 314-315 sleep loss, 57, 59, 60, 63, 206 credentialing nonphysicians, 200-201, sleep patterns, 47, 48 202 Advanced sleep phase syndrome certification examination, 197-198 etiology and risk factors, 109, 110 establishment of, 198-201 genetic factors, 260 American College Athletic Association, 185 manifestations and prevalence, 107, 110 American College of Chest Physicians, 225, treatment, 110-111 243 African Americans, 74, 97, 142, 162, 205, American Diabetes Association, 243 263 American Heart Association, 243 Age/aging. See also Adolescents; Adults; American Lung Association, 243 Children; Infants; Older adults American Medical Association, 189 and impacts of sleep loss, 60 American Professional Sleep Societies, 22 Agency for Healthcare Research and American Sleep Apnea Association, 22, 177 Quality (AHRQ), 10, 209, 225, 229, American Sleep Disorders Association. See 285, 366 American Academy of Sleep Alcohol consumption/abuse, 23, 59, 63, 73, Medicine 80, 81, 91, 97, 148, 158, 159, 184, American Sleep Medicine Foundation, 244 352 Faculty Career Advancement Award, Alertness, 48, 65, 142, 151 243 Alzheimer’s disease, 91-92, 93, 155, 262 American Thoracic Society, 225, 243, 248 Ambulatory technologies. See Portable Analysis of NIH grants monitoring and therapeutic devices clinical, basic, and circadian rhythm American Academy of Pediatrics, 75, 180 projects, 270, 272 American Academy of Sleep Medicine for device development, 273 (AASM), 2, 22, 26, 29, 67, 177, 179, protocol, 269, 275-276 187, 188, 218, 219, 221, 224-225, by research strategy, 271, 273 243, 296, 318 review panel composition, 274-275 accredited fellowship training programs, RFAs and PAs, 268-268 192-196, 314 sleep disorders, 270, 272-273 Medical Education Committee, 189 by species, 271, 274 membership, 235 temporal trends, 269-272 mentoring program, 249 Antiarrhythmics, 104, 105 Pfizer Scholars Grant Program in Sleep Anxiety and anxiety disorders, 59, 63, 79, Medicine, 244 81, 82 standards for sleep centers, 312-313 Appetite, 60-61, 72, 267 Taskforce 2000, 188 Arousal from sleep. See also Sleep-wake American Association of Medical Colleges, regulation 319 disorders of, 82, 88-90 American Board of Internal Medicine, 198, forced, 88 199, 297, 315 and myocardial infarction risk, 38 American Board of Medical Specialties, 9, neurological systems, 76, 82 22, 191, 198-201, 202, 296, 315 raphe magnus “off” cells, 101 American Board of Otolaryngology, 190, response to respiratory resistance, 39 198, 297, 315 sleep-disordered breathing and, 65, 71 American Board of Pediatrics, 190, 198, thresholds, 35-37, 47 297, 315 Arrhythmias, 65, 69, 74 American Board of Psychiatry and Asians, 162 Neurology, 198, 297, 315 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, 177, 186

OCR for page 387
389 INDEX C Association of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs, 180 Caffeine, 65, 106 Asthma, 74, 106, 223-224, 235, 352 California Technology Assessment Forum, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 226 (ADHD), 22, 98, 100, 145, 146, 221, Cancer, and sleep problems, 101, 103, 105, 335 106 Attention deficits, 100, 138, 141-142, 145, Cardiovascular activity during sleep, 38 147 Cardiovascular disease Attitudes about sleep and sleepiness, 174- childhood sleep disorders and, 70, 266 175 education campaigns, 179, 181 Automobile accidents. See Motor vehicle OSA and, 68, 69-71, 72, 74, 263-264, 266 accidents sleep loss and, 21, 25, 28, 59, 62-63 Awareness. See Public awareness of sleep treatment-related sleep problems, 104- disorders 105 Career development in sleep research. See B also Professional training advances since 2003 research plan, 267 Back to Sleep campaign, 180-181 barriers to, 237-238 Bacterial infections, and sleep, 102 career training (K) awards, 238-242, BEARS pediatric screening tool, 190, 336 248, 250, 251, 275-276, 339, 360- Behavior 367 aggressive, 91 K12 Multidisciplinary Clinical research obstructive sleep apnea and, 22, 1 Training Program, 241, 247, 248 45-146 mentors and mentoring, 6, 234, 237, oppositional, 100 238, 242, 246, 248-250, 296, 361, REM sleep behavior disorder, 90 363, 364, 365, 366, 367 risk taking, 142 midcareer, 238, 248, 250, 364, 366 sleep loss and, 63, 142 model support programs, 244-245 violent, 88 NIH support, 5-6, 25, 234, 238, 238- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 246, 339, 360-367 152, 203, 208-209 opportunities to accelerate, 247-251 Blood pressure, 38, 63, 68, 69, 70. See also professional organization and Hypertension foundation support, 243-245, 247, Body Mass Index (BMI), 60, 336 248 Brain. See also individual structures public awareness/education and, 237 activity during sleep, 21, 35, 36, 37, 39 recruiting and retaining trainees, 237, blood flow and metabolism, 39, 80, 142, 238, 278-279 227 Caregivers, 154-155 emotional pathways, 80 Cataplexy, 83, 85, 86, 87, 103 imaging of cognitive impairments, 142 Catching up on sleep, 64 iron deficiency, 98-99, 227, 262 Catecholamines, 71, 336 metastases, 103 Caucasians, 97, 142, 162 pain circuitry, 101 Center of Scientific Review, 275, 276 sleep-wake regulation processes and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, structures, 40-41, 43, 76-77, 80, 5, 347 101 educational activities, 7, 176, 177-178, suprachiasmatic nucleus, 39, 42-43, 261 179, 180, 182, 257 Breathing. See Respiratory activity; Sleep- sleep-related research, 257, 276, 277 disordered breathing surveillance, 8, 57, 203, 204, 208, 209, 210, 257, 285

OCR for page 387
390 INDEX Centers for Medicare and Medicaid sleep disorders, 21, 82, 107-111 Services, 209 sleep-wake regulation, 39-40, 41 Central nervous system tumors, 85 sleeping sickness and, 104 Central sleep apnea, 73, 74, 75, 262, 336 suprachiasmatic nucleus and, 42-43, 261 Cerebral blood flow, 39 and thermoregulation, 43, 45, 47, 106 Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 (orexin-A), Clinical Fellowship Program, 245 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 262 Clock genes, 41, 42-43, 101, 109, 110, 237, Children 261 academic performance, 145, 146 Cognitive deficits ADHD, 22, 98, 100, 145, 146, 221 brain imaging studies, 142 cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood, disasters, fatigue-related, 20, 138 70, 266 measuring, 137, 141-142 cognitive deficits, 145 and medical errors, 138, 139-140, 144- diagnostic technologies, 220, 221, 227 145 epilepsy, 94 OSA and, 145-146, 263, 266 grants for research on, 274 sleep-disordered breathing, 65, 146-147 insomnia, 265 sleep loss and, 138-142, 145 medication safety issues, 65, 78, 87, 100, Cognitive therapy, 78, 336 265 College students narcolepsy, 87, 175 premed, 185, 187 nightmares, 91 recruitment for sleep research, 185 obesity, 61 sleep disturbances, 176, 184 OSA, 22, 61, 66, 68, 70, 71, 74, 75, sleep education programs, 184-185 145-146, 153, 156, 227, 263, 265, Colorectal cancer screening campaign, 177- 266, 352 178, 180 parasomnias, 88, 89, 91 Commission on Collegiate Nursing periodic limb movement, 100 Education, 9, 202 quality of life, 153 Confusional arousals, 88-89, 336 sleep deprivation and sleep disorders, Congenital central hypoventilation 154-155, 353 syndrome, 265-266 sleep patterns, 46, 48 Congestive heart failure, 65, 69, 74, 95, sleepwalking, 89 152 snoring, 145, 266 Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) tonsillar hypertrophy, 70, 71, 74, 146 therapy, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 96, 147, utilization of health care, 156 151, 153, 154, 156-157, 161, 177, CHQ-PF50, 153, 336 218, 228, 264, 295, 298, 299, 314 Circadian phase advance, 80 Coronary artery disease, 65, 69, 70 Circadian rhythm Corticosteroids, 43, 106, 337 age and, 44-45, 46, 47, 49, 261 Cortisol, 45, 47, 71, 76, 104 defined, 41, 336 Council of Graduate Schools, 246 development, 44-45, 46 Council on Education for Public Health, 9, function, 41 202 gender differences, 47-48 CPAP. See Continuous positive airway grants for research, 270, 272, 275 pressure and metabolism, 61-62 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, 244, 245 molecular mechanisms, 41-42, 261 Cytokines, 71, 105, 106 and motor vehicle accidents, 148 neurobiology research advances, 260- D 261 and obesity, 261 Dartmouth Sleep Knowledge and Attitude shift work and, 58, 109, 261 Survey, 190

OCR for page 387
391 INDEX Delayed sleep phase syndrome costs, 157, 160-161, 219, 307 etiology and risk factors, 109, 266 demand for, 9, 218 genetic factors, 260 evaluating daytime sleepiness, 226-227 interventions, 143 future directions, 228-229 manifestations and prevalence, 83, 107, genetic and biochemical tests, 227 108-109 hypersomnia, 84, 86, 226 treatment, 109-110, 143 imaging technologies, 227 Dementias, 91-93 insomnia, criteria for, 75-76 Dental and orofacial pain, 101 International Classification of Sleep Dental appliances, 75 Disorders, 56, 86, 104, 107-108, 262 Department of Commerce, 5, 277, 347 microstructural cyclic alternating Department of Defense, 5, 257, 276, 277, patterns analysis, 227 347 MSLT, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 226-227 Department of Education, 5, 179, 277, 347 MWT, 227 Department of Energy, 355 narcolepsy, 83, 84, 86, 226, 262 Department of Health and Human Services, OSA, 65, 67, 83, 160-161 204, 258 polysomnography, 9, 26, 68, 70, 71, 83, Department of Labor, 5, 179, 257, 276, 157, 218, 219, 223, 227 277, 347 portable tools, 26, 218-223 Department of Transportation, 5, 179, 257, reimbursement for, 28 276, 277, 347 revenues from, 310 Department of Veterans Affairs, 208, 219, RLS, 227 257, 258 scoring and processing of sleep studies, Depression 224-225, 309-310 adolescents, 63, 79, 143 sleep logs, 82, 83, 227 cancer and, 103, 105 spectral analysis, 227 dementias and, 91 survey of trends, 208 and hypersomnia, 85, 87, 296 telemonitoring from sleep centers, 228 insomnia and, 23, 77, 79, 80, 81-82, video technologies, 227 103, 265 waiting time for patients, 26, 218, 303, older adults, 48 307 periodic limb movement and, 100 Disasters, fatigue-related, 20, 138 and quality of life, 152 Disease mortality, 63-64 REM sleep characteristics, 79 Dissociative disorders, 89, 342 sleep loss and, 2, 28, 56, 57, 59, 63, Dopamine, 40, 41, 87, 98-99, 261, 262 143, 175, 184 agonists, 90, 99, 100 Diabetes antagonists, 99 OSA and, 65, 71-72, 74 Dreams/dreaming and quality of life, 153 and muscle atonia, 38, 90 sleep loss and, 2, 21, 25, 28, 56, 59, 61- nightmares, 46, 90, 104 62, 267 sleep stage and, 21 type 2 defined, 344 vivid, 38, 104 Diagnosis of sleep disorders Drug abuse, 23, 81, 91, 97, 184, 270 access to, 9, 218 accreditation criteria, 28 E actigraphy, 82, 83, 221, 227 apnea-hypopnea index, 66, 67, 223, 335 Eating disorders, 23, 84, 89, 342 circadian rhythm disorder, criteria for, Economic impacts 107-108 direct costs, 2, 157, 159-161 comorbid psychiatric disorders and, 80- indirect costs, 108, 158, 160, 161 81 insomnia, 156, 159-160

OCR for page 387
392 INDEX motor vehicle accidents, 158 Generalized anxiety disorder, 79, 338 narcolepsy, 162 Genetic disorders, 85 obstructive sleep apnea, 156-157, 160- Genetic factors. See Familial/genetic factors 162 Ghrelin, 60, 267 productivity losses, 21, 108, 158 Grants for sleep research. See National utilization of health care, 2, 21, 155-157 Institutes of Health Education on sleep disorders. See Medical Glucose metabolism education in somnology; Professional and AHI threshold, 223 training; Public education circadian rhythm and, 42 Elderly people. See Older adults CPAP and, 71 Electrocardiography, 69 OSA and, 65, 71-72 Electrooculography, 69, 139, 337 sleep loss and, 59, 61-62, 63 Electroencephalography (EEG), 21, 34, 35, Grants for sleep research. See National 36, 40, 43, 69, 103, 186, 337 Institutes of Health Electromyography, 69 Growth hormone, 39, 104 End-stage renal disease, 98, 99, 105-106, 296 Endocrine function, 39 H Endothelial dysfunction, 68 Entertainment Industry Foundation, 178 Harvard University, 187, 236, 239, 298, Enuresis, 89 376-377 Epilepsy, 93-95, 337, 340 Harvard Work Hours Health and Safety Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 154, 155, 337 Study, 139 Exploding head syndrome, 89, 337 Head trauma, 85, 87 Exploratory Center award, 281 Health care professionals. See also Professional training attraction to sleep field, 183 F awareness about sleep disorders, 182- Falls, 150, 160 183 Familial/genetic factors, 73, 74, 77, 79, 85, board certification in sleep medicine, 87, 90, 94, 97, 98, 109, 110, 260, 197-201, 298, 314-315 261, 262, 263, 265-266 Health insurance coverage, 28, 209, 219, Fatigue, 20, 79, 95, 100, 104, 105, 149, 353 315 Fellowship (F) awards, 238, 239, 250, 275- Healthy Sleep Handbook, 176 276, 337-338, 371-372 Heart attack. See Myocardial infarction Fogarty International Center, 255, 355, 359 Hemodialysis, 105 Folate deficiency, 98 Hispanics, 205 Francis Fellowship Program, 244 HIV/AIDS, 103, 353 Homeostatic sleep pressure, 47, 49 Hormone replacement therapy, 74 G Human Brain Project, 355 Huntington’s chorea, 91, 262 Garfield Star Sleeper Campaign, 176 Hyperactivity, 106 Gastric bypass surgery, 72, 98 Hyperarousal, 265 Gender differences Hypercapnia, 72 insomnia, 76, 77 Hypersexuality, 84 OSA, 66 Hypersomnia REM sleep disorders, 90 defined, 83, 338 RLS, 98 diagnosis, 226 SIDS, 97 etiology and risk factors, 85, 87 sleep patterns, 47-48, 142 grants for research, 270, 272-273 thermoregulation, 48-49 idiopathic, 82, 84, 86, 87, 272-273

OCR for page 387
393 INDEX labeling and stigmatization of Infectious diseases, and sleep, 102-104 individuals, 175 Inflammatory disorders, 85 manifestations and prevalence, 82, 84- Insomnia 85, 86, 87 brain imaging studies, 265 and mortality risk, 74 circadian rhythm disruptions and, 108 neurological disorders and, 92, 296 comorbid sleep disorders, 295 with normal sleep length, 84, 86, 87 defined, 338 OSA and, 65, 66, 68 and depression, 23, 77, 79, 80, 81-82, periodic, 84, 86, 87 103, 265, 296 and periodic limb movement disorder, deterrents to seeking help, 175 100 economic impacts, 155, 156, 157, 159- with prolonged sleep time, 84, 86, 87 160 and psychiatric disorders, 78-79, 80-81, etiology and risk factors, 23, 40, 76-77, 85, 87, 296 100 secondary, 85, 86, 88, 100, 105 and fall risk in older people, 150, 160 sleep attacks, 93 grants for research, 270 treatment, 80-81, 87, 94-95 human leukocyte antigen DQB1*0602, and work-related injuries, 150 83, 85, 86 Hypertension, 2, 21, 25, 56, 59, 62, 65, 66- manifestations and prevalence, 2, 20, 58, 69, 70, 74, 95, 180, 181, 223, 338 75-76, 159 Hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, medications and, 99, 103, 104-105, 106, 84, 87, 89, 338 150, 159 Hypnotic drugs, 77-78, 96, 150, 158, 160, narcolepsy and, 84 265, 338 NIH State-of-the-Science Conference, Hypocretin (orexin), 41, 85, 87, 101, 261, 265 262, 338 pain and, 101 Hypolipidemic drugs, 104-105 psychiatric disorders and, 77, 79, 80, 81- Hypomania, 106 82, 156, 159 Hypoperfusion, 74 and quality of life, 75, 152-153 Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 71, 76 sleeping sickness and, 103 dysregulation, 80, 82 stroke and, 95 Hypothalamus, 40, 41, 43, 85, 101, 103, treatment, 23, 65, 77-78, 96, 150, 265 261 undiagnosed and untreated cases, 218, Hypoventilation, 38 294-295 Hypoxemia, 71, 72, 145, 147 utilization of health care, 155, 156, 159 Hypoxia, 71, 74, 263-264, 338, 353 and work-related injuries, 149 Hypoxic ventilatory response, 39 Institutional National Research Service Award, 354 Insulin resistance, 71, 72, 264 I Intelligence quotient, 145, 146 Interdisciplinary research, defined, 27, 28, Immune response, 102 298 Immunologic disorders, 106 Interdisciplinary sleep programs, academic. Infants See also Sleep centers and congenital central hypoventilation laboratories syndrome, 265-266 accreditation and certification, 28, 312- low birth weight, 97 315, 318, 321 newborns, 35, 44-45, 261 administrative jurisdictions, 301 premature, 74, 97, 146 approach, 27-28, 296-303 SIDS, 96-97, 180-181, 265 Centers of Excellence, 11-12, 278-282, sleep patterns, 35, 44-45, 47-48 283

OCR for page 387
394 INDEX J chronic disease management model, 28, 304, 321 Jet lag, 58, 107 consortia, 185, 187 constraints on, 26-28, 300-303 diagnosis-treatment linkages, 28, 303- K 305 direct costs, 307-309 K awards. See Career development in sleep education and training, 304 research examples of approaches, 299 K complexes, 36, 38 grants, 318, 370 Kleine-Levin syndrome, 84, 86, 87, 273, guiding principles, 11, 14-16, 305-306 340 health insurance coverage, 315 institutional reward system and, 301 key components, 303-306 L knowledge base, 26, 296 leadership, 305 Learning and vocabulary, sleep loss and, macrostructure, 310-311 140, 145, 146, 184, 264 microstructure, 311 Leptin, 60, 72, 267, 340 network participation, 12-13, 282, 284, Lewy body disease, 92, 262, 296 305, 320 Light-dark cycle, 39, 40, 43 next steps, 315-321 Light exposure, 47, 76, 109, 110, 143 obstacles, 27, 301-302 organizational structures, 13-14, 27-28, M 310-311, 312, 316-320 and quality of care, 27 Magnetic resonance imaging, 186, 227, 340 rationale for, 26-28, 294-300 Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), recommendations, 14, 319, 321 227 research component, 304-305 Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 180 revenue generation and fiscal Median thalamic stroke, 85 independence, 28, 305-310, Medical disorders and sleep. See also 311-312 individual disorders staffing, 298-300, 302-303, 307 cancer, 103, 105 transparent policies and procedures, 306, grants for research, 270 311 infectious diseases, 102-104 Type I clinical program, 13, 15-16, 279, pain, 100-101 284, 316, 317, 319-320 treatment-related effects, 104-106 Type II training and research program, Medical education in somnology. See also 13, 15-16, 200, 284, 316, 317, 318, Professional training 320 accreditation and certification, 189, 190, Type III regional program, 13-14, 15-16, 191-192, 196, 197-201, 202 200, 284, 316, 317, 318, 320 barriers to curriculum implementation, International Classification of Sleep 25, 188 Disorders, 56, 86, 104, 107, 262 evaluation of effectiveness of, 188, 189- Internet, 21, 58 190 Interventions. See also Treatment inadequacy of, 187-188 effectiveness of, 150-151 multidisciplinary learning environment, Iron deficiency, 98, 262, 295-296 189, 192, 193, 202 Irregular sleep schedules, 58 nurses as care managers, 190-191 Irregular sleep-wake disorder, 107 overview, 187-191 Irritability, 79, 108, 184 residency training curricula, 191-192

OCR for page 387
395 INDEX Sleep Academic Award program, 189- Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), 82, 190, 240, 241, 352 197, 199, 226-227, 340 undergraduate education, 185, 187 Multiple systems atrophy, 90, 93 workforce shortages, 192 Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Medical errors, sleep loss and, 138, 139- Centers, 283 140, 144-145, 266 Musculoskeletal disorders, 101 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 203, MWT. See Maintenance of Wakefulness 206, 209 Test Medical residents Myocardial infarction, 2, 38, 56, 60, 62, 69, medical errors, 138, 139-140, 144-145 70, 95, 153 motor vehicle accidents, 149 Myotonic dystrophy, 85 restriction of work hours, 25, 139, 189 somnology training curricula, 191-192 N Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 205, 209-210 Naps/napping, 64, 83, 84, 87, 151, 226 MEDSleep, 25, 189 Narcolepsy Melatonin, 39, 43, 45, 47, 49, 104, 106, and academic performance, 82 109-111, 159, 340 and accidents and injuries, 147 Memory, 36, 38, 57, 100, 138, 140, 147, with cataplexy, 83, 85, 86, 87, 262, 336 184 without cataplexy, 85-87, 272 Menopause and menopausal symptoms, 74, comorbid sleep disorders, 295 105 defined, 340 Menstruation, 48, 84 diagnosis, 226, 227, 262 Metabolic syndrome, 261, 266, 295, 353 economic impacts, 155, 162 Microsleeps, 138 etiology and risk factors, 85-87, 237 Microstructural cyclic alternating patterns grants for research, 270, 272 analysis, 227 manifestations and prevalence, 34-35, Modafinil, 65, 87, 93, 266 82-85, 86 Molecular Biology and Genetics of Sleep and periodic limb movement disorder, and Sleep Disorders, 352 100 Monitoring. See Sleep monitoring and quality of life, 151-152 Mood, sleep loss and, 23, 48, 63, 65. See secondary, 85, 86 also Anxiety and anxiety disorders; and stigma, 175 Depression treatment, 23, 87 Mortality undiagnosed and untreated cases, 218, falls in older people, 150 294-295 RLS and, 99 National Aeronautics and Space SIDS, 181 Administration (NASA), 355 sleep-disordered breathing and, 74-75, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 264 207 survey, 206 National Association of Student Personnel work-related fatalities, 150 Administrators, 185 Motor vehicle accidents, 2, 21, 56, 147-149, National Cancer Institute (NCI), 255, 278- 158, 160, 161, 266 280, 283, 352, 354, 355, 359, 366 Movement disorders. See also Periodic limb National Center for Complementary and movement disorder; Restless legs Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), syndrome 255, 355, 359, 365 neurological disorders and, 92 National Center for Health Statistics Multidisciplinary research, defined, 27, 28, (NCHS), 57, 203, 204, 206 298 National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Multiple sclerosis, 85 Research, 268, 283

OCR for page 387
396 INDEX National Center for Research Resources National Institute of Arthritis and (NCRR), 354, 365, 366 Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases National Center on Sleep Disorders (NIAMS), 255, 283, 353, 354, 355, Research (NCSDR), 22, 256-258 359 advisory board to, 3, 5, 257, 258-259, National Institute of Child Health and 276-277, 345-350 Human Development (NICHD), 22, budget, 257 180, 255, 258, 268-269, 273, 283, educational materials, 176 352, 353, 354, 355, 359, 365, 366 establishment, 24, 175, 254, 256, 345 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive funding, 24, 355 and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), 23, information collection and 255, 353, 359, 365, 366 dissemination, 347 National Institute of Dental and leadership, 3 Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), 23, mission, 24, 256-257, 345 352, 353, 355, 359 public education campaigns, 7, 175-176, National Institute of Environmental Health 179, 180, 182, 347 Sciences (NIEHS), 23, 352, 355 recommended role, 4-5, 7, 8, 10, 277 National Institute of General Medical research plans, 2, 29, 259-267, 347 Sciences (NIGMS), 255, 357, 358, RFA, PA, 239, 256, 268-269, 274, 275- 366 276 National Institute of Mental Health Sleep Academic Award, 189 (NIMH), 22, 23, 24, 186, 240, 255, strengthening, 4-5, 276-277 258, 273, 274, 352, 353, 354, 355, technology evaluation and validation, 358, 365, 366 229 National Institute of Neurological Disorders National Colorectal Cancer Research and Stroke (NINDS), 22, 23-24, 255, Alliance, 178 258, 274, 283, 352, 354, 355, 358, National Death Index, 206 365, 366 National Eye Institute (NEI), 24, 255, 354, National Institute of Nursing Research 357, 358, 366 (NINR), 23, 255, 353, 354, 355, National Health and Nutrition Examination 358, 365 Survey (NHANES), 203, 204, 205, National Institute on Aging (NIA), 22-23, 211, 257 255, 258, 274, 352, 353, 354, 355, National Health Care Survey, 203, 206-208 358, 365, 366 National Health Interview Survey, 57, 203, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and 204-206, 211 Alcoholism (NIAAA), 23, 255, 352, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 354, 355, 358, 366 (NHLBI), 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 175, National Institute on Deafness and Other 180, 181, 189, 204, 211, 240, 241, Communication Disorders (NIDCD), 255, 256, 257, 258, 273, 274, 275, 24, 255, 352, 354, 355, 359 283, 352, 353, 354, 355, 358, 364, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 365, 366, 367 23, 255, 353, 354, 355, 358 National High Blood Pressure Campaign, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 22 180 career development awards, 240-241 National Hospital Discharge Survey, 207-208 conference on insomnia, 265 National Human Genome Research Institute coordination of sleep research, 2, 254- (NHGRI), 23, 354 259; see also National Center on National Immunization Survey, 203 Sleep Disorders Research; Trans-NIH National Institute for Occupational Safety Sleep Research Coordinating and Health (NIOSH), 352, 355, 359 Committee National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Exploratory Center award, 281 Diseases (NIAID), 23, 255, 354, 355, grants for sleep research, 24, 25, 222, 359 235-236, 254, 267-276, 351-355

OCR for page 387
397 INDEX Institutional Clinical and Translational NIH. See National Institutes of Health Science Award, 282 Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, 94 leadership in somnology research and Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep training, 3-5, 17 arousal disorders, 88-90 loan repayment policies, 247 brain activity, 21, 35, 36, 40 new career award support, 241-242 continuous spike wave epilepsy, 94 Office of Behavioral and Social Science cycles, 35 Research, 23 defined, 340 Office of Research on Women’s Health, disorders of, 34-35 355 physiological changes, 37, 38 roadmap initiatives, 14, 241, 242, 247, stages, 21, 34, 35-37, 343; see also Slow- 285 wave sleep Science Conference on the Nonentrained sleep-wake syndrome, 107 Manifestations and Management of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 106 Chronic Insomnia, 77 Nurses and nurse practitioners technology development grants, 222, medical errors, 145 229 role in interdisciplinary programs, 298- training awards, 200, 238-240 300 National League for Nursing, 9, 202 somnology education, 183, 185, 187, National Library of Medicine (NLM), 354, 190-191 355 Nurses Health Study, 61, 62, 71 National Occupational Research Agenda, 352 O National Research Service Award Institutional Training Grants, 238 Obesity National Safety Council, 161 education campaign, 177, 179 National Sleep Foundation (NSF), 2, 22, 29, and hypertension, 66 148, 176-177, 179, 355 hypoventilation syndrome, 264-265 Pickwick Club Award, 243, 244 and OSA, 61, 66, 72, 160-161, 263, 295 National Sleep Public Education and sleep loss and, 2, 21, 25, 56, 59-61, 267 Awareness Campaign, 178-182 stigma of, 175 National Sleep Awareness Week, 176-177 utilization of health care, 161 National Somnology and Sleep Medicine Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) Research and Clinical Network, 7, advances in research, 263, 265, 266 12-13, 14, 179, 279, 282-285, 320 age/aging and, 66, 73, 263 National Survey of Family Growth, 206 alcohol use and, 73 National Transportation Safety Board, 149 Alzheimer’s disease and, 91, 262 Native Americans, 97 apnea-hypopnea index, 65, 66, 67, 69, NCSDR. See National Center on Sleep 71, 148, 220 Disorders Research and cardiovascular disease and stroke, Neurological disorders with sleep 69-71, 72, 74, 263-264 abnormalities in children, 22, 61, 66, 68, 70, 71, 74, Alzheimer’s disease, 91-92, 262 75, 145-146, 153, 156, 263, 265, epilepsy, 93-95 266, 352 grants for research, 270 comorbid sleep disorders, 295 multiple system atrophy, 90 defined, 340 Parkinson’s disease, 85, 90, 92-93, 262 developmental, behavioral, and cognitive spinal cord damage, 101 effects, 145-146 stroke, 95-96 and diabetes and glucose tolerance, 70, Nicotine dependence, 81, 97 71-72, 74 Nightmare disorder, 89, 90-91, 340 diagnosis, 65, 67, 83, 160-161, 225

OCR for page 387
398 INDEX P economic impacts, 156-157, 160-162 etiology, 72-73 Pain, and sleep problems, 100-101, 105 familial/genetic factors, 73, 74, 97 Parasomnias gender differences, 66, 73-74 defined, 341 grants for research, 268 grants for research, 270, 272 and hypertension, 66-69, 74 manifestations and prevalence, 88 manifestations and prevalence, 2, 20, 66, NREM sleep arousal disorders, 88-90 178, 263 psychiatric disorders and, 79 and motor vehicle accidents, 148, 161, and quality of life, 152 219, 263 REM sleep disorders, 90-91 obesity and, 61, 66, 72, 73-74, 160-161 treatment, 96 and periodic limb movement disorder, Parker B. Francis Fellowship Program, 244 100 Parkinson’s disease, 85, 90, 92-93, 262, portable monitoring equipment for, 220, 296 225 Pathway to Independence Award program, and quality of life, 153 242 race and, 66, 73, 74, 161-162, 263 Performance problems, 2, 82, 108, 142-144, research, 23 145, 146-147, 154, 158, 160, 184, risk factors, 73-74, 91 266. See also Cognitive deficits and SIDS risk, 97 Periodic limb movement disorder, 2, 20, 92, socioeconomic status and, 161-162 98, 100, 220, 223, 273, 295, 355 training requirements for health Periodic limb movement index, 223 professionals, 183 Physical activity education campaign, 177 treatment, 23, 26, 68, 75, 151, 153, Physicians. See Health care professionals 156-157, 264 Polysomnography, 26, 68, 70, 71, 83, 139, and sudden death, 74 146, 157, 341 undiagnosed and untreated cases, 218 Portable monitoring and therapeutic devices utilization of health care, 156-157, challenges to developing, 222-228 161 cost-effectiveness, 157, 221 Occupational safety and health. See also evaluation of effectiveness, 10, 225-226, Work 273 regulation, 150-151 feasibility and quality, 220-222, 228 research, 355 future directions, 228 Occupational Safety and Health rationale for, 9, 218-220, 228 Administration, 257 validation of, 26, 222-224, 273 Older adults Posttraumatic stress disorder, 91, 257 advanced sleep phase, 260 Prader-Willi syndrome, 85, 341 education campaigns, 176 Pregnancy and postpartum period falls, 150 RLS, 48, 98, 296 grants for research on, 274 sleep patterns, 48 insomnia, 76, 77, 160 substance abuse, 97 neurological disorders, 92 Process C, 39-40 OSA, 66, 68, 73, 154, 263 Process S, 39-40 periodic limb movement disorder, 100 Professional training. See also Medical portable monitoring equipment for, 220 education in somnology quality of life, 154 access to, 296 REM sleep disorders, 90 accreditation, 177, 192-197, 314 RLS, 98 advances since 2003 research plan, 260, sleep patterns, 22-23, 47, 48-49 267 OSA. See Obstructive sleep apnea awareness programs, 184-185 Oxidative stress, 68, 263-264

OCR for page 387
399 INDEX board certification, 197-201, 314-315 CDC activities, 177-178, 257 challenges, 201 celebrity spokespersons, 178 costs, 307-309 for college students, 185 curriculum development, 6, 8-9, 183, coordinating activities, 179, 180, 181 185-187, 202, 238, 240, 241, 296, costs and challenges, 180 362 curriculum supplements for children and fellowship programs, 192-197, 198, 199, adolescents, 176, 177, 234 200, 238, 240, 242, 243, 244, 296, evaluation of effectiveness, 176, 179 314, 337-338, 371-372 focus and role, 178-179 funding, 5, 6, 186, 200, 201-202, 343- grants, 177 344, 362, 369 integrating with other public health graduate research programs, 8-9, 187, campaigns, 179, 185 189, 373 multimedia campaigns, 177, 178-182 improvement strategies, 248-250 National High Blood Pressure Education integration with other programs, 8, 249- Program, 181 250 National Sleep Awareness Week, 176- interdisciplinary approach, 25-26, 183, 177 187, 247, 249-251 National Sleep Public Education and leadership skills, 240, 241 Awareness Campaign, 178-182 limitations of current programs, 27, 160 NCSDR campaigns, 175-176 182-183 private-foundation campaigns, 176-177 next steps, 201-202 rationale for, 179 NIH awards, 25, 238-240 recommendations, 7, 182 pooling funds for, 241 strategies for strengthening, 176, 178- recommendations, 6, 8-9, 202, 250-251 182, 184 remote mentoring programs, 248-249 requirements, 182-187 Q revenues from, 311 tools and products, 25, 202 Quality of care undergraduate education, 8-9, 183, 184- accreditation of sleep centers and, 313- 187, 373 314 workforce shortages, 192, 296 certification of specialists and, 314-315 Program (P) awards, 281, 340-341, 352, health insurance reimbursement and, 355, 370 315 Psychiatric disorders with sleep disturbances Quality of life database, 208 bed partners of individuals with sleep economic costs, 159 disorders, 153-154 etiology and risk factors, 80 measuring, 151, 152, 153, 154 grants for research, 270, 272 sleep loss and, 48, 75, 147, 151-153, insomnia, 77, 78, 81-82, 156, 159, 296 184 manifestations and prevalence, 78-79, 208, 295 parasomnias, 79 R treatment, 80-81 utilization of health care, 156, 175 Race/ethnicity Psychomotor vigilance task, 142 and OSA, 66, 73, 74, 161-162, 263 Public education and SIDS, 97 absence of sleep content, 175 and sleep patterns, 142 awareness of sleep disorders, 2, 20, 22, Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep 26, 29, 175, 234 behavior disorder, 84, 89, 90, 92, 93, Back to Sleep program, 97, 180-181 100, 262, 296, 342

OCR for page 387
400 INDEX brain wave activity, 37, 40 manifestations and prevalence, 2, 20, 97- characteristics, 37-38 98, 295-296 cycles, 35 pain and, 101 defined, 342 periodic limb movements and, 100 depression and, 79 and quality of life, 152, 153 discovery, 21 research grants, 355 infections and, 102 treatment, 99-100 and muscle atonia, 37, 38, 40, 45, 84, Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation, 22, 335 177 nightmare disorder, 89, 90-91 Rheumatologic disorders, 106 onset of sleep during, 226, 227, 262 OSA and, 69 S physiological changes, 37, 38-39 suppressants, 83, 105, 106 Schizophrenia, 80 Reaction/response time, 138, 140, 141-142, Science Conference on the Manifestations 148 and Management of Chronic Recommendations Insomnia, 77 academic interdisciplinary sleep SCOR in Neurobiology of Sleep & Sleep programs, 18, 319, 321 Apnea, 352 accreditation standards, 11, 321 Screen for Life campaign, 177-178, 180 career development, 6, 250-251 Serotonin, 40, 41 National Somnology and Sleep Medicine reuptake inhibitors, 87 Research Network, 12-13, 14, 285 SF-36 scale, 151, 154 NIH leadership role, 3-5, 7, 8, 10, 17, Shift work 277 disorder, 20, 21, 57, 58, 64, 77, 107, professional education and training, 6, 109, 266 8-9, 17, 202, 250-251 economic impacts, 158 public education campaign, 7, 17, 182 and motor vehicle crashes, 148-149 sleep laboratories, 10-11, 286, 321 obesity and metabolic disorders, 261 summary of, 17-18 personnel turnover and retraining, 158 surveillance and monitoring, 7-8, 17, prevalence, 257 212 public education campaigns, 176 technology development, 10, 18, 229 SIDS. See Sudden infant death syndrome REM. See Rapid-eye-movement sleep Silvio O. Conte Centers to Develop Renal disease, treatment-related sleep Collaborative Neuroscience problems, 105-106 Research, 281 Research. See Somnology and sleep Sleep Academic Award program, 189-190, medicine research 240, 241, 352 Research (R) awards, 234, 235, 236, 242, Sleep apneas, 105. See also Obstructive 255, 269-272, 273, 275-276, 296, sleep apnea; Sleep-disordered 341-342, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356- breathing 359, 369 and accidents and injuries, 147, 148, Respiratory activity, 38-39 149, 150 Restless legs syndrome (RLS) AHI for defining, 223 and accidents and injuries, 147 defined, 342 and ADHD, 22 demand for diagnosis and treatment, defined, 342 219 diagnosis, 227 diagnostic technologies, 222, 223 etiology and risk factors, 48, 98-99, 100, economic costs of, 157 105, 262 grants for research, 270 grants for research, 270, 273 and insulin resistance, 264

OCR for page 387
401 INDEX and oxidative stress, 263-264 manifestations and prevalence, 56, 65- and psychiatric disorders, 208 72, 74 and quality of life, 151-152 and metabolic syndrome, 353 treatment, 151 and mortality, 70, 74-75 Sleep architecture. See also Non-rapid-eye- and periodic limb movement disorder, movement (NREM) sleep; Rapid-eye- 100 movement (REM) sleep and quality of life, 154 age-related changes, 43-49 treatment, 75, 96, 104 brain activity, 34, 265 utilization of health care, 155 cancer and, 103 Sleep disorders. See Circadian rhythm; cycles, 35-36, 44, 45 Insomnia; Medical disorders and defined, 34 sleep; Narcolepsy; Neurological iatrogenic effects of medical therapies, disorders with sleep abnormalities; 104-106 Parasomnias; Psychiatric sleep infections and, 102-104 disorders with sleep disturbances; neurological disorders and, 90, 92 Restless leg syndrome; Sleep- pain and, 101-102 disordered breathing; Sleep loss and physiological changes, 37, 38-39 sleep disorders pubertal development and, 46-47 Sleep drunkenness (inertia), 84, 342 sleeping sickness and, 103-104 Sleep Heart Health Study, 61, 67, 68, 69- social cues and, 45, 46 70, 71, 161, 223, 264 stroke and, 95 data coordinating center, 352 types of sleep, 34-35 Sleep hygiene training, 78, 155, 184, 342 Sleep centers and laboratories, 22 Sleep in America poll, 177 accreditation, 11, 26, 196, 313-314, 321 Sleep loss and sleep disorders, general. See community-based, 219 also individual disorders costs, 219 and academic performance, 142-144 funding, 281 access to care, 201, 294-295 learning experiences in, 188 adolescents, 142-144 lung function laboratories compared, and alcohol use, 63 224 animal studies, 21, 61-62 models for, 278-282 and cardiovascular morbidity, 62-63 in NIH clinical research program, 285- challenges for individuals with, 174-178 286 cognitive effects, 138-142 number in U.S., 218 cumulative effects, 2, 142 quality of care, 313-314 and diabetes, 61-62 recommendation, 10-11, 286 effectiveness of interventions, 150-151 staffing, 219, 224, 307 environmental factors, 143 telemonitoring of hospital etiology and risk factors, 34, 57-59 polysomnograms, 228 family and community effects, 153-155 utilization, 26, 182 fragmentation of sleep, 71, 147 Sleep-disordered breathing, 82. See also and functional status, 151-152, 153-155 Obstructive sleep apnea and glucose tolerance, 61-62 and accidents and injuries, 147 grants for research by type of, 270, 272- and ADHD, 100 273 advances in research, 263-265 health effects, 2, 21, 25, 28, 56, 59-64 apnea-hypopnea index, 67, 95, 263 lifestyle and sociocultural factors, 174 bed partners of individuals with, 154 management and treatment, 64-65 and cognitive impairment, 146-147 manifestations, 56, 57 economic impacts, 155 and medical errors, 138, 139-140, 144- etiology and risk factors, 72-75, 263 145

OCR for page 387
402 INDEX and mood and behavior, 63 Somnology and sleep medicine research. See and mortality, 63-64 also Career development in sleep and obesity, 59-61 research; Interdisciplinary sleep prevalence, 2, 20, 56, 57, 206 programs public health burden, 2, 56, 294 academic programs, 5, 235-236, 375- and quality of life, 48, 151-153 377 Sleep medicine. See Somnology and sleep adolescents, 186 medicine research advances since 2003, 260-267 Sleep monitoring. See Portable monitoring animal studies, 261-262, 271, 274, 352 and therapeutic devices basic, 23, 25, 240, 259, 261-262, 270, Sleep paralysis, 84, 87, 89, 90, 342 272, 279, 282, 354 Sleep patterns Basics of Sleep Research guide, 177 age and, 44-47, 142, 143 bias in studies, 59, 70, 74 circadian rhythm disruption, 21 Centers of Excellence, 278-282, 283 temporal distribution, 108 challenges, 6, 22-26 Sleep Research Society, 2, 22, 25, 29, 177, circadian rhythm, 260-261, 270, 272 235, 237, 249 clinical, 270, 272, 274, 279, 282, 285- Sleep Research Society Foundation, 177 286 Sleep restriction therapy, 77, 342 collaborations, 28, 276, 277-278 Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Biological coordination by NIH, 2, 3-5, 22-24, Rhythms, 176 186, 229, 240, 241, 244, 250, 254- Sleep spindles, 36, 186, 342-343 256, 257-258, 267, 268, 275-276, Sleep terrors, 89, 90, 227, 343 277, 357 Sleep-wake regulation defining, 2 n.1, 20, 23, 250, 342, 343 brain processes and structures, 40-41, fellowship training, 192-197, 198, 199, 43, 76-77, 80, 85, 92, 94, 261 200 iatrogenic effects of medical therapies, grants from NIH, 4, 200, 235-236, 254, 104-106 255, 256, 277, 282, 296, 340-342, immune system and, 102 351-359, 368-373, 375-377; see also phylogenetic studies, 261-262 Analysis of NIH grants two-process model, 39-40 growth of field, 4, 22, 25, 234-238, 296 Sleepiness, excessive daytime. See historical background, 21-22 Hypersomnia human studies, 271, 274 Sleeping sickness, 102-104, 335 insomnia, 265 Sleepwalking, 88, 89-90, 343 interdisciplinary approach, 3-4, 6, 242, Slow-wave sleep 254, 278-282, 297-300 arousal disorders, 90 investigator shortages, 2, 5, 6, 25-26, 27, body temperature and, 43 234, 296 characteristics, 36-37 knowledge base, 296 defined, 343 minorities in, 236-237 depression and, 79 molecular/genetic studies, 262, 263, 271, endocrine function, 39 273 infections and, 102 national network, 7, 14, 179, 279, 282- opioids and, 105 285, 320 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) neurobiology-related, 260-262, 352 grants, 222 next steps, 276-286 Snoring, 65, 66, 70, 73, 74, 99, 145, 150, outlook for, 254, 267-268 221, 266 pediatric sleep sciences, 265-266 Socioeconomic status phylogenetic approaches, 261-262 and insomnia, 160 professional societies, 22, 235 and narcolepsy, 162 recommendations, 4-5, 277, 283, 285- and OSA, 161-162 286

OCR for page 387
403 INDEX resource allocation, 4-5, 26 recommendation, 10, 229 sleep deprivation, 266-267 Thermoregulation, 43, 45, 47, 48-49, sleep-disordered breathing, 263-265, 352 106 sleep disorders, 262, 272-273 Time for Kids magazine, 176 sleep laboratories, 285-286 Tonsil enlargement and tonsillectomy, 70, technology development and assessment, 71, 73, 75 26, 273, 354 Training. See Professional training Standardized immobilization test, 227 Training (T) awards, 238, 239, 250, 251, Stigma of sleep disorders, 174-175 275-276, 343-344, 354, 373 Stimulus control therapy, 78 Trans-NIH Sleep Research Coordinating Stress, 76, 77, 91, 94, 184, 222 Committee, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 24, 186, Stroke, 93, 181, 262 229, 240, 241, 244, 250, 254, 255- and sleep architecture, 85, 95-96 256, 257-258, 267, 276, 277, 283, sleep-disordered breathing and, 65, 69, 305, 357 70, 95 Treatment. See also Sleep loss and sleep sleep loss and, 56, 62 disorders; individual disorders Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) access to, 26, 201, 218-219 Back to Sleep campaign, 97, 180-181, adherence to, 26, 68, 70, 77, 80, 147, 265, 273 157, 177, 298, 299, 314 etiology and risk factors, 96-97 behavioral therapies, 77, 78, 87, 99, grants for research, 273 109, 154-155, 265 manifestations and prevalence, 96 clinical practice guidelines, 177 prevention, 97 cognitive therapy, 78, 265 Summer Research Institute, 249 comorbid psychiatric disorders, 80-81 Summer Sleep and Chronobiology Research CPAP therapy, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 96, Apprenticeship, 186, 248 147, 151, 153, 154, 156-157, 161, Surveillance. See also individual surveys 177, 218, 228, 264, 295, 298, 299, diagnoses of sleep disorders, 208 314 existing data systems and surveys, 203- demand for, 218 212, 257 economic costs of, 159, 160-161 importance, 203 effectiveness, 151, 154, 155 incorporating new components in extinction program, 155 surveys, 210-211, 257 guidelines, 64 physicians’ role in, 191 light therapy, 109, 110, 143 questionnaire on sleep, 205 management approach, 28, 295-296 recommendations, 212 melatonin therapy, 109-111, 159 Sleep in America poll, 177 naps, 151 utilization of health care resources, 207- pharmacological, 64-65, 77-78, 87, 90, 208 93, 99-100, 155, 159; see also vital statistics, 206 individual drugs and drug classes Sympathetic nervous system activity, 38, 61, residual sleepiness, 295 63, 65, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74 sleep hygiene training, 78, 155 sleep restriction therapy, 77 Truck drivers, commercial, 149, 150-151, T 263, 266 TV watching, 21, 58 Technology development. See also Portable Type I, II, III interdisciplinary sleep monitoring and therapeutic devices programs. See Interdisciplinary sleep assessment criteria, 226 programs future directions, 228-229 grants for, 273

OCR for page 387
404 INDEX U Weight gain, sleep loss and, 267 Wisconsin Sleep Cohort study, 66, 68, 72 University of Pennsylvania, 236, 239, 298, Work. See also Occupational safety and 307, 376-377 health; Shift work University of Pittsburgh, 236, 239, 376-377 absenteeism, 154, 158, 160 Utilization of health care, 2, 21, 26, 155- accidents and injuries, 147, 149-150, 157, 159, 161 158, 160, 266 hours, 138, 139, 148 performance/productivity losses, 2, 146- V 147, 154, 158, 160 Vigilance deficits, 138, 148 Viral infections, and sleep, 103 Y Youth Risk and Behavior Surveillance W System, 210 Wakefulness, 40-41 medications promoting, 64-65 sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, 73