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timing and the mode of delivery of an infant who will be born preterm. Better methods of evaluating fetal and infant maturity may improve the ability to predict the many complications of prematurity.

Although much progress in the treatment of preterm infants has been made, many of the medications and treatment strategies used in the NICU have not been adequately evaluated for their efficacies and safety. Even though progress in neuroimaging of brain structure of preterm infants is being made, research is needed to provide better indicators of CNS function and means for prediction of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. The high rates of neurological injury in preterm infants highlight the need for better neuroprotective strategies and postnatal interventions that support the extrauterine neuromaturation and neurodevelopment of preterm infants. Long-term health and neurodevelopmental outcomes should be the focus of new trials of treatments and intervention strategies for neonates born preterm.

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