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Index

A

Academic/school problems, 350, 357, 363-366, 374

Access to care, 9, 19, 34, 138, 673, 676-678

Acidosis, 200, 330, 331

Actin, 175, 182, 291

Adenyl cyclase, 291

Adenylate cyclase, 173

Administration for Children and Families, 447

Adolescents, 44, 120, 125-126, 265, 349, 364, 377, 381, 382, 448, 449, 463, 628-629, 678, 679, 681-682

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 172, 173, 179, 188

Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality, 452, 464

African Americans

alcohol use, 27

birth certificate data, 81

birth weights, 25, 77, 105, 112, 113, 114, 121, 130, 138, 139, 140, 154, 209

BMI (maternal), 151, 152

depression, 109

douching practices, 100

drug abuse, 27

educational attainment, 114, 130

environmental toxicant exposure, 251

estimates of gestational age in, 67-68

fetal maturation rate, 78

foreign-born vs. U.S.-born, 26, 129

growth outcomes, 382

income and net worth, 146

infant mortality rates, 50-51, 77, 112, 130, 315-316, 630

infections, 27, 100, 132

infertility, 158

interpregnancy interval, 153, 154

low-income, 106-107, 112, 113, 120-121, 125

marital status–related risks, 125, 127, 128

maternal age–related risks, 126, 128

neighborhood environment, 137, 138-139, 140, 142, 143

personal resources, 119

PPROM, 211-212

prenatal care, 64, 131

prepregnancy health, 125

rates of preterm birth, 5, 12, 26, 48-49, 76, 112, 130, 133, 222, 250, 315, 614, 616, 620-621, 678, 679

risk of preterm birth, 106-107, 109, 120-121, 126, 149, 151, 152, 209, 233, 265, 271, 628-629

stressors, 105, 106-107, 109, 112, 113, 114, 132, 142

survival advantage of preterm infants, 77, 315, 630



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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Index A Academic/school problems, 350, 357, 363-366, 374 Access to care, 9, 19, 34, 138, 673, 676-678 Acidosis, 200, 330, 331 Actin, 175, 182, 291 Adenyl cyclase, 291 Adenylate cyclase, 173 Administration for Children and Families, 447 Adolescents, 44, 120, 125-126, 265, 349, 364, 377, 381, 382, 448, 449, 463, 628-629, 678, 679, 681-682 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 172, 173, 179, 188 Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality, 452, 464 African Americans alcohol use, 27 birth certificate data, 81 birth weights, 25, 77, 105, 112, 113, 114, 121, 130, 138, 139, 140, 154, 209 BMI (maternal), 151, 152 depression, 109 douching practices, 100 drug abuse, 27 educational attainment, 114, 130 environmental toxicant exposure, 251 estimates of gestational age in, 67-68 fetal maturation rate, 78 foreign-born vs. U.S.-born, 26, 129 growth outcomes, 382 income and net worth, 146 infant mortality rates, 50-51, 77, 112, 130, 315-316, 630 infections, 27, 100, 132 infertility, 158 interpregnancy interval, 153, 154 low-income, 106-107, 112, 113, 120-121, 125 marital status–related risks, 125, 127, 128 maternal age–related risks, 126, 128 neighborhood environment, 137, 138-139, 140, 142, 143 personal resources, 119 PPROM, 211-212 prenatal care, 64, 131 prepregnancy health, 125 rates of preterm birth, 5, 12, 26, 48-49, 76, 112, 130, 133, 222, 250, 315, 614, 616, 620-621, 678, 679 risk of preterm birth, 106-107, 109, 120-121, 126, 149, 151, 152, 209, 233, 265, 271, 628-629 stressors, 105, 106-107, 109, 112, 113, 114, 132, 142 survival advantage of preterm infants, 77, 315, 630

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention tobacco use, 27, 92, 131 unintended pregnancy, 120-121 Age. See also Maternal age perinatal terminology, 61 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 17, 158, 447 Agent Orange, 243, 250 Agricultural chemicals, 231, 237-241, 251, 252 Air pollution exposures carbon monoxide, 234, 236 exposure assessment, 232-233 gestation stage and, 235-236 location of residence and, 138, 232, 235, 250 nitrous oxides, 234-235, 236 ozone, 234, 235, 236-237 particulates, 22-23, 231, 234, 235-236, 237, 252 PCBs, 242 sulfur dioxide, 22-23, 231, 233-234, 235-236, 237, 252 Alabama, 450, 651, 693 Alan Guttmacher Institute, 690 Albuterol, 291 Alcohol use, 27, 92, 120, 131, 134, 142, 371 Aldrin, 239 Alkaline phosphatase, 270, 272 α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), 199 α-Fetoprotein, 270, 272 Altitude, and birth weight, 70 Aluminum sulfate, 249 American Academy of Pediatrics, 35, 57, 320-321, 647, 649, 655, 660, 663, 666, 667-668 American Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics Foundation, 437 American Board of Obstetric and Gynecology, 437 American Board of Pediatrics, 439 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 18, 33, 64, 258, 278, 292, 448 ethics handbook, 653, 655 sample antepartum record, 302-307 workforce data, 441 American Indians/Alaska Natives birth weights, 77 educational attainment, 130 marital status, 128 maternal age, 128 preterm birth rates, 5, 49, 128 American Medical Association, 653 American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), 17, 18, 33, 165-166, 168, 258 Amniocentesis, 66 Amnionitis, 70, 184, 185-186, 191, 195, 200, 220 Ampicillin, 295, 296 Amplitude-integrated EEG, 68, 69 Anemia, 94-95, 163, 266, 327-328 Anencephaly, 671-672 Aneuploidy, 163, 269 Angelman syndrome, 164 Angiotensin II, 179 Animal models intrauterine infections, 22, 181, 184, 185, 186, 195-196, 199-200 neonatal sequelae, 196-200, 202, 203, 206 parturition pathways, 22, 181, 184, 185, 186, 187, 192-196, 199-200, 251, 254 prenatal stress, 102, 180 PWMD, 196-197, 199-200 relevance to humans, 192, 193 species comparison of reproductive characteristics, 194-195 Antenatal counseling, 646 Antenatal maternal treatments, 12, 77, 74, 287, 289, 291, 295-300, 318, 651 Antibiotics. See also individual antibiotics efficacy for prevention of preterm birth, 22, 132, 151, 186, 274, 275, 276-280, 296, 727 gestational age and, 278 maternal infection, 132, 151, 186, 196, 276-280 neonatal side effects, 319, 322 for PPROM, 278, 296, 727 preconceptional use, 278-279 for preterm labor, 273, 295-296 Anticonvulsant drugs, 199 Anxiety, 24, 103, 104, 107-108, 111-112, 180, 371 Apnea, 318, 321 Apoptosis, 175, 188, 191, 199, 200, 325 Appendicitis, 279 Arab Americans, 158

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Arachidonic acid, 174, 191, 205, 251, 293 Arginine, 294 Arizona, 679 Aroclor 1254, 251 Arsenic, 248-249, 252 Artificial insemination, 16, 45, 157 Asians/Pacific Islanders birth weights, 140 educational attainment, 130 marital status, 128 maternal age, 128 neighborhood environment, 140 preterm birth rates, 5, 26, 48, 49-50, 76, 128, 133, 222 Asphyxia, 328, 664 Assisted reproductive technologies (ART). See also specific procedures accreditation of embryo laboratories, 165 ASRM practice guidelines, 17, 165-166, 168, 258 birth defects, 163-164 definition, 16, 155 delivery method, 163 estimated date of confinement, 61 ethical issues, 656-658 fetal reduction, 166, 657 incidence of pregnancies, 155-157, 167-168 infant mortality rates, 17, 162, 657 international comparisons, 166-167 live birth trends, 46-47, 157, 164, 165 low birth weights, 46, 162, 657, 679 maternal age and, 16, 45, 46-47, 159, 166, 167 maternal and child health risks, 162-164 multiple gestations, 16-17, 45-47, 135, 154, 157, 159-160, 161, 163-165, 258, 266, 424, 606, 631 number of embryos transferred, 159, 165-168, 258, 656-658 oversight/regulation, 164-165, 258 parturition pathways, 177 preterm birth trends and risks, 16, 17, 37, 45-47, 161, 265, 266-267, 631, 657, 678, 679 procedures, 155-157 reporting of outcomes, 16, 18, 45, 155, 157 singletons, 17, 46, 159, 162-163, 168, 266-267, 657 success rate, 166 utilization rate, 156, 157, 159 Association of American Medical Colleges, 438, 442 Association of Pediatric Department Chairs, 437 Asthma, 14, 32, 149 Atherosclerosis, 152 Atosiban, 293, 294, 295 Atrazine, 240 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 14, 32, 348, 370, 371, 374, 463 Australia, 42, 43, 209, 369, 646, 661, 674, 677, 692, 693 Autism, 371, 422 Autoimmune diseases, 82 Avon Premature Infant Project, 394-395 B Baby Doe regulations, 659, 665-666 Bacterial vaginosis (BV), 27, 100, 102, 110, 132, 135, 151, 185, 186, 217, 269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 727, 729 Bacteriuria, asymptomatic, 110, 132, 133, 184, 276 Bacteroides, 269 Ballard Score, 67, 68, 71, 78, 612, 613 Bangladesh, 248-249 Bayley Scale of Infant Development, 357, 392 Bax protein, 191 Bcl2 protein, 191 BEAM Trial, 300 Bechwith-Wiedermann syndrome, 164 Behavioral influences. See also Nutrition, maternal; Physical activity; Tobacco use alcohol use, 27, 92, 120, 131, 134, 142 clustering of, 90-91 cultural context, 142 douching, 99-100, 121, 131 employment-related, 26, 36, 97-99, 110, 121, 133, 134-135, 149, 265 illicit drug use, 24, 26, 27, 36, 63, 89, 92-93, 121, 130-131, 133, 134, 180, 626 infections, 94 interventions, 471-472 methodological issues, 23-24, 90-91, 93

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention racial/ethnic disparities and, 26, 27, 36, 92, 100, 129-131, 133 sexual activity, 99 socioeconomic disparities, 90, 93, 133, 134-135 stress and, 180-181 Behavioral and socio-emotional outcomes, 14, 32, 47, 349, 350, 370-372, 375, 376-377, 381, 394, 396 Belgium, 167, 168, 470, 668, 669 Berendes, H., 605 β-adrenergic receptor agonists, 290-291, 295 β2-adrenergic receptor, 212, 215 β-hexachlorocyclohexane, 239 Beta-mimetic drugs, 291-292, 293, 294 Betamethasone, 297, 298, 299, 334 Biological mechanisms. See also Parturition process; Preterm premature rupture of membranes in environmental toxicant exposures, 251-252 prenatal stress, 101, 110, 143-144, 179-180, 626 proteomic modifications, 219-221 RDS, 66, 202 Biophysical profile, 66 Biotin, 219 Birth certificates, 9, 60, 78, 79, 80, 81, 209 Birth defects, 150-151, 162, 163-164, 263, 315, 415, 422 Birth weight. See also Low birth weight; Very low birth weight categories, 57-59 and costs of medical care, 705, 706-707 depression and, 109 gender differences, 63, 70, 77 geographic differences, 70 and gestational age, 8-9, 10, 59, 79, 242 and infant mortality, 21, 446 infections and, 186, 278 interpregnancy interval and, 152, 153-154 and length of hospital stay, 407, 408, 710 methodological issues, 56-59, 62, 347, 386 misclassification, 79 neighborhood conditions and, 137-142 neurodevelopmental disabilities by, 356, 357, 358-363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 420-421 nutrition and, 95, 96, 134 personal resources and, 119 population differences, 25, 63, 70 prenatal stress and, 104, 180 program eligibility based on, 461 as proxy for maturity, 4, 5, 8, 25, 31, 34, 36, 56-59, 62, 347, 386, 606 racial/ethnic disparities, 25, 63, 70, 76, 77, 105, 112, 113, 114, 121, 130, 138-139, 140, 154, 209 reporting, 9 smoking and, 90, 217, 283 social support and, 116, 143 socioeconomic disparities, 139-140 unintended pregnancy and, 120, 121 violence and, 110, 138 Blacks. See African Americans Blood pressure, 102. See also Hypertension, maternal Body mass index, 80, 94, 95, 134, 151, 152 Born-Alive Infant Protection Act of 2001, 659-660 Botulinum Toxicum injections, 353 Bradycardia, 321, 327 Brazillian cohort, 239 Breast cancer, 163, 338 Breastfeeding, 338, 343 Bromodichloromethane, 244 Bronchodilators, 319 Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), 202, 297, 298, 317, 318, 319-321, 324, 327, 331, 336, 343, 378-379, 390, 707 Budin, Pierre, 57 Building Interdisciplinary Careers in Women’s Health Program, 437 Burroughs Wellcome Fund, 33, 438, 446, 731 C C-CPEP Trial, 274 C-reactive protein, 270 Cadmium, 248 Caffeine, 321 Calcium channel blockers, 291, 292-293 mobilization, 171, 174, 175, 182, 251, 293 supplementation, 95 Calgranulins, 220

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention California, 234, 236, 403, 406, 407, 408, 417, 428, 646, 691, 692, 693, 697, 705 Calmodulin, 171, 175, 182 Canada, 26, 42, 43, 133, 233, 234, 240, 365-366, 384, 385, 647-648, 661, 690 Cancer, 163, 243, 338 Candida, 325 CAP gene, 173, 181 Carbon monoxide, 234, 236 CARDIA study, 113 Cardiometabolic disease, 388-389 Cardiovascular development, 326 Cardiovascular disease adulthood risk, 386, 388, 389 maternal, 149, 150, 152 Cardiovascular function, 101, 114, 321 Career development in clinical research. See also Training clinical researchers board certification, 439 faculty vitality, 442-443, 453 liability concerns and, 438-439, 440, 441 mentors, 436, 439, 453 need for change, 7-8, 439-440 ob/gyn physician researchers, 7, 32, 438, 440-446 women, 439-442 Caspase, 191 Catalase, 199 Catecholamines, 110, 179, 205 Cefetamet-pivoxil, 276 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 16, 33, 35, 165, 258, 415, 425, 657, 690 funding for preterm research, 17, 446, 447, 729-730 perinatal data collection, 10, 45, 79, 84 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 447 Central nervous system complications. See also Cerebral palsy; Cognitive impairment; Neurodevelopmental disabilities; Neurodevelopmental support; Periventricular white matter disease delivery method and, 332 diagnosis, 333, 379 germinal matrix injury, 333, 334 IPH, 333, 334, 379 IVH, 295, 296, 297, 298, 300, 326, 331, 33-334, 336, 366, 379, 385 neuroimaging, 379 neuroprotective medications, 336 treatment, 333-334, 336 Cerebral atrophy, 334, 335, 336, 379 Cerebral palsy (CP), 14, 32, 196, 199-200, 300, 320, 325, 335-336, 348, 350-353, 371, 372, 374, 378, 399, 403, 415-421, 424, 425, 675, 707 Cervical cerclage, 273, 274, 275, 281-282 examination, 12, 268-269 inflammation, 272 injury or abnormality, 189, 266 length, 189, 268, 270, 271, 272, 275, 281-282, 283, 286 ripening, 170, 172, 174-175, 181 scores, 268 Cesarean delivery, 43-44, 163, 181, 234, 332, 622, 623, 651-652, 653 Charge to committee, 3-4, 33, 52 Child abuse and neglect, 143, 463, 659 Child Abuse Protection and Treatments Act, 659, 665-666 Child Health and Developmental Studies of the San Francisco Bay Area, 238 Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, 670 China, 42, 50, 233, 234, 237, 248 Chlamydia trachomatis, 135, 270 Chlorination disinfection by-products, 244-245 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, 244 Chloroform, 244, 245 Chorioamnionitis, 82, 184, 185-186, 200, 205, 296, 335 Choriocarcinoma, 219 Chromosomal disorders, 69, 80, 162 Chronic lung disease (CLD). See Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Chronological age, 61 Citrulline, 294 Classifications of preterm birth, 607-608 Clindamycin, 276, 277, 278 Clinical research on preterm birth. See also Career development in clinical research; Funding for clinical research and training; Training clinical researchers adolescent subjects, 448, 449, 681-682 barriers to, 7, 32, 34, 435-436, 438-439 ethical issues, 447-451, 679-682

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention federal activities, 446-447 informed consent, 448, 449, 680-681 institutional review boards, 448, 449 leadership challenges and needs, 8, 452-454 liability issues, 450-452 minimal risk vs no added risk, 448, 450-451, 680 multidisciplinary approach, 32, 452-453, 473-474 ob/gyn physician researcher workforce, 7, 32, 438-439, 440-446, 453-454 protections for subjects of, 448-451, 680-681 reimbursement for clinical services, 451-452, 453 Clinical Risk Index for Babies, 67 Co-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, 295, 296 Cocaine use, 24, 93-94, 134, 180, 191, 471, 631. See also Drug abuse Cochrane database, 292, 342 Cognitive impairment academic problems, 350, 357, 363-366, 374 attention deficits, 14, 32, 348, 363, 370 auditory processing and discrimination, 369 Bayley Scale of Infant Development, 357 birth weight and, 356, 357, 358-363, 364, 365 cystic PVL and, 335 development quotient, 355, 357 doxapram and, 321 economic costs of, 399, 403, 415-421, 424, 425 executive function disorder, 370 fetal brain sparing and, 71 gestational age at birth and, 356, 357, 358-363, 365, 372, 374 infections and, 325, 378 IQ scores, 71, 349, 354-363, 370, 371, 394, 425 language disorders, 14, 32, 328, 348, 363, 369-370, 374, 394 learning disabilities, 14, 32, 348, 363, 364-365, 369, 371, 374 memory, 363, 365, 369, 370 mental retardation, 14, 32, 47, 348, 353, 355-356, 374, 376, 399, 403, 415-421, 424, 425 spatial skills, 363, 394 and special education, 11, 47, 363, 364, 423-424, 717-719 steroid therapy and, 320 visual processing and perceptual deficits, 362-363, 365, 368-369, 394 Cohabitation, 127, 129 Collaborative Perinatal Project, 349 Colombia statistics and studies, 240, 343 Colony stimulating factors, 213 Colorado, 70 Community factors. See also Neighborhood conditions ethical issues, 654 methodological issues, 136, 144-146 modeling, 136, 139-140, 144-146 quality index, 145 racial/ethnic disparities, 136, 137, 138-139, 140 research needs, 141 social class disparities, 136, 139-141, 142, 233 stressful, 137, 142, 143-144 Complications. See Neonatal complications of preterm birth Computerized tomography, 333 Conduct disorders, 371 Conferences on preterm birth, 605 Congenital anomalies, 63, 64, 69, 163, 327, 328, 661, 663, 664, 669, 671-672 Congestive heart failure, 152 Connective tissue disorders, 189 Connexins CX-26, 181 CX-43, 171, 172, 174, 181 Contraction-associated proteins (CAPs), 171, 173, 174 Contractions. See Preterm labor; Uterine Coronary artery disease, 386 Corrected age, 61 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 102, 110, 170, 172-173, 174, 176, 179, 180, 187, 215, 269, 270 Cortisol, 102, 110, 172, 174, 179, 185, 192, 194, 297, 340 Costs of preterm birth. See Medical care costs of preterm birth; Societal costs of preterm birth Croatia, 233 CRYO Trial, 384 Cuban statistics and studies, 42, 49

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Cultural factors. See also Racial/ethnic disparities neighborhood characteristics, 142 in risk behaviors, 142 and stress, 26, 36, 111-112, 142 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 171, 173, 174, 291 Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, 171, 294 Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, 293 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 174, 187 Cystine, 199 Cytochrome P450, 216, 243 Cytokines, proinflammatory, 102, 132, 173, 174, 177, 179, 180, 184, 186, 187, 195, 205, 222, 252, 335 Cytomegalovirus, 82, 325, 329 Czech Republic statistics and studies, 233, 234, 235 D Data collection cause of death, 82 gene-environment interactions, 227 fetal deaths, 81, 82 perinatal, 9-10, 45, 79, 84 recommendations, 6, 8-10, 73, 84-85, 480-482 vital records, 9, 43, 60, 78, 79-81, 209 Data reporting ART-related outcomes, 16, 18, 45, 155, 157 artifacts of, 78, 635-636 birth weight, 9 infant outcomes, 15-16, 18, 45, 73-74, 155, 157 international differences, 43, 636-637 LMP, 80 quality of vital records, 79-81 resuscitation at delivery, 73 standards, 79 vital statistics, 9-10, 60, 78, 79-83 DDT, 231, 237-239, 241, 251, 252 Decidual hemorrhage, 17, 182-183, 269 membrane activation, 170, 172, 174, 175 Defensins, 220, 269, 272 Definitions of preterm birth, 4, 8, 31, 36, 56, 57-59, 72, 224, 230, 606-609 Delayed childbearing, 154. See also Maternal age Delinquency, 371, 394 Delivery method, 43-44. See also Cesarean delivery Denmark, statistics and studies, 42, 96, 103, 104, 112, 155, 371, 385 Depression maternal, 14, 103, 104, 107, 109, 111-112, 120, 380, 390 premature children, 371 Developmental disabilities. See Neurodevelopmental disabilities Dexamethasone, 297, 298, 299, 320 DHEA-S, 172, 173-174, 179 Diabetes mellitus fetal origins hypothesis, 387, 388 maternal, 44, 71, 80, 82, 148, 149, 150, 163, 263, 617, 622, 630-631 Diagnosis CNS complications, 333, 379 preterm labor, 12, 220, 268, 273, 284-287, 289-290; see also Prediction/predictors of preterm birth Dichloroacetic acid, 244 Dichlorobromomethane, 244 Dieldrin, 239, 241 Diet. See Nutrition, maternal Dioxin, 243-244, 250 Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, 202 District of Columbia, 168 Diuretics, 219, 333-334 DNA methylation, 164, 218 Domestic/personal violence, 110, 120, 135, 143 Douching, 99-100, 121, 131 Doxapram, 321 Drug abuse, 24, 26, 27, 36, 63, 89, 92-93, 121, 130-131, 133, 134, 180, 371, 471-472, 626 Dubowitz score, 67, 68, 71, 78, 612, 613 Due date, 60-61 Dysmorphic syndrome, 69 E Ear infections, 14, 370 Early intervention programs, 11, 15, 82, 202, 353, 380, 393-396, 399, 400, 402, 422-423, 469-470, 718-719

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, 459 Earned Income Tax Credits, 471 Earthquakes, 106, 111 Eclampsia, 655 Economic costs. See Medical care costs of preterm birth; Societal costs of preterm birth Education costs of preterm birth, 11, 47, 400, 423-424, 460, 706, 717-719 early intervention services, 393-395, 458, 460, 469, 472 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 373 Educational attainment, 114, 130, 390, 622, 628-629 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 209 Electroencephalography (EEG), 68 Electroretinography, 68 Embryonic chorionic gonadotropin, 187 Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, 672 Emotional and affective states. See also Anxiety; Depression; Prenatal stress, maternal intrusive thought, 112 linkages to preterm birth, 24, 102, 103, 104, 107-109, 110, 111 Employment occupational exposures to toxins, 231, 237, 240-241, 242, 246, 248, 249-250 physical demands of, 26, 36, 97-99, 110, 121, 133, 134-135, 136, 149, 265, 471 stress related to, 47, 97, 109-110, 135, 391 Endocrine pathways, 144, 179, 215 Endometrial cancer, 163 Endorphins, 340 Endotoxin, 200 Enterovirus, 82 Environmental Genome Project, 211 Environmental Protection Agency, 33 Environmental toxicants. See also Air pollution exposures agricultural chemicals, 231, 237-241, 251, 252 animal studies, 251 biological mechanisms, 251-252 chlorination disinfection by-products, 244-245 co-exposures, 231 cumulative exposures, 231-232 dioxin, 243-244, 250 environmental tobacco smoke, 22, 231, 245-247, 252, 321 exposure assessment, 231-232, 237, 244, 253 gene interactions, 226 and gestational age at birth, 237 maternal age and, 246 metals and metalloids, 22, 230, 231, 232, 247-249, 252 occupational exposures, 231, 237, 240-241, 242, 246, 248, 249-250 paternal exposures, 240, 243, 249-250 PCBs, 241-243, 251 phthalates, 252, 253 racial/ethnic disparities, 138, 233, 235, 240, 250-251 research needs, 253-254 residence as exposure proxy, 231, 232, 233, 235, 236, 250 socioeconomic disparities, 232-233, 240, 250 Epigenetics, 218-219 Epilepsy, 353 Erythromycin, 151, 275, 276, 277, 278, 296 Escherichia coli, 200 Estonia, 668 Estrogen receptor-alpha, 238 Estrogens, 172, 173-174, 175, 179, 187, 215 Ethical issues access to perinatal care, 673, 676-678 adolescents, 448, 449, 678, 681-682 Baby Doe regulations, 659, 665-666 brain death in pregnant women with periviable fetuses, 654-655 in decision making, 287, 645-652, 655 delivery room resuscitation, 658-659, 674-675 distributive justice of care, 678-679 end-of-life and LSMT practices, 645-652, 658-672 financial costs, 673-675 infertility treatments, 656-658 informed consent, 448, 449, 649-652, 653, 655, 656, 658, 659, 663, 668, 681

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention intrauterine interventions, 448, 655-656 legal precedents, 649-651, 658-659 maternal-fetal conflicts, 287, 652-658 maternal illness, 655 paternal rights, 448, 680-681 personhood, 653, 659-660 professional guidelines, 655-656, 662, 667-668 racism or ethnic prejudice, 678 in research, 447-448, 679-682 social and community context, 654 societal costs of preterm birth, 673-679 termination of pregnancy, 448, 681 viability threshold, 314, 448, 450-451, 647, 658-662, 681 Etiologies of preterm birth. See also Behavioral influences; Community factors; Gene-environment interactions; Genetic susceptibility; Medical and pregnancy conditions; Psychosocial factors animal models, 22 biological pathways, 21, 22, 37, 89, 143-144 environmental pollutants and, 22-23, 37 life course perspective, 37 modeling complex interactions, 25-26, 37, 141-142, 143, 144-147, 256-257, 272, 273 racial/ethnic disparities, 37, 77 research recommendations, 6, 21-23, 122-123, 255-256, 488-489 EURONIC project, 661, 668-669 European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, 166 Expression proteomics, 220 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 198 Extremely low birth weight, 59, 314, 448, 450-451, 647, 648, 650, 651, 658-662 Eye. See Ophthalmic impairment; Visual processing and perceptual deficits F Factor V, 82, 212 Family costs of preterm birth, 3, 47, 371, 391, 402, 426-427, 459, 675, 676, 706, 712 early intervention services, 393-395, 458, 460, 469 history of preterm birth, 12, 22, 152, 209 impacts of premature infants on, 14, 47, 389-393 parental leave policies, 638 participation in medical decision making, 72, 287, 645-652, 655, 659, 660, 664, 665, 666, 667, 668 public policies affecting, 471 Faroe Islands, 96 Fas-caspase apoptosis pathway, 191 Fatty acids, long-chain, 24, 94, 96-97 Feeding intolerance, 322, 337 Fenoterol, 291 Fentanyl, 340 Ferritin, 270 Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992, 165 Fetal adrenal androgen, 172, 185 brain sparing, 69, 71 congenital abnormalities, 64, 163, 327, 328 cortisol, 172, 185 death, 73, 74, 79, 81, 82, 152, 162, 186, 209, 279 developmental milestones, 317-318, 322, 326, 327, 328, 331-332 effects of tocolytics, 293 fibronectin, 267, 270, 271, 272, 275, 277, 285, 286 glucocorticoid effects, 297 growth, 58, 59, 95, 96, 109, 263, 298; see also Intrauterine growth restriction HPA axis, 171-172, 179, 185, 188, 269 immune interactions with maternal system, 150, 324 intrauterine interventions, 448, 655-656 lung development, 66, 70-71, 201-202, 317-318 membrane activation, 175 movement, 332 neurological development, 298, 331-332, 338-339 origins of adult disease, 386-389 red cell alloimmunization, 150 stress, 287 twin-to-twin transfusion sequence, 150 Fetomaternal hemorrhage, 82, 327

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Fibronectins, 175, 267, 270, 271, 272, 275, 277, 285, 286 Filipino women, 49-50 Finland, 26, 42, 129, 133, 693, 697 First And Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk trial, 162 Fish and fish oil, 96-97, 242 Flame retardants, 252 Florida, 450, 465, 697 Fluconazole, 325 Fluorescent polarization, 66 Folate, 24, 95, 219 Food and Drug Administration, 291, 447, 682 Foster care, 28 France, 42, 470, 605, 648, 668 Free radicals, 198-199, 204, 205, 333, 335 Functional Genomics and Proteomic Markers of Preterm Delivery and Their Variation by Race project, 729 Functional maturity, 68-69 Functional proteomics, 220 Funding for clinical research and training Burroughs Wellcome Fund, 438, 446, 731 CDC, 17, 446, 447, 729-730 clinical revenues and, 451-452, 453 March of Dimes, 20, 33, 446, 730 NICHD, 437, 447, 725, 726, 727 NIH, 227, 436, 437, 438, 446, 447, 452, 453-454, 725-729 by professional associations, 437 recommendations, 8, 32, 255 by subject area, 725-731 Fungal infections, 325 G G proteins, 173, 182 Gamete intrafallopial transfer (GIFT), 155, 156, 162. See also Assisted reproductive technologies Gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), 132, 213, 214, 222 Gap junctions, 171, 173, 174, 175, 177, 181, 293 Gardnerella vaginalis, 269 Gastroesophageal reflux, 321, 323-324 Gelatinase B, 175 Gender differences behavioral outcomes, 371 birth weight, 63, 70, 77 growth outcomes, 382 infant mortality rate, 77 pulmonary morbidity, 77 Gene-environment interactions epigenetic approaches, 218-219 goals of studies, 211, 216-217 infection/inflammation, 187, 211, 213-214, 217 methodological issues, 223-228 and parturition, 177, 187 racial/ethnic disparities and, 132-133, 223 smoking, 217 toxic agents, 226 General Health Questionnaire, 107 Genetic susceptibility analytical challenges, 224-228 candidate genes, 210, 212-216, 225 data management and integration, 227 disease-associated, 222-223 evidence of, 22, 209-216 family history of preterm birth, 12, 22, 152, 209 gene-gene interactions, 224 genetic association studies, 209-211, 226 haplotype analysis, 224 inflammation pathway, 212, 213-214 international comparisons, 209 maternal history of preterm labor/birth, 107, 149, 209 maternal vs. fetal genes, 226 microarray analysis, 216, 219 phenotype definition, 224 population admixture, 223, 225-226 positional cloning, 210 PPROM, 211-212, 223 and racial/ethnic disparities, 26, 27, 130, 132, 152, 209, 211-212, 221-223 reporting and replication of results, 228 sample size and power, 227 single-gene candidates, 209, 211-212 twin studies, 209 uteroplacental pathway, 214-215 whole-genome scanning, 210 Genital tract infections. See Infection and inflammation, maternal Geographic differences. See also International comparisons; individual states and countries comparisons, 636-638 infant mortality rate, 627, 631, 634, 638 malpractice insurance, 450

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention in preterm birth, 40-41, 617, 618 racial/ethnic disparities, 638-639 Geographic information systems, 144 Geonomic and Proteomic Network for Premature Birth Research, 221 Georgia, 41, 316-317, 677 Germany, 42 Gestational age fetal growth curves by, 58, 59, 63, 69-70 measurement, 9, 10, 38, 43, 59-65, 67-68, 70, 72, 78, 80, 83, 337, 609-614; see also Measurement of maturity and stress effects, 104 Gestational age at birth. See also Large for gestational age; Small for gestational age antibiotic therapy and, 278 ART and, 61 and birth defect–related preterm birth, 150 and birth weight, 8-9, 10, 59, 79, 242 categories, 58-59, 75, 79, 608 and cesarean delivery, 43-44 and cognitive impairment, 356, 357, 358-363, 365, 372, 374 and complications of preterm birth, 3, 13-14, 76, 201-202, 314, 349 data collection, 9-10, 79 defining preterm birth, 4, 8, 31, 36, 56, 57-59, 72, 606-609 environmental exposures, 237 interpregnancy interval, 153 and intrauterine infections, 184 and length of hospital stay, 407, 408 and lung development, 76, 201-202, 318, 319, 336 and management of care, 74, 76 maternal hypertension and, 617, 622 and medical costs, 401, 410-414, 428, 673, 674, 689, 694-695, 698-700, 704-705, 706-707, 711 misclassification, 79, 80 and mortality, 3, 13, 31, 40, 72-74, 79, 287, 288, 314-315, 406, 412, 627, 630, 632-635 multiple gestations and, 75, 161-162, 622 and neurodevelopmental disabilities, 14, 349, 350-351, 352, 353, 366, 367, 372, 416, 419 and ophthalmic impairment, 366 and outcomes, 347-348 as proxy for prematurity, 56-57, 59-65, 337, 609-614 serum eicosapentanoic acid levels and, 96 tobacco use and, 622 trends, 2-3, 31, 38-39, 614, 615, 616, 619, 623 and survival, 32, 74, 288, 289, 290 use of data, 79, 609-610 viability threshold, 65, 314, 448, 450-451, 647, 658-662, 681 Glaucoma, 331, 368 Glucocorticoids, 172, 179-180, 203, 287, 297 Glucose metabolism, 99, 386, 387 Glutamate, 199, 212, 335 Glutamic acid, 212 Glutathione, 199 Glutathione peroxidase, 199 Glycoprotein, 271 Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), 270, 272 Greece, 153 Growth fetal, 58, 59, 95, 96, 109, 263, 298; see also Intrauterine growth restriction premature infants, 3, 32, 320, 321, 381-382 Gsα regulatory proteins, 173 Guatemala, 42 H Haloacetic acids, 244 Hammersmith hospital, 663 Haplotypes, 210 Harris, Lisa, 654 Hawaiian women, 49-50 Health insurance ART coverage, 158, 165, 167 burden on private payers, 705-706 interconception care, 466 managed care reimbursement policies, 467 Medicaid and Medicare, 19, 20, 28, 404, 406, 417, 456-460, 462-463, 464-465, 466 reimbursement for clinical services in research, 451-452 SCHIP, 19, 457, 458, 465 and utilization of services, 638

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Oral contraceptive use, 60 Orciprenaline, 291 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 710 Organophosphate pesticides, 239-240, 241 Otitis media, 328 Outcomes for premature infants. See also Cognitive impairment; Neurodevelopmental disabilities accuracy of professional estimates of, 651-652 antibiotic therapy and, 22, 132, 151, 186, 274, 275, 276-280 ART and, 17, 46, 162, 657 behavioral and socio-emotional problems, 14, 32, 47, 349, 350, 370-372, 375, 376-377, 381, 394, 396 early intervention and, 15, 82, 202, 353, 380, 393-396, 469-470 educational achievement, 365-366, 376, 377, 381, 394 family impacts, 389-393, 395-396 fetal-origins hypothesis, 386-389 functional, 349, 369, 374-377, 384, 392, 396 gestational age at birth and, 347-348 growth, 3, 32, 320, 321, 381-382, 387, 388 health, 3, 14, 32, 202, 320, 380-381, 386-389 intact survival, 373-374 maternal mental health and, 378, 380, 390 measures, 14, 25, 36, 59, 349 methodological issues, 14, 25, 36, 59, 347, 349, 377, 386-387, 396-397 multiple disabilities, 371-372 neonatal factors, 318, 319, 320, 321, 378-379 prenatal and intrapartum predictors, 378 quality of care and, 409, 465, 631, 633, 677-678 quality of life, 383-386 reporting, 15-16, 18, 45, 73-74, 155, 157 research recommendations, 13-16, 349, 378, 392-393, 430-431, 484-485 severity of disability and, 372-374, 390 social support and, 390 socioeconomic conditions and, 379-380, 396 treatment interventions, 12, 288-301 Ovarian cancer, 163, 338 Ovulation hyperstimulation syndrome, 163 Ovulation promotion, 16, 17, 18, 45, 157, 160, 162, 163, 167, 168, 258 Oxidative stress, 197, 204-205 Oxytocin and parturition process, 170, 171, 172, 175, 178, 179, 215 receptor antagonists, 291, 293-294 receptors, 174, 177, 181, 215, 294 Ozone, 234, 235, 236-237 P p53 protein, 191 Pancuronium, 334 Papiernik, Émile, 605 Parathyroid hormone-related peptide, 171 Parity, and risk of preterm birth, 628-629 Parturition process animal models, 22, 181, 184, 185, 186, 187, 192-196, 199-200, 251, 254 ART and, 177 behavioral response, 180-181 Braxton-Hicks contractions, 171 cervical ripening, 170, 172, 174-175, 181 CRH and, 170, 172-173, 174, 176, 179, 180, 187, 215 decidual and fetal membrane activation, 170, 172, 174, 175 decidual hemorrhage and, 17, 182-183 environmental toxicants and 251-252, 254 estrogens and, 172, 173-174, 175, 179, 187, 215 gene-environment interactions and, 177, 187 implantation errors and, 187-188 infection and inflammation and, 21, 22, 36, 135, 176, 179-180, 184-187, 195-196, 199-200, 213-214, 251, 252, 265, 325 intrauterine vascular lesions and, 176-177 involution, 170, 175 maternal health risk, 13 myometrial activation, 170, 171-172, 263 myometrial stimulation, 170, 171, 172-175

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention NIH research portfolio, 726-727 normal pathways, 170-176 obesity and, 94 oxytocin and, 170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 181, 215, 293 placental clock, 111, 172-173, 176, 177-181, 188 preterm pathogenesis, 12, 111, 176-189 progesterone and, 171, 172, 173, 174, 179, 181, 187, 215 prostaglandins and, 96, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174-175, 177, 178, 184, 185, 195, 215, 251, 293 quiescence, 170, 171, 173, 292 research needs, 189 signaling mechanisms for labor, 68, 110, 171-173, 179, 185, 251 stress and, 111, 177-181 uterine contractility, 170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 182, 185, 215, 251 uterine overdistension and, 181 uteroplacental thrombosis and, 182-183, 214-215 Parvovirus infection, 82 Patent ductus arteriosus, 198, 293, 297, 326-327 Paternal exposure to environmental toxicants, 240, 243, 249-250 perceptions of impacts, 391 rights, 448, 680-681 Pennsylvania, 234, 450, 664, 696 Perhydroxyl, 204 Perinatal care. See also Neonatal intensive care units access to, 673, 676-678 evidence-based selective referral, 20-21, 468 quality of, 19, 20, 31-32, 133, 469, 631, 633, 676 regionalization, 20, 316-317, 676 Perinatal mortality antenatal maternal treatment and, 297, 298, 300 ART and, 657 data reporting, 10, 82 defined, 73-74, 82 gestational age and, 288 regionalization and NICU access and, 289, 292, 677-678 viability limit and, 73-74, 82, 630 Periodontal infections, 110, 184, 186, 187, 265, 279-280 Peritonitis, 323 Periventricular white matter disease (PWMD) animal models, 196-197, 199-200 antenatal corticosteroid therapy and, 297 cerebral atrophy, 334, 335, 336, 379 cerebral white matter lesions, 196, 197, 199-200 cerebrovascular regulatory impairment and, 198, 333, 335 hypoperfusion and, 197 incidence, 196 infection or inflammation and, 199-200, 317, 326, 335 and neurodevelopmental diabilities, 335-336 periventricular leukomalacia, 196-197, 199-200, 297, 298, 333, 335, 336, 366, 379 pre-OL vulnerability, 198-199, 335 and strabismus, 366 in ventilated premature infants, 198 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, 252 Personal resources, 118-120, 127 Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity and Reconciliation Act, 462 Personhood, 653, 659-660 PGDH, 174 PGE, 181 PGE2, 174, 191 PGF2α, 174 PGHS, 174 PGHS-2, 181 Pharmacogenetics Research Network and Knowledge Base (PharmGKB), 227 Phenobarbital, 300, 334 Philippines, 153 Phosphatidylglycerol, 66 Phospholipase A2, 191, 251 Phospholipase C, 182 Phthalates, 252, 253 Phthisis, 331 Physical activity leisure, 24, 99 neonatal, 341 occupational demands, 26, 36, 97-99, 110, 121, 133, 134-135, 136, 149, 265, 471

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention protective effects, 99, 341 reduction, 273, 282, 283 Physiological severity measures, 66-67 Placenta previa, 163, 262, 265 Placental abruption, 45, 70, 90, 150, 162-163, 182, 183, 189, 265 clock, 172-173, 177-181 infarction, 70 separation, 175 Plasmin, 175 Platelet-activating factor, 205 Pneumonia, neonatal, 295, 325 Pneumothorax, 202, 334 Poland, 248 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 252 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 241-243, 251 Polyhydramnios, 181, 191, 209, 610 Porencephaly, 379 Post-NICU discharge interventions Avon Premature Infant Project, 394-395 early infant and childhood, 393-394 National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, 395-396 Post-term infants, 80 Post-traumatic stress disorder, 112 Postdate pregnancy, 263 Postmenstrual age, 61, 69 Postpartum endometritis, 185 Prediction/predictors of preterm birth biological, 220, 269-271 biophysical, 267-269, 270, 272 Bishop scores, 267 cervical examination, 267, 268-269 clinical, 265-267 fetal fibronectin, 267, 270, 271, 272 lower genital tract markers, 269, 270, 271, 272 multiple-marker approach, 271-273 rationale for, 264-265, 272 research needs, 272-273 sensitivity, 3, 270 serum biomarkers, 269, 270 uterine contractions, 267-268 Preeclampsia, 45, 70, 82, 148, 150, 162, 163, 186, 188, 219, 220, 221, 262, 263, 655 Pregnancy Outcomes in Community Health Study, 729 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 105, 120 Premature rupture of membranes (PROM). See also Preterm premature rupture of membranes corticosteroid therapy, 297 defined, 182 emotional and affective factors, 111 lead exposure and, 247 mechanisms, 183, 220 nutrition and, 95 occupational fatigue and, 98 prolonged, 70 smoking and, 90 Prenatal care. See also Neonatal intensive care units; Perinatal care access to, 9, 19, 26-27, 34, 36, 64, 133, 143, 273, 282, 316 data reporting on, 79, 81 focus of, 263 Medicaid eligibility, 19, 465 and preterm birth rate, 131, 139, 143, 265, 465, 633 prior reports on, 34 racial/ethnic disparities and, 26-27, 36, 64, 131, 133, 679 socioeconomic conditions and, 133, 135, 143 stress and, 181 time of initiation, 79, 81, 606 ultrasound standard, 9, 64, 83 Prenatal counseling, 651 Prenatal education, 101 Prenatal stress, maternal animal models, 102, 180 behavioral response, 180-181 biological responses, 101, 110, 144, 179-180, 626 and birth weight, 104, 180 catastrophic events, 24, 27, 105-106, 107, 111, 121, 180 chronic exposures, 24, 27, 105, 106-107, 110, 111, 121, 135, 137, 142, 180, 626 community context, 137, 142, 143-144 coping strategies, 137, 180 cultural considerations, 26, 36, 111-112, 142 defined, 177 developmental effects, 102 domestic/personal violence, 24, 110, 135 emotional components, 24, 102, 103, 104, 107-109, 110, 111, 121-122

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention fetal response, 71, 102, 104 gestational age and, 104 household strain, 110 immune and inflammatory processes, 101, 110, 144, 179-180 intervention trials, 101 life events, 24, 103, 104-105, 108, 112, 121, 132, 135, 181, 625 linking mechanisms, 110-111 measuring, 146 methodological issues, 101, 103-104, 146, 180 and neurobehavioral indices, 102 neuroendocrine processes, 144, 179 observational studies, 101 occupational/work, 47, 97, 109-110, 135 physiologic reactivity, 111 and placental clock, 177-181 and racial/ethnic disparities, 105, 106-107, 109, 112, 113-114, 130, 132, 133 racism and discrimination and, 24, 113-114, 123, 132, 136 reduction, 273, 282 research recommendations, 122-123 and risk of preterm birth, 265 socioeconomic conditions and, 27, 97, 106-107, 112, 113, 135, 142 unintended pregnancy and, 120, 135 vulnerable time during pregnancy, 108 Preterm Birth Among Inner City Women: Bacterial Vaginosis, Stressors and Race project, 729 Preterm labor, 608-609. See also Parturition process antibiotic therapy, 273, 295-296 anxiety and, 108, 111 bed rest, 275 clinical evidence, 263 contraction monitoring, 274, 275, 276 diagnosis, 12, 220, 268, 273, 284-287, 289-290 efficacy of interventions, 289 ethical issues, 287 genetic markers, 223 history of, 107, 274, 275 infections/inflammation and, 211, 295 racial/ethnic disparities, 77 and risk of preterm birth, 267-268, 286-287, 608 sexual activity and, 99 symptoms, 284 tocolytic agents and, 184, 273, 275, 276, 280, 285, 289, 290-295 twins, 275 Preterm Prediction Study, 93, 94, 271-272 Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), 608. See also Premature rupture of membranes antibiotic therapy and, 278, 296, 727 genetic susceptibility, 211-212, 223 potential mechanisms, 183, 190-191, 211 previous, 189 racial/ethnic disparities, 77-78, 211-212 risk factors, 189-190, 608-609 uteroplacental thrombosis and, 182-183 Prevention of preterm birth. See also Treatment interventions antibiotic therapy, 22, 132, 274, 275, 276-280 cerclage, 273, 274, 281-282 early detection and suppression of labor, 264, 273, 275-276 economic evaluation, 427-428 efficacy of interventions, 12, 264, 272-283, 633 focus of efforts, 3, 264 medical interventions, 273-280 neighborhood interventions, 143 nonmedical interventions, 273, 274, 282-283 preconception care, 264, 278-279 progesterone supplements, 272, 273, 274, 280-281 research needs, 4 surgical interventions, 273, 281-282 Prevotella, 269 Progesterone antagonist, 194 and parturition process, 171, 172, 173, 174, 179, 181, 187, 192 receptor, 173, 215 supplements, 272, 273, 274, 280-281, 727-728, 729-73 Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, 143 Prolactin, 214 Prostacyclin (PGI2), 171 Prostaglandins H2 synthase, 173

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention and parturition process, 96, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174-175, 177, 178, 184, 185, 186, 191, 195, 251 receptors, 174, 215 Protease-activated receptors, 182 Proteinuria, 149 Proteoaminoglycans, 174-175 Proteomics, 219-221, 272 Psychosocial factors. See also Prenatal stress, maternal emotional response and affective states, 110-111, 121-122 individual-level perspective, 37, 89, 123 intendedness of pregnancy, 24, 118, 120-121, 123 personal resources, 118-120, 123 research recommendations, 122-123 social support, 115-118, 122, 136 violence, 24 Public health databases, 79-81 Public policies and programs. See also individual programs coordination of, 469-470 early intervention, 28, 469-470 economic burdens of preterm birth, 28, 456-472 education, 28, 456, 460 expenditures, 456-463 financing health care, 28, 456-460, 462-63, 464-466, 470 foster care, 456, 458, 463 income supports, 28, 456, 457, 459, 460-462, 470 juvenile justice, 458, 463 options for improving outcomes, 464-472 pro-family, 471 quality-of-care initiatives, 466-469 research recommendations, 6-7, 28-29, 474-475, 479, 491-492 social reforms, 470-472 Puerto Rican women, 49, 129 Pyelonephritis, 279 Q Quality of care managed care and, 467 measures of, 467 NICU, 18, 20, 466 perinatal, 466-469 prenatal, 18-19, 20 racial/ethnic disparities, 77 regionalization and, 20, 467-469, 676 Quality of life, 383-386, 428, 663, 668, 669 R Racial/ethnic disparities, 638-639. See also individual racial or ethnic groups access to care, 315, 678 behavioral and social factors, 26, 27, 36, 92, 100, 129-131, 133 birth weight, 25, 63, 70, 76, 77, 105, 112, 113, 114, 121, 130, 138-139, 140, 154, 209 classification of racial and ethnic groups, 48, 221 community context, 136, 137, 138-139, 140 educational attainments and, 130 etiology of preterm birth, 77-78 exposure to environmental toxicants, 138, 233, 235, 240, 250-251 fetal maturation rate, 78 gene-environment interactions, 132-133, 223 genetic influences, 26, 27, 130, 132, 152, 209, 211-212, 221-223 gestational age distributions at birth, 619 gestational age estimates, 67-68, 76-78, 80, 612 geographic differences, 638-639 infant mortality rates, 26, 36, 50-51, 76, 77, 78, 112, 113, 130, 315-316, 630, 638-639 infections, 26, 27, 36, 50-51, 100, 130, 132, 133, 278 infertility problems, 158 interpregnancy interval, 153 intra- and inter-group variations, 129, 146 life-course perspective, 37 marital status-related risks, 125, 127, 128 maternal-age-related risks, 126, 127, 128 measuring risk, 138 nativity and duration of residence and, 26, 129, 133, 140, 146, 628-629 prenatal care, 9, 26-27, 36, 64, 131, 133 prenatal stress, 26, 27, 36, 111-112, 130, 132, 133

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention psychosocial factors and, 105, 106-107, 109, 112, 113, 114, 119, 132 quality of care, 77 rates of preterm birth, 4, 5, 12, 26-27, 36, 48-49, 76, 105, 106-107, 109, 112, 113, 120-121, 126, 130, 133, 465, 631 research recommendations, 6, 26-27, 48, 147, 158, 257, 490-491 risk of preterm birth, 106-107, 109, 120-121, 126, 129-135, 149, 151, 152, 209, 233, 265, 271, 628-629 sociodemographic risk factors, 125, 126, 129-133 socioeconomic disparities, 26, 51, 106-107, 112, 113, 114, 120-121, 125, 129, 130, 133-135, 147, 250 vital record reporting, 617 Racism and discrimination, 24, 36, 113-114, 132, 471, 678 RAND Corporation, 465 Reactive airway disease, 14, 32, 319, 323-324, 422 Reactive oxygen species, 191, 205 Recombinant human erythropoietin, 329, 336 Recommendations. See Research recommendations Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 665 Rehabilitation services, 459 Relaxin, 171, 215, 270 Renal disorders, maternal, 149 Reporting. See Data reporting on preterm birth Reproductive research. See Clinical research on preterm birth Reproductive Scientist Development Program, 437 Research recommendations. See also Clinical research on preterm birth; Funding for clinical research and training behavioral and psychosocial risk factors, 23-26, 122-123 causes of preterm birth, 255-258 clinical and health services research, 6, 12-21, 473-474, 482-488 data collection, 6, 8-10, 84-85, 480-482 delivery of health care, 19-21, 474, 488 diagnosis and treatment, 12-13, 308-309, 483-484 economic consequences, 6, 10-12, 431, 482 etiology of preterm birth, 6, 21-23, 188, 255-256, 488-489 evaluation of public programs and policies, 6-7, 28-29, 474-475, 479, 491-492 infertility treatments, 16-18, 257-258, 485-487 multidisciplinary research centers, 6, 7-8, 473-474, 479-480 multiple gestations, 16-18, 258, 485-487 multiple risk factors, 256-257, 489-490 outcomes of preterm birth, 13-16, 349, 430-431, 484-485 priorities, 6, 8-27, 478-479, 480-491 quality of care, 18-19, 474, 487 racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities, 6, 26-27, 48, 257, 490-491 Respiratory distress syndrome antenatal maternal steroids and, 77, 296, 297, 298, 299-300, 318 biological mechanisms, 66, 202 gestational age at birth and, 76, 318, 336 incidence, 318, 336 inflammation and, 205 management practices and, 343 mortality rate, 202, 318 racial/ethnic disparities, 77, 318 respiratory support, 204, 296, 318-319, 403 surfactant therapy, 202, 204, 296, 299-300, 318, 690, 728 thyrotropin releasing hormone and, 300 Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 320-321, 707 Restrictive lung disease, maternal, 149 Resuscitation at delivery, 72, 73, 74, 82, 647, 649, 650-651, 658-659, 673-675 Retinoblastoma, 164 Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), 317, 326, 329-331, 366, 368, 375, 378, 384, 707 Retroplacental hematomas, 183 Rhode island, 168 Risk factors for preterm birth. See also Prediction/predictors of preterm birth behavioral and psychosocial, 625-626 demographic, 625 efficacy of interventions by, 274-275

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention for indicated preterm birth, 149, 150, 262 medical, 624, 625 multifactoral nature of, 5, 37, 626 mutable, 626 sensitivity of biomarkers, 270 strongest factors, 12, 265-267 trends in preterm birth by, 624-627, 628-631, 632 Risk factors for rehospitalization, 716 Ritodrine, 291-292, 294-295 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 467 RU-486, 194 Rubella, 263, 325 Russian Federation, 42, 243 S Salbutamol, 291 Saturated phosphatidylcholine, 66 Scoring for Neonatal Acute Physiology, 67 Scotland, 26, 133, 646, 647 Sepsis, neonatal, 76, 295, 296, 298, 323, 325, 330, 331, 334 Sexual activity, 99, 377 Sexually transmitted infections, 27, 110, 132, 133, 135, 325 Shake test, 66 Sickle cell disease, 222 Single mothers, 127, 129, 135, 606, 617, 628-629 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 210, 211, 216, 224 Small for gestational age, 4, 36, 58-59, 69-70, 79, 97-98, 212, 315, 386, 387, 606, 607, 609, 637, 657 Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, 209 SNP Consortium Ltd., 209 Social Security Administration, 461 Social support and birth weight or fetal growth, 116, 143 conceptualizations, 115 defining and measuring, 115 emotional support, 115 information, 115 instrumental aid, 115 intervention research, 101, 115, 116-118 marital status and, 127 neighborhood environment and, 137, 143 observational studies, 115-116 and outcomes, 390 Societal costs of preterm birth. See also Medical care costs of preterm birth aggregate annual, 31, 47, 399 caregiver, 402, 426-427 cognitive impairment, 399, 403, 415-421, 424, 425 cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, 689-690 cost-of-illness methodology, 402-403, 688, 689 data sources and search strategies, 690-691 definitions, 688-689 direct costs, 402, 415, 688, 707-717 early intervention services, 11, 399, 400, 402, 422-423, 675 economic evaluation of preventive measures, 427-428 education, 11, 47, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 415, 417, 423-424, 456, 457, 675, 706, 717-719 ethical issues, 673-679 family, 3, 47, 371, 402, 426-427, 459, 675, 676, 706, 712 indirect (household and labor market productivity), 11, 47, 399, 400, 402, 403, 415, 417, 425, 712, 713, 719, 720 international comparisons, 690, 692-699, 707, 710 methods, 689-691 per patient, 399, 691, 705, 707, 708, 710, 711-712 policy and research recommendations, 6, 10-12, 431, 482, 721-722 population description, 689-690 projections, 691 public programs, 28, 456-463 studies of, 691, 692-700 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, 165 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 33, 437 Society for Pediatric Research, 690 Sociodemographic risk factors. See also Geographic differences; Maternal age; Racial/ethnic disparities; Socioeconomic conditions birth defects, 151

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention and impacts of preterm birth, 14-15 marital or cohabitation status, 127-129, 135, 628-629 Socioeconomic conditions and behavioral factors, 90, 93, 133, 134-135 and birth weight, 139-140 clustering of disadvantages, 138 community context, 139-141, 142, 233 confounding in behavioral and psychosocial studies, 90, 93, 94, 97, 98, 121, 133 and costs of preterm birth, 718 distributive justice issues, 678-679 exposure to environmental toxicants, 232-233, 240, 250 infections, 26-27, 135 international comparisons, 133 mediators of preterm birth, 133-135 and multiple gestations, 135, 158 and nutrition, 94, 95, 133, 134 and outcomes of preterm birth, 379-380, 396 and personal resources, 119 prenatal care, 135 and racial/ethnic disparities, 51, 129, 130, 133-135, 147 and risk of preterm birth, 4, 5, 24, 26, 36, 51, 60, 98, 126, 133-135, 136, 470-471, 628-629 and stress, 27, 97, 106-107, 112, 135, 142 Sodium nitroprusside, 175 Solvents, 249 South Africa, 42 South Carolina, 77, 677 Spain, 26, 42, 133, 239, 247-248 Special education, 11, 47, 363, 364, 399, 400, 415, 417, 423-424, 458, 460, 673, 717-718 Special Education Expenditure Project, 424 Spina bifida, 150 Spontaneous preterm birth, defined, 36. See also Parturition process State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 19, 457, 458, 465 Stem cells, 327 Strabismus, 14, 331, 366 Streptokinase, 333-334 Stress. See also Prenatal stress, maternal defined, 100-101 on families, 47 neonatal, 340 oxidative, 204-205 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 447 Sudan, 42 Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 321 Sulindac, 293 Sulfur dioxide, 22-23, 231, 233-234, 235-236, 237, 252 Superovulation therapies, 16, 17, 18, 45, 157, 160, 258 Superoxide, 199, 204 Supplemental Security Income, 28, 457, 458, 459, 460-462 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 417, 425 Sweden end-of-life practices, 668 health care policies, 26, 166-167, 168, 470, 677 preterm birth studies and statistics, 42, 110, 133, 209, 234, 248, 351, 353, 369, 376, 677 Switzerland, 42 Sympathoadrenal-medullary (SAM) system, 179 Syphilis, 325 Systemic lupus erythematosus, 148, 149, 150 T Taiwan, 244 Tay-Sachs disease, 222 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, 28, 458, 459, 462, 470, 471 Terbutalin, 291, 292 Termination of pregnancy induced, 64, 73, 657, 660, 681 spontaneous abortion, 60, 81, 188 Terrorist attacks of 9/11, 105-106, 111 Tetracycline, 276, 278 Texas, 650, 696 Th1-type cytokine, 188 Th2-type cytokines, 188 Thailand, 97-98 Theophylline, 321 Thompson, Tommy, 446 Thrombin, 177, 182-183, 191 Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complex, 183, 269

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Thrombin receptor agonist peptide type 14, 191 Thrombophilias, 82 Thromboxane B2, 205 Thyroid disease, 82 Thyroxine, 336 Title V Maternal and Child Health programs, 28, 458, 462-469 Tobacco use and birth weight, 90, 217, 283 confounding in environmental studies, 235 cultural context, 142 gene-smoking interaction, 217 and gestational age at birth, 622 and hypertension, 91 interventions, 101 and IUGR, 217 maternal age and, 92 as outcome of preterm birth, 371 prenatal stress and, 181 and preterm birth, 36, 90, 91-92, 130-131, 134, 136, 217, 266, 317, 622, 630-631 prevalence, 217 and PPROM, 189, 191 racial/ethnic disparities and, 27, 36, 92, 131, 317, 679 and rehospitalization risk, 716 second-hand smoke, 22, 231, 245-247, 252, 321 socioeconomic conditions and, 90, 133, 134 unintended pregnancy and, 120 Tocolytic (labor-inhibiting) agents, 184, 273, 280, 290-295 Toll-like receptors, 187, 211, 214 Topiramate, 199 Toxics Release Inventory, 253 Toxoplasma, 325 Training clinical researchers costs, 438 funding, 436, 437 length of training, 438-439 Transforming growth factor, 214 Treatment interventions. See also Antibiotics; Life-sustaining medical treatment antenatal, to reduce neonatal morbidity, 12, 77, 74, 287, 289, 291, 295-300, 318 CNI complications, 333-334, 336 corticosteroids, 296-299, 334 informed decision making, 287-288, 289 maternal transfer, 12-13, 287, 289, 291, 292, 295, 300-301 off-label medicine use, 447-448 strategies and effectiveness, 12, 288-301 tocolytic drugs, 184, 273, 275, 276, 290-295 Trends in preterm birth ART and, 45-47, 617 data reporting issues, 635-636 delivery method, 43-44, 622, 623 extremely low risk mothers, 622, 624 geographic differences, 40-41, 614-617, 618, 620-621, 630, 631 by gestational age, 2-3, 31, 38-39, 614, 615, 616, 619, 623 hypertensive or diabetic mother, 617, 622 infant mortality rate, 39-40, 627, 630-631, 632-625 international comparisons, 42-43 marital status, 617 maternal age, 44-45, 617, 632 multiple births, 45-47, 617, 622, 623 racial/ethnic disparities, 614, 616, 617, 619-622, 631 rates, 2-3, 38, 406, 604, 614-617 by risk factor, 624-627, 628-631, 632 singleton, 39 smokers, 617, 622 socioeconomic status, 622-623 Trichloroacetic acid, 244 Trichomonas vaginalis, 99, 277, 279 Trihalomethanes, 244, 245 Tryptophan, 219 Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), 132, 174, 179, 185, 191, 200, 205, 211, 212, 213-214, 217, 269, 271 U Ultrasound access to, 64, 611 cervical evaluation, 268-269, 271, 281-282, 285 costs and benefits, 64-65, 68 cranial, 68 gestational age measurement, 9, 10, 59, 62-65, 68-69, 78, 80, 81, 83, 85, 610-611, 612

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention neuroimaging, 333, 335 safety, 65 standards of practice, 9, 64, 83 timing of, 80 training of personnel, 83, 611 weight estimates by, 70 Underweight women, 109, 148, 151, 154, 188 Unintended pregnancy, 24, 120-121, 135 United Arab Emirates, 153 United Kingdom, 42, 385, 394-395, 409, 376, 668, 675-676, 690, 692, 693, 696, 697, 712 United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 42 University of California at San Francisco, 664 University of Chicago, 665, 672, 674 University of Michigan, 727 University of North Carolina, 661 Urban Institute, 463 Ureaplasma urealyticum, 185, 270, 276 Urinary tract infections maternal, 110, 132, 133, 184, 276 neonatal, 325 U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project, 238 U.S. Department of Education, 15 Office of Special Education Programs, 395 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 446, 448 U.S. National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, 209 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 48 Utah Birth Defects Prevention Network, 150 Uterine abnormality, 266 artery resistance, 102 contractility/contractions, 170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 182, 185, 215, 251, 267-268, 291 overdistension, 181, 269 stretch, 170, 171, 181 tumors, 158 Uterine-derived catecholestrogen, 187 Uteroplacental genetic pathways, 214-215 insufficiency, 63, 69, 611 thrombosis, 182-183 V Vaginal bleeding, 12, 62, 183, 191, 265 Vaginal microflora, 100 Vaginosis. See Bacterial vaginosis Vascular epithelial growth factor, 187 Ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunt, 333-334 Vermont, 651 Vermont Oxford Network, 404, 408, 409, 468, 469 Very low birth weight, 21, 47, 59, 79, 105, 113, 114, 196, 202-203, 325, 403-404, 409, 423, 468, 646, 657 Viability threshold, 65, 314, 448, 450-451, 647, 658-662, 681 Vietnam, 243, 250 Violence, 24, 110, 138 Virginia, 41, 671-672 Visual processing and perceptual deficits, 362-363, 365, 368-369, 394. See also Ophthalmic impairment Vital records, 43 Vitamin A, 319 Vitamin C, 24, 95, 189, 274 Vitamin E, 274, 331, 334 Vitamin K, 300, 334 W Wayne State University, 727 Weight. See Maternal weight West Africa, 240 Whites (non-Hispanic) alcohol use, 27 birth certificate data, 81 birth weights, 77, 130, 140, 209, 679 BMI (maternal), 151 douching practices, 100 educational attainment, 130 estimates of gestational age in, 67-68 illicit drug use, 27 income and net worth, 146 infant mortality rate, 51, 130, 630 infections/inflammation, 27, 100, 132, 222 infertility, 158 interpregnancy interval, 153 IUGR, 107 marital status, 128 maternal age, 128 multiple births, 617

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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention neighborhood environment, 137, 138, 140, 143 prenatal care, 131 rate of preterm birth, 5, 26, 48, 76, 128, 130, 315, 614, 616, 617, 620-621, 622, 678, 679 risk of preterm birth, 209, 212, 265 stress, 107, 108, 132 tobacco use, 27, 92, 131, 617 WIC program, 470 Wisconsin, 242, 659, 665, 666, 682, 693 Women’s Reproductive Health Research program, 437 World Health Organization, 42, 57, 72, 383 Y Yaffe, S., 605 Yeast infection, 277 Z Zinc supplementation, 95 Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), 155, 156. See also Assisted reproductive technologies