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Committee on the Guide to Recruiting and Advancing Women Scientists and Engineers in Academia Committee on Women in Science and Engineering Policy and Global Affairs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by The Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Grant No. 1001461, 1001461.01, 1004684; The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Grant No. 70200- 50016; the Sloan Foundation, Grant No. B2000-17; the National Science Founda- tion, Grant No. HRD-0120774; and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opin- ions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data To recruit and advance women students and faculty in U.S. science and engineering / Committee on the Guide to Recruiting and Advancing Women Scientists and Engineers in Academia, Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, Policy and Global Affairs, National Research Council of the National Academies. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-09521-2 (pbk.) -- ISBN 0-309-54715-6 (pdf) 1. Women in science-- United States. 2. Women scientists--United States. 3. Science--Vocational guidance--United States. 4. Science--Study and teaching (Higher)--United States. 5. Women in engineering--United States. 6. Women engineers--United States. 7. Engineering--Vocational guidance--United States. 8. Engineering-- Study and teaching (Higher)--United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Guide to Recruiting and Advancing Women Scientists and Engineers in Academia. Q130.T6 2006 507.1073--dc22 2006016786 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http:// www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating soci- ety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedi- cated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal gov- ernment. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering commu- nities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE GUIDE TO RECRUITING AND ADVANCING WOMEN SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS IN ACADEMIA Lilian Wu, Chair, Director of University Relations, International Business Machines Uma Chowdhry, Director of Engineering Technology, DuPont Engineering (until December 2004) Ralph J. Cicerone, Former Chancellor, University of California, Irvine (until January 2005) Alice S. Huang, Senior Councilor, External Relations, and Biology Faculty Associate, California Institute of Technology Kathryn O. Johnson, Owner/Principal, Matrix Consulting Group William Phillips, Fellow, Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology Darryll J. Pines, Program Manager, Defense Sciences Office, DARPA Sue V. Rosser, Dean, Ivan Allen College, Georgia Institute of Technology Sally Shaywitz, Co-director, Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention, Yale University School of Medicine Julia Weertman, Professor Emerita, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Northwestern University Project Staff Jong-on Hahm, Study Director (until October 14, 2005) John Sislin, Study Director (from October 15, 2005) Elizabeth Briggs Huthnance, Senior Program Associate Amaliya Jurta, Senior Program Assistant (through July 2002) v

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COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Lilian Wu, Chair, Director of University Relations, International Business Machines Lotte Bailyn, T. Wilson Professor of Management, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ilene Busch-Vishniac, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University Ralph J. Cicerone, Former Chancellor, University of California, Irvine (until January 2005) Allan Fisher, President and CEO, iCarnegie, Inc. Sally Shaywitz, Co-director, Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention, Yale University School of Medicine Julia Weertman, Professor Emerita, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Northwestern University Staff Jong-on Hahm, Director (until October 14, 2005) Peter Henderson, Acting Director (from October 15, 2005) Charlotte Kuh, Deputy Executive Director, Policy and Global Affairs Division John Sislin, Program Officer Elizabeth Briggs Huthnance, Senior Program Associate Amaliya Jurta, Senior Program Assistant (through July 2002)

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Preface A lthough more women than men participate in higher education in the United States, the same is not true of careers in U.S. science and engineering (S&E). Women students and faculty in S&E ex- perience higher attrition rates than men. Women students are awarded a large portion of S&E baccalaureate degrees, but at each subsequent stage the percentages drop. As a result, women faculty are scarce in S&E. As for women who do reach that level, studies have found that they are subject to gender disparities in salaries and workload (e.g., women have less time for research because more time is spent on counseling and service com- mittees). Meanwhile, women advance more slowly through the academic hierarchy, and a higher proportion leaves academic employment. Although their numbers are increasing, women also are underrepre- sented at the highest tiers of administrative positions. Many women have succeeded, as demonstrated by enrollments, degrees completed, and the presence of women faculty, deans, and university presidents. But their success also reveals the challenges that women face in trying to do so. This guide is about enhancing women's participation in academia in sci- ence and engineering. In compiling this guide the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering of the National Academies sought to move beyond yet an- other catalog of challenges facing the advancement of women in aca- demic S&E to provide a document describing actions actually taken by universities to improve the situation for women. In addition, the com- mittee sought to show that the increase in participation of women can be vii

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viii PREFACE achieved at research universities with stellar reputations--or to quote one university president, "Diversity versus quality is a false tradeoff." This guide, then, is a compendium of solutions that may be of use to other universities and colleges seeking to advance women in science and engineering. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the National Academies' Report Review Commit- tee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institu- tional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Robert Barnhill, University of Kansas; Joan Brennecke, University of Notre Dame; Susan Fiske, Princeton University; Linda Katehi, Purdue University; Maria Klawe, Princeton University; Melanie Leitner, Wash- ington University; Laurie McNeil, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; JoAnn Silverstein, University of Colorado; Crispin Taylor, American Society of Plant Biologists; and Diane Renee Wagner, Stanford University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the con- clusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mildred Dresselhaus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Academies, she was responsible for making certain that an inde- pendent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully con- sidered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Lilian Wu Chair

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A Note on Using This Guide T his guide addresses three issues--recruitment, retention, and ad- vancement--for three populations of women: students, faculty, and administrators in science and engineering. The intended audience includes anyone interested in improving the position of women in these three areas. Most of the individuals with a stake in progress on this front are toiling inside university walls, but external groups, such as federal agencies or professional societies, will also find this discussion of interest. Chapters 2-6 of the guide address in turn one of the issues combined with one population--for example, Chapter 2 explores the recruitment of students (although for administrators the three issues are combined into a single chapter). Each chapter is divided into three primary sections. A chapter begins with a brief discussion of the challenges facing women in the area (e.g., retention) addressed by the chapter. Much of this discus- sion is drawn from current literature. The rest of the chapter is then largely devoted to a description of the strategies pursued by the universities visited by the committee and others to meet these challenges. Each chap- ter concludes with a boxed summary that organizes the strategies by the faculty and administration levels most likely to implement them. Thus, for example, what can department chairs do to enhance the recruitment of female undergraduates? These substantive chapters are sandwiched by introductory Chapter 1, which briefly describes the challenges facing women students, faculty, and administrators and lays out the methodol- ogy used by the committee that produced this guide and the concluding Chapter 7, which summarizes the committee's findings and conclusions. ix

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x A NOTE ON USING THIS GUIDE Special features throughout the guide are boxed summaries of the challenges and strategies as well as highlighted quotes from some of the students, faculty, and administrators (department chairs, deans, pro- vosts, and presidents) who were interviewed during the committee's information-gathering site visits.

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Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 5 2 Recruiting Women Students 14 3 Retaining Women Students 48 4 Recruiting Women Faculty 71 5 Advancing Women Faculty 86 6 Advancing Women to Executive Positions 100 7 Conclusion 109 References 118 Index 125

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List of Tables, Figures, and Boxes Tables 2-1 Percentage of High School Graduates Taking Selected Mathematics and Science Courses in High School, by Sex, 16 2-2 Percentage of AP Examinees Who Are Female, by Subject, 17 2-3 Percentage of Bachelor's Degrees Awarded to Women, by Field, 18 2-4 Freshmen Intending to Major in S&E, by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Field, 20 2-5 Freshmen Intending to Major in S&E, by Sex and Field, 24 4-1 S&E Doctoral Degrees Awarded to Women, by Field, 74 4-2 Male and Female Tenure-Track Faculty at Top 50 U.S. Educational Institutions, 76 5-1 Perception and Experience of Discrimination and Harassment by Gender, 89 Figures 2-1 Number of baccalaureate degrees awarded, by field and gender, 17 2-2 Female share of S&E graduate students, by field, 26 xiii

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xiv LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, AND BOXES 2-3 Number of women receiving bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees in science and engineering, 28 2-4 Percentage of women receiving bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees in science and engineering, 28 2-5 Postdocs in science and engineering, by gender, 29 4-1 Doctoral degrees received, by broad field and gender, 72 Boxes 2-1 Summary of Challenges, 30 2-2 Undergraduate Recruitment Strategies, 31 2-3 Graduate Student Recruitment Strategies, 39 2-4 Postdoctoral Recruitment Strategies, 44 2-5 Summary of Strategies for Recruiting Women Undergraduate, Graduate, and Postdoctoral Students, 47 3-1 Summary of Challenges, 55 3-2 Undergraduate Retention Strategies, 55 3-3 Graduate Student Retention Strategies, 65 3-4 Summary of Strategies for Retaining Women Undergraduate, Graduate, and Postdoctoral Students, 70 4-1 Summary of Challenges, 77 4-2 Strategies for Recruiting Women Faculty, 78 4-3 Summary of Strategies for Recruiting Women Faculty, 85 5-1 Summary of Challenges, 93 5-2 Strategies for Advancing Women Faculty, 94 5-3 Summary of Strategies for Advancing Women Faculty, 99 6-1 Summary of Challenges, 103 6-2 Strategies for Recruiting and Advancing Women to Executive Positions, 103 6-3 Summary of Strategies for Recruiting and Advancing Women to Executive Positions, 108