Index

A

AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science

Abilities, of children. See Children’s abilities

“Absolutist” view of knowledge, 173, 175

Abstraction, information at various levels of, 94

Adding It Up, 22

Ages, for introduction of key ideas, 247

Alcohol, mixing with water, 240

Ambiguity, involved in interpretation, 174175

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 43, 178, 217

Project 2061, 216217, 318

American Educational Research Association, 307

American Federation of Teachers, 307

Analogical reasoning, 114

Anchoring intuitions, 114

Animals, classifying, 6667

Anomalous data, 111

Argumentation

in K-8 classrooms, 117, 258259

in the language of science, 33, 171

plausibility of, 187

supporting, 203

talk and, 187189

teachers uncomfortable with, 187

Aristotle, 62

Arizona, 299

Articulation, supporting, 278279

Assessment.

See also Benchmarking assessment systems;

Classroom-based assessment practices;

Formative assessment

by conversation, 281

curriculum-embedded, 281, 320

large-scale, 247

ongoing, 344

planned-for, 281283

recommendations for policy and practice, 348349

reflective, 284

Atlas of Science Literacy, 216

Atomic-molecular theory, developing an initial understanding of, 32, 72, 102103, 111, 220, 222, 239245

Atomic-molecular theory of matter learning progressions

for grades K-2, 226233

for grades 3-5, 233239

for grades 6-8, 239245

Attention, 302

Attitudes, 195201

beliefs about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196197

goals, values, and interest, desire to “do science,” 197200

identity, feeling of “belonging,” 200201



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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Index A AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science Abilities, of children. See Children’s abilities “Absolutist” view of knowledge, 173, 175 Abstraction, information at various levels of, 94 Adding It Up, 22 Ages, for introduction of key ideas, 247 Alcohol, mixing with water, 240 Ambiguity, involved in interpretation, 174–175 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 43, 178, 217 Project 2061, 216–217, 318 American Educational Research Association, 307 American Federation of Teachers, 307 Analogical reasoning, 114 Anchoring intuitions, 114 Animals, classifying, 66–67 Anomalous data, 111 Argumentation in K-8 classrooms, 117, 258–259 in the language of science, 33, 171 plausibility of, 187 supporting, 203 talk and, 187–189 teachers uncomfortable with, 187 Aristotle, 62 Arizona, 299 Articulation, supporting, 278–279 Assessment. See also Benchmarking assessment systems; Classroom-based assessment practices; Formative assessment by conversation, 281 curriculum-embedded, 281, 320 large-scale, 247 ongoing, 344 planned-for, 281–283 recommendations for policy and practice, 348–349 reflective, 284 Atlas of Science Literacy, 216 Atomic-molecular theory, developing an initial understanding of, 32, 72, 102–103, 111, 220, 222, 239–245 Atomic-molecular theory of matter learning progressions for grades K-2, 226–233 for grades 3-5, 233–239 for grades 6-8, 239–245 Attention, 302 Attitudes, 195–201 beliefs about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196–197 goals, values, and interest, desire to “do science,” 197–200 identity, feeling of “belonging,” 200–201

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 B Bay Area School Reform Collaborative (BASRC), 308–309 BEAR. See Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center Beliefs, 173–174. See also Competencies of K-8 students about causal mechanism and plausibility, 143–146 about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196–197 young children’s understanding of, 78–79 Belvedere, 274 Benchmarking assessment systems, for coherent instruction, 319–322, 344 Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 16, 35, 44, 216 Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center (BEAR), 320 BGuILE, 269 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 13 Biology, children’s early conceptual understanding of naïve, 66–69 Black students, 315 Bohr, Niels, 244 Book of nature, 189 Bootstrapping, 154 Border crossing, 201 “Boundary-filling” conception of measurement, 155 Bracketing, 138 “Bridging analogies” strategy, 114 Burning, concepts of, 101 C California, 307–309 Categorization, 74 Causal nexus, 228 Causation beliefs about the mechanisms of, 59, 143–146, 148 correlation versus, 266 hypotheses about, 140–142, 144 multiple, 75 and their effects, 63 Ceiling effects, 298 Cells, misconceptions about, 100 Centralized education policy, Americans’ distaste for, 16 Certainty, 171 Cheche Konnen Center, 194, 266, 311–312 ChemStudy, 13 Children’s abilities, 130 Children’s ideas about the mind, 169–170 tasks used to study, 65 Children’s learning of science, 51–210 foundations for science learning in young children, 53–92 generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations, 129–167 knowledge and understanding of the natural world, 93–128 participation in scientific practices and discourse, 186–210 understanding how scientific knowledge is constructed, 168–185 Children’s reasoning, 3, 222 China, 96 Classroom-based assessment practices, 247 and student learning outcomes, 285 Classroom discourse, 268, 299 Classrooms. See also Instruction in K-8 science classrooms as scientific communities, 40 that promote productive participation, 202–203 Cognition epistemic, 173, 175, 178 “situated,” 29 Cognitive inference, 75, 103 Cognitive processes, 130. See also Noncognitive factors basic research in, 42, 52 interaction with social factors, 29 in preschool children, 53 Cognitive science, 63 of science itself, 66 “Cognitively guided instruction,” 312 Coherent instructional systems, 317–322, 345 benchmarking assessment systems, 319–322 curriculum materials, 318–319 Collaborations, 188, 263, 319 Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade, 21–23 charge to, 21 Commonsense properties of materials, 229 Communities. See also Scientific communities “communities of practice,” 308 “community of learners” approach, 275

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Competencies of K-8 students, 19, 172 beliefs about, gender factors in, 196–197 Complexity, of science learning, 212 “Composite culture,” 276 Comprehension, reading, 274–275 Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, 282 Computer-based investigations, 279 Computer simulations, 140 Computer visualization tools, 277 Concept-oriented reading instruction (CORI), 199, 259 Conceptual change, 106–118 versus developmental change, 117–118 differentiating, 108 forms of, 107–110 mechanisms of, 110–117 nature of, 106–118 restructuring a network of concepts, 108–109 Conceptual structures, 119–120 acquiring, 37 coalescing, 109 constructing new representations, 113–116 elaborating on existing, 107–108 scaffolding models, 276–278 understanding, 215 Conceptual understanding during the K-8 years, 19, 30–31, 94–106 an expanding theory of psychology, 103–104 expanding understandings of matter and its transformation, 101–103 extending and changing understandings of naïve physics, 96–98 extending and revising naïve biology, 98–101 literature on, 51 summary of knowledge growth across the domains, 105–106 toward a mature cosmology, 104–105 Concrete experiences, 105 with the natural world, 260 progressions involving, 54 Confounding, 134, 142 Congress, 15 Consensus view, 170 Conservation of matter, 71 Construal principles, 106 Constructivist epistemologies, 177 Content. See also Strands of scientific proficiency dual focus on, 304 including in standards, 219 Contingency-based movement, 64, 75 Continuum, of formative assessment, 280 Contrastive tests, 144 Control-of-variables strategy, 150–151, 190 Convocation on Science and Mathematics, 15 Core ideas emergent, 119, 223 learning progressions needed for, 226 research and development needed in identifying, 178–179, 352 CORI. See Concept-oriented reading instruction Correlation, versus causation, 266 Cosmology, toward a mature, 104–105 Counterintuitive findings, 146 Covariation evidence complex patterns of, 61 evaluating, 138–141, 145 identifying patterns of, 137 versus noncovariation, 139, 143 reasoning about, 75 Credentialing requirements, 300 Critical areas for research and development, 351–355 curriculum and instruction, 352–353 diversity and equity, 354–355 evaluation and scale-up, 353–354 identifying core ideas and developing learning progressions, 352 learning across the four strands, 351–352 professional development and teacher learning, 353 Cues, 64, 75 Cultural institutions, 200 Cultural values and norms, 69, 101, 190–194, 199–200, 340 Current approaches in policy and practice, 20, 182, 214–219, 253–255, 267 curriculum and instruction in K-8 science classrooms, 217–219 curriculum standards, 216–217 progressing beyond, 231–245 science process skills, 215–216 Current textbooks, 244 Current theories of science, 52, 107 limitations of, 27

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Curriculum-embedded assessment, 281, 320–321 Curriculum in K-8 science classrooms, 217–219. See also Science curriculum reforms of the 1960s in coherent instructional systems, 318–319 major findings and conclusions concerning, 340–344 materials for, 268, 318–319, 321, 353 modularized, 318–319 not dumbing down, 4 political costs of, 14 recommendations for next generation, both state and national, 5, 348 recommendations for policy and practice, 348–349 research and development needed in, 352–353 “spiral,” 341 standards for, 216–217, 246–247 D Data anomalous, 111 from assessments, sharing with students, 322 in the language of science, 31–33 reflecting on, 148 rounds of collecting, 132 supporting modeling, 155–157 trends in, 266 Data-driven discoveries, 135 Data modeling practices, 261 Data quality, evaluating, 27 Data sets, 268 Debates, 266 formal, 33 policy, 11 Deficit assumptions, 336 Delaware, 299 Design challenges, 45 in conducting empirical investigations in K-8 classrooms, 256–257 future, 223 in learning progressions, 221–222 Desire to “do science,” 197–200 goals for, 197–198 intrinsic motivation and interest, 199–200 and values, 198–199 Detroit Public Schools, 312 Developers of standards, curricula, and assessment, recommendations for, 5, 13–14, 348 Developmental change cognitive, 52 and learning and instruction, 41–45 literature of, 219 that is not conceptual change, 117–118 Diagrams, supporting modeling, 157–159 Digestion, children’s understanding of, 68 Disabilities, students with, 202, 266 Disciplinary knowledge, 220 Disciplinary language, 267 “Disciplined perception,” 154 Discourse difficulty of, 212 logical, 33 structure of, 187 Discovery argumentation, example of, 114–115 “Discrepant events,” catalyzing conceptual change, 113 “Distributed expertise” activity structures, 275 Diversity in science education, 340 major findings and conclusions concerning, 346–347 research and development needed in, 354–355 Dogs, classifying, 108 “Doing science,” 4, 256, 268 professional development programs in, 311–312 Domain-general developmental sequences, 28, 55, 220 Domain-specific knowledge, 55, 133, 148, 223, 336 E E. coli bacteria, identifying, 143 Early conceptual understanding of natural systems, 56–74 earth systems and cosmology, 73–74 naïve biology, 66–69 naïve physics, 56–63 naïve psychology, 63–66 substances and their transformations, 69–73

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Earth Science Curriculum Study, 13 Earth systems and cosmology, children’s early conceptual understanding of, 73–74 Earthquakes, 31 Education. See also Science education importance of teaching science, 34 major findings and conclusions concerning diversity in, 346–347 strands of scientific proficiency, 36–41 Elementary grades, inquiry and models, as evidence of student learning, 260–261 Embedding instructional guidance in students’ performance of scientific tasks, 271–278 conceptual models, 276–278 scaffolding, 272–278 scientific process, 273–274 social interaction, 274–276 Emergent core ideas, 223 Empirical investigations, conducting in K-8 classrooms, 256–257 Energy, introducing ideas about, 246 Engagement, defining, 194–195 Engaging Schools, 196 “Engineering context,” 135 English-language learners, 266, 303–304, 314 Latino, 314–315 Epistemic model, 169–173 Equity in science education major findings and conclusions concerning, 346–347 research and development needed in, 354–355 Errors about the physical world, 61 mathematical descriptions of, 157 mental, 104 of representation, 76 ESRU cycles, 282–283 Essentialist bias, 68 Ethnic factors. See People of color Ethnographic case analyses, 202 Evaluation, research and development needed in, 353–354 Evaluation of evidence across the K-8 years, 137–142, 145 covariation evidence, 138–140 evidence in the context of investigations, 140–142 trends in, 131–142 Evaluation of scientific evidence and explanations, 129–167 asking questions and formulating hypotheses, 131–132 conclusions, 159–160 designing experiments, 132–136 importance of experience and instruction, 149–152 knowledge and skill in modeling, 152–159 one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 39 role of prior knowledge, 142–149 Evidence covariation versus noncovariation, 139 generating and evaluating, 245 in the language of science, 31–33 that contradicts prior beliefs, evaluating, 146–149 Evidence of student learning, 260–264 elementary grades, with inquiry and models, 260–261 middle grades, with problem-based and conceptual change approaches, 261–264 Evolutionary theory battles over teaching, 12 developing an initial understanding of, 100, 222–224 Experience controlled, 266 importance of, 130, 149–152 inquiry, 179 with liquids, 233–234 project-based, 263 Experiments, 35, 142, 253, 268 designing, 131–136, 147, 271 interpreting, 147 laboratory, 13, 256 self-directed, 132, 137 theory-driven approach to, 135 thought, 102 “try-and-see” approach to, 135 Explanations of conceptual change, adding new (deeper) levels of, 109–110 in K-8 classrooms, 148, 258–259, 337 testing, 30 written, 274 Explanatory models, of science, 39 Explicit awarenesses, 69 instruction in, 94 modeling, 236 Exploratory studies, 131

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 F Facts acquiring, 37 role of, in science, 26, 31 False belief, understanding, 65 FAST. See Foundational Approaches to Science Teaching curriculum Federal agencies that support professional development, recommendations for, 7, 350 Feedback looping, 280 periodic, 321 Folk cosmology, 74 Folk pedagogy, 301–302 Force, physicists’ notions of, 97 Formal operational thought, 44 Formative assessment, 279–285 classroom-based assessment practices and student learning outcomes, 285 and student learning, 281–284 Forms of conceptual change, 107–110 adding new (deeper) levels of explanation, 109–110 elaborating on an existing conceptual structure, 107–108 restructuring a network of concepts, 108–109 Foundational Approaches to Science Teaching (FAST) curriculum, 320 “Framework theory,” 73 Full Option Science System, 320 Future directions for policy, practice, and research, 331–355 agenda for research and development, 350–355 conclusions and recommendations, 333–355 major findings and conclusions, 334–347 recommendations for policy and practice, 347–350 G Galapagos island system, 261, 269–271 Gases, understanding the behavior of, 101, 103, 241–242 Gender factors, in competency beliefs, 196–197 Generating scientific evidence and explanations, 129–167 asking questions and formulating hypotheses, 131–132 conclusions, 159–160 designing experiments, 132–136 importance of experience and instruction, 149–152 knowledge and skill in modeling, 152–159 one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 39 role of prior knowledge, 142–149 trends across the K-8 years, 131–142 Geometry, 154 Georgia, 300 Goals and the desire to “do science,” 197–198 for elementary and middle school science, 34–36 Grades K-2 learning progression for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 226–233 developing an understanding of materials and measurement, 226–231 progressing beyond current practice, 231–233 Grades 3-5 learning progression for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 233–239 developing an explicit macroscopic understanding of matter, 233–237 progressing beyond current practice, 237–239 Grades 6-8 learning progression for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 239–245 developing an initial understanding of the atomic-molecular theory, 239–243 progressing beyond current practice, 244–245 Gravitation, 32 Group processes, 19 agreement within, 4, 276 diverse, 314–315 The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence, 43 Guidance. See also Scaffolding explicit and implicit, 271–273 provided by the researcher, 131 Guided inquiry science instruction, 259

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 H Haiti, 266 Harvard University, 173 Hawaii, 299 Helicobacter pylori, 29 High-stakes testing, 319 Historical context of U.S. science education, 12–18 emergence of standards-based reform, 15–18 legacy of the 1960s science curriculum reforms, 12–15 Historical tracing, 229 How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School, 22, 42, 336 Human body, children’s understanding of, 68, 99, 111 Hypotheses. See also Theory and hypothesis causal, 140 considering, 268 evaluating alternative, 76 formulating, 131–132 revising, 132 “Hypothesis-oriented” approaches, 135 “Hypothetico-deductive” model-based reasoning, 241 I Ideas, young children’s understanding of, 78–79 Identity, 195–201 ability to “do science,” 196–197 beliefs about oneself and about science, 196–197 desire to “do science,” 197–200 feeling of “belonging,” 200–201 goals, values, and interest, 197–200 Illinois, 300, 317 Implicit reasoning, 77 Indeterminacy, 141 Individual cognitive activity, 3, 203 Individual interest, 199 Induction, 74 Infants’ understanding of the physical world, 57–59 Inference strategies cognitive, 75, 103 multiple, 142 Infrastructure, needed for researching science education, 351 Inquiry as evidence of student learning in the elementary grades, 260–261 experiences with, 179 Institute of Medicine, 196, 304 Instruction in K-8 science classrooms, 217–219, 247 aims of, 257 approaches and strategies, 252–253 designing, 3 explicit, 94 factors affecting quality of, 296–297 how to teach, recommendations for policy and practice, 349 importance of, 130, 149–152 improving, 17 major findings and conclusions concerning, 340–344 professional development programs in, 312–314 research and development needed in, 352–353 suboptimal, 55 Instructional congruence, 192 Instructional support, importance of, 133 Intellectual roles, 275 “Intent participation,” 191 Interactions. See also Social interactions and force, 97 multidimensional, 6, 178, 349 with simulations, 268 with texts in K-8 classrooms, 259–260 Interest development of, 200 individual, 199 situational, 199–200 Interpretation, ambiguity involved in, 39, 174–175 Intervention studies, 148–150, 253, 255, 257, 268 Intraindividual variability, 4, 134, 142 Intrinsic motivation and interest, in the desire to “do science,” 199–200 Investigations evaluating evidence in the context of, 140–142 sustained, 343 Israel, 99 Iterative processes, 27

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 J Japan, 99 Journaling, thoughts about science, 299 Justifications, 80 K Kansas, 299 Kawasaki’s syndrome, 143 Kits. See Science kits Knowing What Students Know, 22 Knowledge “absolutist” view of, 173 acquiring new, over an existing base of concepts, 110–111 change process of, 94, 147 evaluating one’s own, 27 growth of, across the domains, 105–106 in modeling, 152–159 personal, 245 young children’s understanding of, 78–79 Knowledge construction. See Meaning-making practices Knowledge-lean tasks, 133 Knowledge of science, of science teachers, 297–300 Knowledge of the natural world, 93–128 changes in conceptual understanding during the K-8 years, 94–106 conclusions, 118–120 nature of conceptual change, 106–118 “Knowledge problematic” epistemologies, 176 L Laboratory experiments, 13, 256 Language of science, 30–33, 267 argument, 33 data and evidence, 31–33 disciplinary, 267 theory and hypothesis, 30–31 Large-scale assessment, 247 Learners major findings and conclusions concerning, 334–340 mental models of, 302 Learning across the four strands, research and development needed in, 351–352 earlier theories of, 19 major findings and conclusions concerning, 334–340 mental models of, 302 recent developments in, 18–20 “Learning cycle,” 14 Learning goals, 20, 280 “Learning hierarchies,” 215 Learning progressions, 213–250, 297 conclusions, 246–247 constructing, 225–246 current approaches in policy and practice, 214–219 defining, 219–222 design challenges, 221–222 initial work on, 222–226 key characteristics, 220–221 research and development needed in developing, 352 Learning progressions for the atomic-molecular theory of matter, 226–246, 359–365 grades K-2, 226–233 grades 3-5, 233–239 grades 6-8, 239–245 limitations, 246 Legacy of the 1960s science curriculum reforms, 12–15 Limitations of current theories of science, 27 of K-8 students, 56, 172 memory, 137 of one’s scientific reasoning, 40 Liquids, experiences with, 202, 233–234 Local leaders in science education, recommendations for, 6, 16, 349 Longitudinal studies, 352 M Macroscopic understandings, 102, 239 Maine, 299 Man: A Course of Study, 15 Maps, supporting modeling, 157–159 Maryland, 299 Mastery learning, 198, 320 Materials developing an understanding of, in grades K-2, 226–231 resource centers for, 319 teachers’ interpretations of, 269

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Mathematics interest in, 199 supporting modeling, 153–155 theories expressed in form of, 32 Matter and its transformation developing an explicit macroscopic understanding of, in grades 3-5, 233–237 expanding understandings of, 72, 101–103 Maturation, change factors based in, 95–97 Meaning-making practices, 215, 224–225 Measurement “boundary-filling” conception of, 155 developing an understanding of, in grades K-2, 154, 226–231 recording, 31 Mechanisms of conceptual change, 110–117 acquiring new knowledge over an existing base of concepts, 110–111 constructing new conceptual representations, 113–116 information about, 143 metacognitively guided learning, 111–113 strengthening new systems of ideas, 116–117 Media attention, 11, 18 Medieval impetus theorists, 62 Memorization, 299, 338 Memory limitations of, 137 short-term storage span of, 95 Memory skills, of children, 142 Mental models, 78, 82 of learning, 59–60, 145, 302 Merck Institute for Science Education, 307 Meta-analyses, 322 Metacognitively guided learning, 35–36, 82, 111–113, 137, 150 Metaconceptual activities in grades 1-6, progression of increasingly sophisticated, 180–181 Middle grades, problem-based and conceptual change approaches as evidence of student learning, 261–264 Minorities, underrepresented in science, 11, 20, 303 Misconceptions, 61, 82, 98–101 Mississippi, 300 Model building, 27, 232 data supporting, 155–157 “direct,” 76 explicit, 236 in K-8 classrooms, 258–259 students with prior experience in, 237 studies of, 152–153 Models epistemology of, 172 as evidence of student learning in the elementary grades, 260–261 explanatory, 39 of instruction, ineffective, 211 of the natural world, building and critiquing, 131 scaffolding, 276–278 Modules, curricular, 318–319 Motivation, 97, 195–201 beliefs about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196–197 goals, values, and interest, desire to “do science,” 197–200 identity, feeling of “belonging,” 200–201 Muller-Lyer optical illusions, 231 Multicultural issues, 303 Multidimensionality of interactions among models, 178 of the practice of science, 286 Multidisciplinary approach, 333 Multiple inference strategies, 142 Mutations, studying, 258 N NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress Naïve biology children’s early conceptual understanding of, 66–69 extending and revising, 98–101 Naïve physics children’s early conceptual understanding of, 56–63 extending and changing understandings of, 96–98 Naïve psychology, children’s early conceptual understanding of, 63–66 A Nation at Risk, 15–16 National Academy of Sciences, Convocation on Science and Mathematics, 15 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 20, 263

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification, 300 National Center for Education Statistics, 303 National Commission for Excellence in Education, 15–16 National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, standards established by, 300 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 154–155 National Education Longitudinal Study, 298 National Research Council (NRC), 22, 42, 112, 195–196, 216, 280, 304, 318 National Science Education Standards (NSES), 16, 34, 38, 216 National Science Foundation (NSF), 12, 14–15, 307, 314, 318 National Staff Development Council, 307 Nationwide action, roadmap for, 4 Natural world building and critiquing models of, 131 concrete experiences with, 260 observing, 258 understanding, 26, 41, 93–128 using scientific explanations of, 244 Negotiation, 263 Network of conceptual change concepts, restructuring, 108–109 New levels of descriptions, adding, 109–110 New systems of ideas, strengthening, 116–117 No Child Left Behind Act, 11, 17, 22, 354 Noncognitive factors, 30 Nonmainstream children, 36, 201 underrepresented in science, 11, 20, 303 Nonsense sounds, 64 Notebooks, use of, 135 NRC. See National Research Council NSES. See National Science Education Standards NSF. See National Science Foundation O Observation across the K-8 years, 31, 136–137, 191, 268 generating, 132 indirect, 31 scientific, 35 sensory, 31 Ohio, 315 Orientation, 159 Oversimplification, 191 P Participation in scientific practices and discourse, 186–210 conclusions, 203 cultural values and norms, 190–194 one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 40 productive, 194–203 talk and argument, 187–189 Patterns of covariation evidence, identifying, 137 People of color, underrepresented in science, 20, 303 Personal knowledge, 245 Physical Science Study Committee, 13 Physical world. See Natural world Physics children’s early conceptual understanding of naïve, 56–63 everyday, 62 “Piggybacking,” 193 Planned-for assessment, 281–283 Plate tectonics, 31 Plausibility of argument, 187 beliefs about, 143–146 Poincare, Henri, 26 “Points of contact,” 193 Policy debates over, 11 future directions for, 331–355 recommendations for, 347–350 Political costs, curricular, 14 Practice of science future directions for, 331–355 importance of, 133 as multidimensional, 286 recommendations for, 347–350 Pre-service training, 300 Precision, 76 “Prediction-oriented” approaches, 135, 148 Preschool children, 114, 182, 227 cognitive development in, 53 sense of mechanical causality in, 61

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Prior knowledge, 19, 130–132, 138, 142–149, 160, 173, 268 beliefs about causal mechanism and plausibility, 143–146 evaluating evidence that contradicts prior beliefs, 146–149 familiarity or strength of, 137 Probabilistic relationships, 18, 75 Problem-based learning curriculum, 188, 312 Problem solving, 271–272 “Process skills,” 14 Process view. See Science as a process Productive participation, 194–203 classrooms that promote, 202–203 motivation, attitudes, and identity, 195–201 Professional development programs, 300, 310–314 in doing science, 311–312 in engineering instructional improvement, 312–314 recommendations for federal agencies that support, 7, 350 recommendations for sustained science-specific, 7, 350 supporting effective science instruction, recommendations for policy and practice, 349–350 and teacher learning, research and development needed in, 353 in understanding student ideas, 312 Proficiency in science, 2, 298, 334, 338. See also Strands of scientific proficiency of adults versus children, 134 baseline, 300 Programme for International Student Assessment, 316 Progress beyond current practice in grades K-2, 231–233 in grades 3-5, 237–239 in grades 6-8, 244–245 Progress Portfolio tool, 278 Progressions. See Learning progressions Project 2061, 216–217, 318 Project-based experiences, 263, 268 Project SEPIA. See Science Education through Portfolio Instruction and Assessment project Psychology children’s early conceptual understanding of naïve, 63–66 expanding theory of, 103–104 and the study of science, 130 Psychometric data analyses, 320 Public scientific issues, 11, 203 Q Quality of data, evaluating, 27 of science education, 354 Questioning process, three-step, 283n Questions asking, 131–132 generating researchable, 192, 256, 268, 311 identifying meaningful, 304, 351 R Race factors. See People of color Reading comprehension, 274–275 Reagan, Ronald, 15 Reasoning, 77. See also Analogical reasoning; Children’s reasoning Recommendations for developers of standards, curricula, and assessment, 5, 348 for federal agencies that support professional development, 7, 350 on instruction, how to teach, 349 for next generation standards and curricula, both state and national, 5, 348 for policy and practice, 347–350 for presenting science as a process, 5–6, 348–349 on professional development, 6–7, 349–350 on standards, curricula, and assessment, 4–6, 348–349 for state and local leaders in science education, 6, 349 for sustained science-specific professional development for teachers, 7, 350 for teaching the four strands of scientific proficiency, 6, 349 for university-based science courses for teacher candidates, 7, 350

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Record keeping, during the K-8 years, 31, 136–137 Reflection, supporting, 278–279 Reflective assessment, 284 Reforms. See Science curriculum reforms of the 1960s “Registers,” 189 Relativity, 32 Representational systems conceptual structures constructing new, 113–116 data, 155–157 mathematics, 153–155 new, 237 scale models, diagrams, and maps, 157–159 spatial, 74 that support modeling, 153–159 working with scientific representations and tools, 267–268 Research difficulty integrating base, 131, 355 future directions for, 331–355 on learning, 21 Researchers, 22 guidance provided by, 131 Resource issues, 17, 310 S Scaffolding, 259, 272–278, 287 conceptual models, 276–278 scientific process, 273–274 social interaction, 274–276 Scale models, 79 supporting modeling, 157–159 Scaling-up, research and development needed in, 353–354 Scenario building, 22, 27, 30 Schools, major findings and conclusions concerning, 344–346 Science. See also Strands of scientific proficiency claims of, 31 cognitive, 63 defining, 26–33 explanatory models of, 39 history of, 32 journaling thoughts about, 299 language of, 30–33 recent developments in, 18–20 in social interactions, 265–266 understanding the nature of, 37, 39–40, 175–179 using, 40 Science: A Process Approach, 215, 224 Science as a process, 26–30 of logical reasoning about evidence, 28 of participation in the culture of scientific practices, 29–30 recommendations for presenting, 5–6, 348–349 scaffolding, 273–274 skills in, 215–216 of theory change, 28–29 Science as practice, 251–295, 298 conclusions, 285–287 current instructional practice, 253–255 elements of practice, 264–268 in social interactions, 265–266 specialized language of science, 266–267 supporting the learning of, 268–285 work with scientific representations and tools, 267–268 Science as practice in research-based instructional design, 255–264, 342 argumentation, explanation, and model building in K-8 classrooms, 258–259 designing and conducting empirical investigations in K-8 classrooms, 256–257 evidence of student learning, 260–264 interacting with texts in K-8 classrooms, 259–260 Science-as-theory perspective, 28 “Science context,” 135 Science courses for teacher candidates, recommendations for university-based, 7, 350 Science Curriculum Improvement Study, 14 Science curriculum reforms of the 1960s, legacy of, 12–15 Science education goals, 26–49 addressing inequities, 4 defining science, 26–33 development, learning, and instruction, 41–45 for elementary and middle school science, 34–36 research on, 176 science education, 34–41 supporting, 296–330

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Science Education through Portfolio Instruction and Assessment (SEPIA) project, 283 Science kits, 39, 218 sharing, 319 Science learning, 211–330 complexity of, 212 historical context of U.S. science education, 12–18 learning progressions, 213–250 past and present, 11–25 recent developments in science, learning, and teaching, 18–20, 252 teaching science as practice, 251–295 Science learning in young children conclusion, 81–83 early conceptual understanding of natural systems, 56–74 foundations for, 53–92 organizing themes, 54–56 underpinnings of scientific reasoning, 74–78 young children’s understanding of knowledge and of science, 78–81 Science specialists, 22, 315–316 Science teachers knowledge of science, 297–300 knowledgeable, 297–306 number of science courses taken, 297–298 subject matter knowledge for teaching, 304–306 understanding learners and learning, 301–304 Science testing, nationwide, 18 Science writing, 189 Scientific community, 13 classrooms as, 40 Scientific evidence. See Evidence Scientific explanations of the natural world, knowing, using, and interpreting, as one strand of scientific proficiency, 37–39 Scientific knowledge operationalizing for teaching, 306 young children’s understanding of, 80–81, 245 The “scientific method,” 27, 215 Scientific proficiency. See Strands of scientific proficiency Scientific reasoning, 130, 223 interdependence of theory and evidence in, 144 Scientific theories, significance of, 244 Scientific visualization tools, 263 Scientific worldview, persuading students of the validity of, 187 Scientist’s notebooks, 259 Selecting Instructional Materials, 318 Self-directed experiments, 132, 137, 140 SenseMaker, 274 SEPIA. See Science Education through Portfolio Instruction and Assessment project Sequencing units of study, 269–271 Simulations computer, 140 interaction with, 268 “Situated cognition,” 29 Situational interest, 199–200 Skeletal principles, 106 Skills. See also “Process skills” in modeling, 152–159 promoting, 149 teaching as needed, 55, 255 Sleep-deprivation, 118 Social interactions, 39, 130, 335 and cognitive factors, 29 patterning in, 65 scaffolding, 274–276 science in, 265–266 Social trust, building, 309 Software tools, 172, 274 Solar system, 104 Sources of knowledge, young children’s understanding of, 79–80 Spanish-speaking students, 314–315 Spatial representations, 74 Specialists, in science, 22, 315–316 Specialized language of science, 266–267 Species, misconceptions about, 100 Standardized tests, state, 263 Standards, 5 including content in, 219 recommendations for next generation, both state and national, 5, 348 recommendations for policy and practice, 348–349 Standards-based reform, emergence of, 15–18 Stanford Education Assessment Laboratory, 279, 320 Starting Out Right, 22 State leaders in science education, recommendations for, 6, 16, 349 Statistics, creation of, 157

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 Strands of scientific proficiency, 2, 23, 36–41, 285–286, 296 generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations, 37, 39 interconnections among, 40–41 knowing, using, and interpreting scientific explanations of the natural world, 37–39 participating productively in scientific practices and discourse, 37, 40 recommendations for teaching the four, 6, 349 understanding the nature and development of scientific knowledge, 37, 39–40 Strategies, coexistence of valid and invalid, 134 Stress, 29 Struggle for Survival unit, in the middle school curriculum, 269–270 Student learning. See also Learners; Learning collective, 275 conditions that support, 297 formative assessment and, 281–284 link to science knowledge of teachers, 298 “nudging” necessary for, 287 supporting, 217 Student predictions, 262 Subject matter knowledge optimal level of, 298 of science teachers for teaching, 304–306 as situated, not absolute, 305 Suboptimal instruction, in K-8 science classrooms, 55 Substances and their transformations, children’s early conceptual understanding of, 69–73 Success for All, 320 Supporting science instruction, 296–330 coherent instructional systems, 317–322 conclusions, 322–323 knowledgeable science teachers, 297–306 teachers’ opportunities to learn, 306–316 Supporting the learning of science as practice, 268–285 embedding instructional guidance in students’ performance of scientific tasks, 271–278 formative assessment, 279–285 sequencing units of study, 269–271 supporting articulation and reflection, 278–279 Systems for State Science Assessment, 22 T Talk and argument, 187–189, 266 Target situations, 114 Task-performance. See Scaffolding Teacher leaders, 315–316 Teacher learning, 306–316 effective opportunities, 306–308 opportunities that focus on diverse student groups, 314–315 in the organizational context of schooling, 308–310 professional development programs, 310–314 recent developments in, 18–20 science specialists, 315–316 Teachers. See also Science teachers beliefs about student learning, 301–303 major findings and conclusions concerning, 344–346 perceptions of diverse student learners, 303–304 sensitizing to capabilities of all learners, 349 “Teachers’ dispositions,” 301 Teaching innovations, timescale of, 219 Teaching science, importance of, 34 Teleological stance, 69 Textbooks, 211, 253, 257, 341 current, 244 innovative, 259 interaction with, in K-8 classrooms, 259–260 limited in the U.S., 218 Theory and hypothesis. See also Scientific theories in the language of science, 30–31, 271 Thinkertools, 277–278 Thought experiments, 65, 102–103 Thoughts about science, journaling, 299 Three-dimensional arrays, 236 Tracing, historical, 229 Trends across the K-8 years, 131–142 evaluating evidence, 137–142 generating evidence, 131–136 observing and recording, 136–137 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 217, 263, 316

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Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 U Ulcers, bacterial theory of, 29, 143 Underlying model of the nature and development of scientific knowledge, 170–172 Underlying science and knowledge in the K-8 years, 172–179 knowledge construction, 173–175 the nature of science and how it is constructed, 175–179 Underpinnings of scientific reasoning, 74–78 Understanding knowledge construction, in the K-8 years, 173–175 Understanding learners and learning, 301–304 of science teachers, 301–304 teachers’ beliefs about student learning, 301–303 teachers’ perceptions of diverse student learners, 303–304 Understanding of the natural world, 93–128 changes in conceptual understanding during the K-8 years, 94–106 conclusions, 118–120 nature of conceptual change, 106–118 Understanding student ideas, professional development programs in, 312 Understanding the nature of science and how it is constructed in the K-8 years, 175–179 one strand of scientific proficiency, 37, 39–40 Units of study highly integrated, 257 sequencing, 269–271 University of Wisconsin, 312 U.S. pedagogy, patterns in, 254–255 V Valid strategies, coexistence with invalid, 134, 141 Values clustered, 157 and the desire to “do science,” 198–199 traditional, 265 Variables causal versus noncausal, 141 intraindividual, 4, 134, 142 isolating, 132 Verbal interaction, 191. See also Talk and argument Visual analogies, 237 Visualization tools, scientific, 154, 263, 268, 277 Vocabulary, 303 Vocalization, patterns of, 64 W Willingness to participate, 203 Women, underrepresented in science, 11, 303 Word learning, 70 Working-class men, underrepresented in science, 303 Working with scientific representations and tools, 267–268 World. See Natural world WorldWatcher, 277 Written explanations, 274 Y Young children’s understanding of knowledge and of science, 78–81 ideas, beliefs, and knowledge, 78–79 scientific knowledge, 80–81 sources of knowledge, 79–80 Yup’ik people, 191 Z Zoos, 98

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