Index

A

Adams, Karl, 197

Aebi, Tania, 182183

Agulhas Current, 19, 79, 85, 118, 188189, 203, 221, 239240, 248

Aikau, Eddie, 174175

Akiskalian, Eric, 121123

Alaska Current, 79

Alexander Kielland, 206207

America, 133

American Society of Naval Engineers, 233

Andaman Island. See Sumatra-Andaman Island earthquake of December 26, 2004

Anderson, Mark, 119120

Anguilla, 199

Antarctica, 3132

APL China, 220, 241

Arab traders, 1819

Arabian Sea, 18, 59, 218

Arctic Ocean, 16

Argentina, 20

Arica, Chile, 133

Armada de Molucca, 19

Around the World Alone Race, 7479, 189

Arthur M. Anderson, 204205

Athletic shoes, as current indicators, 3637

Atigun Pass, 202

Atlantic Ocean, 1619, 35, 8487, 97, 162

Australia Current, 27

Avalon Harbor, xx

Average depth of the oceans, 15

Azores, 96

B

Badger, 139140

Baja California, Mexico, xix, 11, 17, 92, 242

Balance Bar, 7578

Balboa Peninsula, xix, 228

Ballast, 124, 232233

Ballast Point (Catalina Island), 124, 233

Baltic Sea, 18, 118

Banda Aceh, Indonesia, 152

Barker, Ernie, 138, 207209

Barometer, 4244, 84, 88, 91, 9798



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Extreme Waves Index A Adams, Karl, 197 Aebi, Tania, 182–183 Agulhas Current, 19, 79, 85, 118, 188–189, 203, 221, 239–240, 248 Aikau, Eddie, 174–175 Akiskalian, Eric, 121–123 Alaska Current, 79 Alexander Kielland, 206–207 America, 133 American Society of Naval Engineers, 233 Andaman Island. See Sumatra-Andaman Island earthquake of December 26, 2004 Anderson, Mark, 119–120 Anguilla, 199 Antarctica, 31–32 APL China, 220, 241 Arab traders, 18–19 Arabian Sea, 18, 59, 218 Arctic Ocean, 16 Argentina, 20 Arica, Chile, 133 Armada de Molucca, 19 Around the World Alone Race, 74–79, 189 Arthur M. Anderson, 204–205 Athletic shoes, as current indicators, 36–37 Atigun Pass, 202 Atlantic Ocean, 16–19, 35, 84–87, 97, 162 Australia Current, 27 Avalon Harbor, xx Average depth of the oceans, 15 Azores, 96 B Badger, 139–140 Baja California, Mexico, xix, 11, 17, 92, 242 Balance Bar, 75–78 Balboa Peninsula, xix, 228 Ballast, 124, 232–233 Ballast Point (Catalina Island), 124, 233 Baltic Sea, 18, 118 Banda Aceh, Indonesia, 152 Barker, Ernie, 138, 207–209 Barometer, 42–44, 84, 88, 91, 97–98

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Extreme Waves Barth, Joe, 201–202 Bascom, Willard, 3 Bass Strait, 25–29 Bay of Bengal, 18, 103–104, 150, 158 Beach, Edward L., Sr., 67 Beaufort, Sir Francis, 41 Beaufort Wind Scale, 41–42 Benjamin-Feir instability index, 240, 250 Bering Sea, 79 Bermuda High, 96 Bermuda Triangle, 8 Bernstein, Karl, 34 Blinsinger, Chase, 195–196 Board of Trade, certificate of seaworthiness, 188 Bobsled, 28 Borneo, 18, 218 Bradshaw, Ken, 116–117 Brady, Cornelius, 177–178 Breaking waves, 62–64 Bremen, 193, 197 Brindabella, 27–28 Broaching, 179 Brown, Emlyn, 190 Bryant, Edward, 133 Bulk carriers, 3–4, 53–54, 209–210, 219–220, 223–225, 235–236 high loss rate, 223, 245 Buoyancy force, 232 Burma Plate, 149, 152 C Caledonian Star, 184–185,193 California, seismic design codes in, 228 California Current, 34 California Yacht Club, 124, 154, 233 Calm seas, 11–24 Canary Islands, tsunami potential, 162 Cape Horn, 75–77 Cape of Good Hope, 18–19, 26, 79, 85, 188, 218 Cape Verde Islands, 35, 97, 200 Capillary waves, 12, 25, 38 Cargados Carajos Shoals, 126 Caribbean Sea, 16 Cargo ships, 220 Carl D. Bradley, 204 Carlsen, Henrik Kurt, 180–183 Carnival Cruise Lines, 221 Catalina Express, 71–72 Catalina Island, xviii, xx, 66, 71, 93–94, 167, 175, 207, 233 Cat’s paws, 38 Central America, 7 Challenger Deep, 20 Channel Islands, 34, 47, 61, 93, 124, 237 Chen, Henry, 241 Chile earthquake, May 22, 1960, 135–136 China, 9, 18 Christiansen, Bent, 137–138 Chubasco, 93 Clan McIntyre, 188 Clarke, Valerie, 71 Classification societies, 222 Cold fronts, 73–74 Columbus, Christopher, 19, 31, 89–90 Combination carriers (OBOs), 219 Coming Back Alive, 80 Composite waves, 49–54 components of, 52 Confused seas, 88, 107, 111–112, 164–183, 192 defining, 177 Constructive interference (superposition), 49–51, 207–210, 249 Container ships, 3–4, 20–21, 36, 119, 217, 220–221, 225, 228 Continental shelf, and shallow seas, 205–207 Cook, Captain James, 25–26, 171 Cooper, Jessie B., 204 Coriolis force, 30, 33 Cortes Bank, xix, 116, 119 COSPAS-SARSAT network, 80 Crescent City, California, 136, 161 Crete, 130–131 Cross, Rear Adm. Bill, 86 Crozet Islands, 79, 189 Cussler, Clive, 190 Cycloids, inverted, 60 Cygnus Voyager, 6, 219

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Extreme Waves D da Gama, Vasco, 19 Dampier, William, 32, 132 Daniel, Mann, Johnson and Mendenhall, 229 Davidson Current, 37 Davy Jones’s locker, 226–246 Dead reckoning, 39 Deadweight tonnage, 217 Deep water, waves in, 14, 56, 61, 63, 98, 115, 144, 203 Derbyshire, 53–54, 220, 222–225, 235, 238, 245 postmortem of the loss of, 222–225 Design of offshore structures, 230–231 of port and coastal facilities, 227–230 of ships, 216–219, 231–235, 238, 246 Destructive interference, 49–50 Diaz, Bartolomeu, 19 Diffraction, 166 Dispersion, 61, 111, 165 Distinguished Flying Cross, 82 Dixon, Harold, 83–84 Doldrums, 31 Dominant period, 21 Dominican Republic, 67 Double-hulled tankers, 219, 221 Draft (or draught), 217, 241 Drag coefficient, 40 Draupner oil platform wave height on January 1, 1995, 192, 209 waves on, 207, 211 Dreams, 11, 16, 25, 47–48, 66–67, 71, 80, 92, 164, 167, 173, 175, 187, 208, 237, 240, 242–243 Drift, 34 Dwight D. Eisenhower (aircraft carrier), 86–87 E Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 161 Earthquakes. See also Tsunamis; and individual earthquakes unpredictable as yet, 245 unpreventable, 227 Earth’s oceans and seas (Table 1), 16 East China Sea, 18 Ebbesmeyer, Curtis, 37 Edmund Fitzgerald, 204–205 Edrie, 139 Ekman transport, 33 Ekofisk North Sea oil field, 8, 206–207 Ellison, Larry, 27–28 Emerald Bay, 66 Emergency position indication radio beacon (EPIRB), 80–81 Energy, of waves, 5–6, 15, 23, 29, 41, 50, 62, 67, 98, 111–113, 124–125, 163, 167–169, 192, 202, 239, 249–250 EPIRB. See Emergency position indication radio beacon Esprit d’ Corp, 27–28 Eurasian Plate, 128 European Space Agency, 244 Evacuation warnings, 145 Evelina, 126 Extratropical cyclones, 74, 88 Extreme surfing, 116–117 Extreme waves, 6, 8, 14, 22, 41, 49, 54–56, 99, 116, 121, 145–146, 185, 187, 189, 193, 199–200, 205–207, 210–214, 221–222, 224, 227, 230–231, 242, 245, 247–250 evidence for, 212, 215 predicting, 243–244 probable causes, 247–248 recent research on, 247–250 riding, 118–121 Exxon Boston, 137–138 Exxon New Orleans, 137–138 Exxon North Slope, 137–138 Exxon Valdez disaster, 216

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Extreme Waves F Fantome, tragedy of, 106–107 Fee, Jerry, 233 Fetch, 38–41, 88, 248 maximum, 235 Flying Enterprise, 180–182 Foo, Mark, 117 Forecast accuracy, 105–106 for hurricanes, 105–106 Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph, 22 Fourier analysis, 22 Fourier transform, 22, 49–50 Freak waves, 56, 193 Freedom America, 78–79 “furious fifties,” 45 Future risk areas, 159–163 G Gallimore, Skip, 194–197 Galveston, Texas, 104 Garrett, Chris, 248 Garrison, Keith, 207 Gioiello, Tony, 228–229 Glacier Bay National Park, 139–140 Global positioning satellite instrument, 69 Global significant wave heights, 58 Gravity waves, 12, 38–39 Great Lakes, 203, 205 Greenland, 18 Grouper, 191–192 Grunion, 5 Guadalupe Island (Mexico), 92 Guam, 4, 20, 201, 218 Gulf of Alaska, 79, 137 Gulf of Mexico, 7, 73, 102, 104, 109, 205, 230–231 Gulf Stream, 7, 191, 239–240, 248 Gulf War, 86 Gyres, 35 H Hadley, George, 31 Hadley cells, 31 Hansa Carrier, 36 Hanson, Jen, 198 Harrison, Jon, 220, 241 Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic network, 143 Heaving to, 178, 180 Herodotus, 18 Highs, 42–44 Hilo, Hawaii, 9, 134–135 Hindcasts, 102, 213 Hirshorn, Barry, 141, 146–147, 158 HM Bark Endeavor, 26 Ho, Cheng, 18 Hogging, 190, 234–235 Hokkaido earthquake of July 12, 1993, 230 Hokule’a, 173–175 Holdsworth, Ray, 84, 123 Homer, 6, 17, 38, 185 Horse latitudes, 31 Huntington Beach, xvii, 87, 114, 160 Hurricane Andrew, 96 “hurricane bow,” 202 Hurricane Iniki, 196 Hurricane Katrina, 99, 104, 108, 149 Hurricane Luis, 200 Hurricane Mitch, 95, 106 Hurricane Roxanne, 102 Hurricane tracks, 105 Hurricanes, 7, 56, 69, 89–90, 95–96, 99–103, 107–109, 187, 200 deadliest in the continental United States, 100–101 forecasting, 99–103, 105–106 a record season, 107–109 storm surges and hurricane-induced flooding, 103–105 typical life cycle, 97–99 wind-wave patterns from, 96–97 worst, 109 See also Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; Tropical cyclones; Typhoons

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Extreme Waves I Iceland, 18 Idealized waves, 13–15, 48, 63 not realistic, 21 properties of, 14 Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 143 Indian Ocean, 17–18, 31, 79, 85, 91, 125, 128, 147, 149, 151, 159, 188, 215, 218, 228 Indian Plate, 149, 152 Indonesia, 9, 18, 128, 146, 215 Infragravity waves, 12 Interbox connectors (IBCs), 220 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 69, 141 International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), The, 223–224 Recommendation 34, 224 International Convention on Load Lines, 238 International Maritime Organization, 23 Intertropical Convergence Zone, 31, 33 Irene, 180 J Jannsen, Jan, 202–203 Japan, 9 Japanese tsunami, 132 Jason 1 satellite, 158 Jason and the Golden Fleece, 185 Java, 85, 140 Joint Tanker Project, 224 Joubert, Peter, 29 Junger, Sebastian, 194 K Kaiwi Channel, 174 Kamsin wind, 32 Karess, xviii, 34 Kauai Channel, xi, 197 Kerguelen Islands, 79, 189 Kim, Gene, 151–157 King Cruiser, 152 Kingurra, 29 Kinsman, Blair, 22 Knots defining, 39 wind and wave speed in, 39–40 Koh Phi Phi Island, 151–153, 158 map of, 153 Kowloon Bridge, 54 Krakatoa, 126, 130, 140, 166, 215 Kuroshio Current, 53, 191, 239–240 Kuu Huapala, 197 L La Conte, 80, 82 La Palma, 162 Labrador Current, 195 Lady Alice, 194–197 Laie Point, Oahu, 135 Lehner, Susanne, 213, 243–244, 249 Lewis, David, 171, 173 Lewis, Peter, 26–27, 29–30 Lightering, 218 Lightfoot, Gordon, 204 Lisbon, 133 Lituya Bay, 1, 79, 139, 146, 215 Lloyds of London, 222 Casualty List, 3 certificate of seaworthiness, 188 Load line, 236 Long Beach, 160 Los Angeles Times, 117 Loss rate, high for bulk carriers, 223, 245 Lows, 42–44 notable, 44–45 Lyman-Mersereau, Marion, 174 M M/V Explorer, 197–198 M/V MSC Carla, 4 MacArthur, Ellen, 45

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Extreme Waves Madagascar, 85, 151 Magellan (Fernão Magalhães), 19–20 Maintenance, of vessels, 225 Maldives, 151 Marina Del Rey, California, 11, 16, 34, 72–73, 154, 233 Marine, 7 Marine Electric, 235–239 loss of, 235–239 Marine weather, forecasting and routing, 239–242 Maritime safety. See Ship safety Maritime transport, evolution of, 217–222 Marx, Robert, 132 MaxWave project, 212–213 Mayday, 2, 28, 204 Mediterranean Sea, 16, 17–18 Metacentric height (GM), 232, 241 Michelangelo, 199 Midway Island, 173 Miller, Mike, 202 Minimum design, for wave heights, 225 Mistral, 32 Mobi (B&Q), 45–46 Modeling waves, 20–24 Modified Sieberg Tsunami Intensity Scale, 145 Monsoons, 59 Moore, Dan, 117, 119–120 Mount St. Helens, 163 Munk, Walter Heinrich, 22 Myles, Douglas, 131 N Nailsea Meadow, 190 Napoleon, 22 National Hurricane Center, 97, 106 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 37, 57, 61, 118, 241 typical marine weather wind-wave forecast from, 57 National Research Council, 216 National Seismic Network, 143 National Weather Service, 97, 107, 109 weather faxes from, 92, 194 Nazca Plate, 128 Nepenthe, 207–209 Neptune Sapphire, 188, 190–191 New Zealand to Tonga race disaster, 44–45 Newfoundland, 18, 58, 84, 91, 162, 193, 200 Newport, Rhode Island, 79 Newport Beach, California, 14, 62, 111 Newport Harbor, xvii, 93–94, 161, 169–170 Newport Harbor Nautical Museum, 94, 173 Newton’s law of universal gravitation, 11 Nike shoes, 36 NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration North Atlantic, 84–87 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 86 North Equatorial Current, 34–35 North Sea, 8, 54, 180–181, 187, 191, 206, 210, 215, 230–231 Northeast Trade Winds, 19, 31, 34 O OBOs. See Combination carriers Occluded front, 88 Ocean currents, 33–36 strong, 188–192 Ocean exploration, history of, 18–19 Ocean surface winds, 33 Ocean Systems, Inc., 241 Ocean waves, types of, 13 Oceans. See individual oceans Oceanweather, Inc., 242 Odysseus, 6–7, 17, 185 Odyssey, The , 6, 17, 38 Offshore structure design, 230–231 Oil platforms, 29 Oistad, Erik, 242 Okhotsk Sea, 16 Old Testament tsunamis, 131

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Extreme Waves Orbital motion, 192 Osthav, 180 P Pacific High, 30, 42, 97 Pacific Ocean, 16–17, 25, 32, 36–37, 42, 97, 111, 124, 127–128, 141–145, 171–175, 218, 241 Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, 142, 146–147, 149, 158–159 Palos Verde tsunami (scenario), 161 Pampero, 32 Panamax, 217 Papua New Guinea tsunami, 147, 160 Paragon, 94 Parametric rolling, 221 Pararas-Carayannis, George, 69 Paxton, George, 197 Perfect Storm, The , 194 Periodic function, 22 Periods, 12–15, 23, 34, 49–50, 56, 62–64, 69, 96, 118, 125, 138, 212, 240, 250 dominant, 21 return, 210 Persian Gulf, 18–19, 86, 218 Philippine Sea, 20 Phoenicians, 18 Phuket Island, Thailand, 151–153 Piailug, Mau, 171, 173–174 Pine Ridge, 225 Pitchpoling, 63, 179 Pittsburgh, 201 Plimsoll marks, 236 Polynesian navigation, by wave patterns, 170–175 Port of Los Angeles, 71, 137, 209, 220, 228–229 Port Royal, Jamaica, 132 Portuguese navigators, 19, 162, 188 Poseidon, 7, 17, 227 Prince William Sound earthquake, 136 Probability, of large waves, 54–59 Punta del Este, 77–78 Q Qiantang River, 65–66 Queen Elizabeth, 194 Queen Elizabeth 2, 109, 185–186, 200, 215, 221 Queen Mary, 193–194 R Rayleigh distribution, 55, 249 of wave heights, 55 Recurving, storm paths, 96–97, 108 Red Sea, 18–19 Reedy, Mark, 71 Reef break, 115 Reflection, of waves, 61, 166–169 Refraction, of waves, 61, 166–169 Remijan, Mark, 220, 241 Rescue Coordination Center, 81 Rescues, 28–29, 44, 79–82, 102–103, 122 Resonant effect, 40 Return period, 210 Rhodius, Apollonius, 185 Rift zones, 162–163 Ring of Fire, 127–128, 141 “roaring forties,” 45 Rogue Wave, 209 Rogue waves, 4, 8, 56, 81, 109, 115, 178, 181, 186, 188, 191–192, 195–199, 202, 209, 213, 234, 237, 244–245, 249 causes and characteristics of, 185–187 Rolling, parametric, 221 Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., 221 Ruau-Moko, 127, 227 S Safety. See Ship safety Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, 95–96 Sagging, 234–235 Salerno, Ugo, 224 San Andreas Fault zone, 159 San Clemente Island, 92–93

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Extreme Waves San Diego, 114 San Pedro, California, 160 San Pedro Channel, 66, 72, 187 Sansinena II, 137–138 Santa Ana winds, 32, 114–115 Santa Barbara Island, 34, 208 Santa Monica Bay, xviii, 34 Santa Rosa Island, 47, 237 Santo Domingo Harbor, 67 Santorini Islands, 130 Satellites, 58, 76, 80, 89, 97, 102, 106–107, 125, 144, 158, 176, 196, 213, 220, 227, 240–241, 243–244 Sayonara, 27–28 Scantlings, 234 “screaming sixties,” 45 Scotch Cap lighthouse, 9, 134–135 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 22, 118 Sea anchors, 179 Sea clutter, 243 Sea of Cortez, 17, 92 Sea of Japan, 18, 139 Sea severity, 109 Seal Beach, 160 Seas, 7, 12, 18, 21, 23, 27, 29, 35–36, 40, 45–47, 53–54, 58, 62, 72–73, 79, 81–82, 85–86, 88, 150, 165, 169, 179–181, 189, 194–195, 201–202, 204, 221, 232, 237–238, 248 calm, 11–24 storm-tossed, 71–109 Seascape, 125–126 Seiches, 65, 144 Seismic design codes, 228 Seismic sea waves, 128–129 Seismometers, 23 Semester at Sea Program, 197–198 Sets of currents, 35, 171 of waves, 15, 56, 61, 111, 179 Shallow seas, and the continental shelf, 205–207 Shallow water, waves in, 14, 56, 115, 203–204 Shema, Rick, 242 Ship design, 216–219, 231–235 “Ship of Gold,” 7–8 Ship safety, 216–225 crews being sent to sea to die needlessly, 245–246 increasing, 223 Shipwrecks, reasons for, 2–4 Shoaling, 61, 72 Sidereal compass, 172 Significant wave heights, 21, 99, 118, 210, 235 global, 58 Sine waves, 13, 22, 49–51 Single-hulled tankers, 225 Sirocco, 32 Sitting Tall, xx Sixty Mile Bank, 11, 16, 24 Small craft advisory, 42 Smith, Nancy, 187 Snow, George, 27 Solitary waves, 176 Solitons, 176 SOS. See Mayday South China Sea, 18 South Equatorial Current, 34–35 Southeast Asia tsunami. See Sumatra-Andaman Island earthquake of December 26, 2004 Southern Ocean, 26, 59, 77–78, 184, 188–189, 193 Spanish Armada, 226 Spanish navigators, 7, 19, 89, 162 Spatial focusing, 249 Spencer, Russell, 242 Spice Islands, 19–20 Squalls, 82–84 Sri Lanka, 150 SS Lane Victory, 138, 209 SS Pennsylvania, 177–178 SS United States, 6 SS Waratah, 188–190, 232, 245 St. Barthélémy, 199 St. Martin Island, 199 Stand Aside, 28–29 Stars, zenith, 173 Steepness, of waves, 63–64

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Extreme Waves Stokes, George G., 21 Storm surges, and hurricane-induced flooding, 103–105 Storms, 89–95, 192–205 origins of, 73–74 Straits of Gibraltar, 18 Subduction, 149 Subic Bay, 85 Suez Canal, 217–218 Sumatra, 8, 18, 85, 128, 140, 146, 148–152, 158–159, 176, 218 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, 8–9, 128, 147–163, 176, 226 Sunda Straits, 85, 140, 152 Sunda trench, 152 Sunmore, 139 Superposition, 49–51, 207–210, 249 Surfing, 110, 112–115 extreme, 116–117 Survival strategies, 178–180 Sverdrup, Harald Ulrik, 22 Swells, 12, 110–126, 170 defining, 111–112 large, 112–113 long-period travelers, 123–124 in midocean, 124–126 tracking, 117–118 see also Surfing Sword of Orion, 28 Sydney-Hobart race, 25–29 Synthetic aperture, 243 T Tankers, 3–4, 137, 202, 209–210, 216–219, 224–225, 232, 236 defective, 224 double-hulled, 219, 221 single-hulled, 225 Tasman Sea, 26, 29, 209 Teal Arrow, 200 Tempests, 71–109 Temporal focusing, 249 TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent units), 217 Texas Tower 4, 206 Thailand, 9, 18, 151–152 Theodora, 237 Thira (Thera) Island, 130 map of, 131 Thomas, Steve, 171 Thompson, Tommy, 7 “Three Sisters,” 69, 186, 205, 209 Thunderstorms, 87 TI Europe, 218–219 Tidal bores, 65–66 Tidal streams, 32, 176 Tides, the pull of the moon, 64–65 Time history, 23 Titanic, xviii, 193 Torricelli, Evangelista, 42 Towsurfing, 121–123 Trade winds, 32–33 Transtidal waves, 12 Treasure Fleet, Chinese, 18 Tropic of Cancer, 74 Tropical cyclones, 89–90, 240 Tropical depressions, 44, 53, 69, 89–90, 92, 97 Tsunami bulletins, 141–142 Tsunami Intensity Scale, 145–147 Tsunamis, 6, 8–9, 15, 63, 69, 127–147, 149–151, 154, 163, 176, 226–227 in ancient times, 130–132 caused by landslides and volcanoes, 139–140 characteristics of, 128–130 diving under a killer, 151–159 education programs, 244 historically significant, 132–133 Japanese, 132 Old Testament, 131 recent examples, 133–139 the “Ring of Fire,” 127–128 travel time in hours, in the Chile earthquake, May 22, 1960, 136 tsunami intensity scale, 145–147 walls, 230 warning systems, 140–145, 227, 245 wave height and run-up, 129 Turmoil, 181–182

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Extreme Waves Tyne Bridge, 53 Typhoon Orchid, 53, 222, 235 Typhoon Paka, 4 Typhoons, 4, 53, 89, 90, 192, 200–201, 222 U Ulrich, Howard, 139 Ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs), 218 Ultragravity waves, 12 Unimak Island, Alaska, 9, 134, 135 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 69, 141 U.S. Air Force Reserve, 106 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 228 U.S. Coast Guard, 9, 80–81, 237 U.S. Department of Commerce, 57 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 143 U.S. Naval Academy, 233 U.S. Navy, 99 USS Castine, 68 USS Forrestal, 84–85, 201 USS Hancock, 201 USS Memphis, 67–70 USS Ramapo, 211–212, 215 wave height measurement scheme on, 214 USS Taylor, 233 V Valley Forge, 202 Van Liew, Brad, 74–75, 79, 189 Van Liew, Meaghan, 74, 78 Velella velella, 5 Very large crude carriers (VLCC), 218 Vessel Optimization and Safety System (VOSS), 241–242 Victoria, 20 Vikings, 18 Volcanic calderas, 162 W Wachs, Faye, 151–157 Walker, Spike, 80 “WAM” site, 118 Warantah, 188–190 Warm fronts, 73 Warning systems, tsunami, 140–145, 227, 245 Warps, 179 Warwick, Peter, 185–186, 200 Wateree, 133 Waterspouts, 87 Watkins, Bill, 124 Wave addition, 49 Wave amplitude, 13, 75 Wave buildup, near shore, 66–70 Wave diffraction, 166, 169–170 at the Newport Harbor entrance, 171 Wave forecasting algorithms, 243 Wave heights, 13–15, 21–22, 39–41, 50–51, 54–59, 62, 75–76, 99, 106, 118, 125, 129, 135–136, 140–141, 160, 165, 185–186, 196–197, 201, 210–213, 217, 224–225, 231, 244, 250. See also significant wave heights minimum design for, 225 versus wind speed, duration, and fetch, 41 Wave interactions, 166–167 Wave interference, destructive and constructive, 49–51 Wave modeling, 20–24 Wave movement, 59–61 Wave patterns, Polynesian navigation by, 170–175 Wave properties, 13–16 Wave reflection, 167 Wave refraction, 167–168 Wave speed, 14, 62, 167 Wave steepness, 15, 64, 244 Wave types, 12–13

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Extreme Waves Wavelength, 13–15, 49, 62–63, 125, 128–129, 167, 188, 192, 203, 213, 221, 235, 244 Weather forecasts, 105–106 Weather Reconnaissance Squadron, 106 Weather routers, 242 “The Wedge” (surfing spot), 114 Weinstein, Stuart, 141 Wessel, Paul, 145 White, Linda, 125 White, Tod, 125 Wind speed, 39 Wind waves, 37–39 growth of, 40–41 patterns from a hurricane, 98 theory of, 23 Wind Waves, 22 Winston Churchill, 29 World Glory, 188, 190 World merchant fleet, 217–218 distribution of vessels in, 218 “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald,” 204 Y Young, Samuel, 104–105 Youngquist, Andy, xx Z Zenith stars, 173

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