TABLE C.1 Risk Factors for PTSD in Military Populations

Risk Factor

References

Combat Exposure

 

Combat and its severity

Black et al. 2004; Goldberg et al. 1990; Hoge et al. 2004; Kang et al. 2003; Kulka et al. 1990; O’Toole et al. 1998; Roy-Byrne et al. 2004; Wolfe et al. 1999

Being wounded or injured

Koren et al. 2005; North et al. 1999; Schreiber and Galai-Gat 1993;

Witnessing death

Breslau et al. 1999; Ford 1999

Witnessing grotesque death

Green et al. 1990

Serving on graves-registration duty

Sutker et al. 1994

Being tortured or being taken captive

de Jong et al. 2001; Mollica et al. 1998; Speed et al. 1989; Sutker et al. 1993

Unpredictable and uncontrollable stressful exposure

Foa et al. 1992; Southwick et al. 1993

Military Environment

 

Sexual trauma, including assault

Fontana et al. 1997b; Kang et al. 2005

Combat preparedness

Asmundson et al. 2002

Deployment to war zone without combat

Ikin et al. 2004

Homecoming Environment

 

Lack of social support

Fontana and Rosenheck 1994; Fontana et al. 1997a; Green et al. 1990; Johnson et al. 1997; Koenen et al. 2003; Stretch 1985; Stretch et al. 1985

Personal Factors

 

Cumulative life stress before or after the traumatic event

Breslau et al. 1999; Brewin et al. 2000; King et al. 1998; Maes et al. 2001; North et al. 1999

More resource loss, lower income or education, older age

Norris et al. 2002

Being female

Kang et al. 2003; Wolfe et al. 1999



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