FIGURE 3-1 Seasonal temperature reconstructions based on historical evidence from Europe and China with standard errors (2 standard deviations for Europe, 1 standard deviation for China). Twentieth-century records (post-1950 for China) are based on instrumental data and do not show error bars. All data are subject to 30-year smoothing. SOURCES: Modified from Xoplaki et al. (2005), Luterbacher et al. (2004), and Ge et al. (2001). Reprinted with permission, Taylor & Francis Ltd. (http://tandf.co.uk/journals); copyright 2001.