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Appendix C Evolution of the Mapping Sciences THE NEED FOR MAPS AND THE MAPPING SCIENCES Human senses provide only limited means for observing and remem- bering our surroundings. At any instant, an individual can see little more than a millionth of the Earth's surface if standing upon it. To know more than this requires the sharing and compiling of experience, and the devel- opment of tools for mapping, reproducing, and distributing mapped in- formation--processes formalized and systematized in the classic Greek era by Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE), Ptolemy (AD 85-165) and others. In the early modern period in the West, Portuguese navigators dominated exploration of the wider world owing to the school of mapping and navi- gation established by Prince Henry ("The Navigator") of Portugal (1394- 1460) at Sagres in the early fifteenth century (Ure, 1977). After regular European contact with the Americas at the end of that century, the map- ping sciences evolved rapidly, driven by European commercial and impe- rial ambitions and accompanying warfare (Black, 1997). Maps and map- ping became valuable enough to spur governments to devote substantial resources to developing the tools needed to solve specific mapping and navigational problems, such as the accurate determination of longitude (Sobel, 1995).1 The history of science is full of examples of the vital role that tools have played in advancing human understanding. Galileo's work de- 1A timeline of selected events in the history of the mapping sciences is appended to this appendix (Table C-1). 81
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82 APPENDIX C pended on his acquisition and further development of telescopes; today our understanding of the cosmos is advancing rapidly thanks in part to the Hubble space telescope. The invention of the microscope, the digital computer, and even the camera are all significant milestones in the his- tory of science. In numerous instances, the complexity of new tools fos- tered new disciplines devoted primarily to advancing the tools, while con- tributing only indirectly to advancing science through the application of the tools. For example, the analysis of x-ray diffraction images is suffi- ciently difficult and its results of sufficient importance in mineralogy and molecular biology that x-ray crystallography has become a recognized scientific discipline. Similar histories characterize microscopy, statistics, the computer sciences, and mapping. In the same way, new mapping dis- ciplines emerged following significant technological advances. For ex- ample, the emergence of photogrammetry in the twentieth century de- pended on the invention of the photograph and the airplane. Other disciplines emerged as a result of strategic need, and the massive govern- ment investment that followed. For example, geodesy, the science of ac- curate measurement of Earth, was transformed as a result of the ballistic missile programs of the 1950s. Rarely does a change in tools result in a true revolution, and the map- ping sciences are now experiencing only the second such revolution in over five millennia of collective history. The first true revolution was in response to the invention and dissemination of printing. The second is based on the invention and application of digital electronic technology to the mapping sciences. Prior to printing, every map was a unique hand- drawn manuscript. With printing came the need to standardize mapping conventions and practices, in order to satisfy the larger market for maps that printing itself created. Similarly, digital technology has forced com- prehensive rethinking of almost all aspects of the mapping sciences dur- ing the last 30 years. In addition to making a large number of maps and map-like illustrations even more widely available than did printing, digi- tal technology offers the further capabilities of producing highly custom- ized maps tailored to each individual user's individual specifications, and of permitting each individual to personally produce such customized maps. In a very short period of time, the mapping sciences have shifted focus from producing multiple copies of identical maps expected to sat- isfy a variety of purposes to today's emphasis on specialized location- based information products and services synthesized on demand. The Mapping Sciences in 1975 Of the three major mapping science sectors (academic, government, and private), federal governments traditionally exercised dominant lead-
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APPENDIX C 83 ership in creating, sponsoring, and implementing technological innova- tions in the mapping sector, abroad as well as in the United States. Agen- cies in the Departments of Defense, Commerce, and Interior had large budgets and incentives to fund improvements in mapping technologies, leading innovators to try to satisfy agency needs. Private firms involved in the mapping sciences, commercial map publishers, and small survey- ing firms lagged in accepting and employing new developments. Academic mapping scientists experimented continuously, but focused primarily on developing and updating courses that met the needs for professionals trained to use the evolving technologies employed by federal agencies. Most courses were offered by individual academic de- partments, with little or no coordination across department lines. Car- tography, geodesy, and photogrammetry were taught respectively in de- partments of geography, geodesy, and civil engineering or forestry. Some surveying was taught in civil engineering programs, but much was taught in junior or community colleges or on the job. Remote sensing courses were taught in geography or civil engineering. The Mapping Sciences in 2005 A short 30 years later, the widespread adoption of digital technology has forced rapid change with no clear diminution in sight. In 2005, private industry, using digital technology and meeting an increasingly wide ar- ray of user demands and expectations, leads in developing and imple- menting digital technology and in providing location-based services. Gov- ernment agencies have undergone massive changes and are still groping to understand their places in a new technological world. Most have come to realize that they are now primarily spatial-data analysts, archivists, and users and no longer data collectors and map producers. In 1975, the costs and the intricacies of the latest mapping science technologies were cost prohibitive for almost all organizations except the federal government, making it necessary for the federal agencies to be data collectors as well as mappers. Now government agencies at all levels, including some that never had or needed spatial data, have become spatial-data providers, users, and integrators. This rising importance of local and state government agencies rela- tive to federal agencies is one of the most profound outcomes of the digi- tal revolution. The data accuracy and precision demanded by today's larger array of users requires that data collection be done at local levels in forms and formats acceptable to national users. Thousands of local gov- ernments are now engaged in the collection, processing, analysis, archiving, and visualization of highly precise and accurate geographic data, tasks for which tens of thousands of GIS/GIScience professionals
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84 APPENDIX C are needed. In recent years the annual user conference of the leading GIS software vendor has drawn 10,000 to 12,000 participants, in contrast to the 2,000 or so who attended meetings of the relevant professional organiza- tions in the 1970s. In some respects, the academic sector has been the slowest to effect permanent changes in response to the digital revolution. Educational pro- grams are often deeply disciplinary in nature. Training is still done in individual departments, each focusing only on part of the total mapping science picture. Within academia, confusion persists regarding the ways the scientific, engineering, and application components of GIS/GIScience relate to each other and to traditional disciplines. In response to the strong demand for trained GIS/GIScience professionals, many programs have introduced coursework that stresses software manipulation skills at the expense of the conceptual depth needed to accommodate rapid and con- tinuing scientific and technological change. The capacity to meet the greatly increased need for trained GIS/GIScience trained professionals has not been put in place, leading to the worrisome prospect of thousands of individuals using GIS software to produce analyses and visualizations based on assumptions and techniques they do not fully understand. Core Mapping Disciplines The set of disciplines relevant to the mapping sciences has expanded in the last 30 years as a result of four developments: increased availability of affordable digital technology and data, a heightened appreciation for the analytical power of geospatial tools, increased locational accuracy and precision of data owing to the deployment of the Global Positioning Sys- tem (GPS), and increased awareness of the value of the spatial data on the part of entrepreneurs and society. Influences of Information Technology Information technology, particularly digital technology, has strongly affected the core mapping sciences. Cartography has benefited from the power of computers to support rapid editing and composition of maps in ways directly analogous to the ways computers have enhanced the com- position and editing of text. Today virtually all mapmaking is done on- screen rather than on paper, although the eventual product may appear almost identical to paper maps made long before the invention of com- puters. But computers have also wreaked profound and far-reaching changes on the society that ultimately defines the need for maps and the uses to which they are put. Mapmaking originated as a solution to the basic need
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APPENDIX C 85 to share geospatial information. The practice of printing and disseminat- ing large sheets with symbolic representations of Earth's surface was one solution to that need, optimized for the technology of the time. Today not all ways of sharing information require dissemination on paper. The tra- ditional role of the newspaper, for example, has been partially eclipsed by television, radio, and the Internet. Roles that mass-produced paper maps once performed, such as providing the information needed to navigate the street network of an unfamiliar city, are now being performed by such online information resources as MapQuest.com, which provides custom- ized driving directions to millions of users per day, as well as printable maps. Some new tools enhance and augment the traditional roles of maps, while others replace them. To understand the impact of information technology on the mapping sciences, one must understand the role of geospatial information in soci- ety generally. How geospatial information is acquired and used will de- pend on particular applications; information may be delivered in the form of a paper map, but it may also be transmitted through an online service to a user's printer. Since the advent of information technology, particu- larly the Internet, the tools and services available to support geospatial information applications have expanded, and geospatial information is now used in a host of ways that were almost inconceivable three decades ago. Many of these uses are associated with time-dependent transactions, in sharp contrast to traditional mapping's emphasis on the relatively static features of Earth's surface. For example, every credit card transaction gen- erates a record that is located in time and space. There have been many studies of the impact of digital technology on mapping and the potential of such new digital technologies as GIS (for example, NRC, 1997). The tools of mapping now extend far beyond those that provided the initial impetus for the core disciplines of cartography, geodesy, surveying, photogrammetry, and remote sensing; and their im- pacts on mapping generally will be far greater than their specific impacts on the core disciplines. As Prince Henry staffed his school at Sagres with specialists in the mapping technology of the time, so the national mapping agencies that evolved in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their state and pri- vate-sector equivalents drew personnel from the core disciplines of the mapping sciences. Today, traditional national mapping agencies face un- precedented challenges as they struggle to evolve in an era of very rapid technological change. How, for example, should these agencies respond to the potential of location-based services, the umbrella term for services that provide information based on the current location of the user, through mobile phones and other portable devices? Who should today's Prince
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86 APPENDIX C Henry recruit to the modern equivalent of his school? And how should such people be trained to be most effective in addressing these questions? Although the four core mapping sciences--cartography, geodesy, photogrammetry and remote sensing, and surveying--are to some de- gree independent, they share strong commonalities, including a focus on the common objective of mapping. Today, however, a surveying special- ist is expected to be familiar with aspects of information technology, par- ticularly GIS, GPS, and image processing, and possibly the science behind information technology. Surveyors are also expected to know aspects of statistics, and particularly error analysis and adjustment theory. The cur- riculum of surveying programs has had to expand in recent years, with all that implies in terms of excessive demands and information overload. Mapping agencies clearly face difficult human resource issues in the com- ing decade that can only be addressed with a clear vision of the new na- ture of mapping, geospatial information, and their core disciplines. Adding Disciplines to the Mapping Sciences Five disciplines are particularly relevant to today's mapping sciences. Each is an established enterprise in its own right, with a domain that over- laps strongly with mapping: Computer Science Computer scientists study fundamental issues related to digital com- puting, including its data structures, algorithms, and indexing schemes. They address the design of operating systems, programming languages, and database management systems. Computer scientists' interests also extend to the principles underlying interactions between humans and computers, and the effects of computing on society. Particularly relevant to mapping are such computer science specialties as computational ge- ometry, object-oriented database management, spatial databases, and computer graphics. Conferences in these specialties tend to attract map- ping specialists, and computer scientists in these specialties commonly attend meetings organized by the mapping sciences. A study by the NRC's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board examined research needs in specialties relevant to the mapping (NRC, 2003a). Information Science Geospatial information is a particularly well-defined subset of infor- mation, and it has consequently attracted the attention of information sci- entists interested in the fundamental nature of information and its under-
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APPENDIX C 87 lying principles. Information science has strong roots in library science, and libraries of geospatial information have become a focus of research in the digital library community (e.g., the Alexandria Digital Library Project). In particular, information science provides the framework for research on metadata, cataloging systems, interoperability among archives, and auto- mated search over distributed archives, all of which are important to the mapping sciences given their interest in information sharing. Electrical and Computer Engineering Because of their potential roles in the inexpensive production of geospatial information from remotely sensed images, image processing and pattern recognition are important technologies for mapping. For this reason, the military and intelligence communities have invested heavily in electrical engineering research over the past four decades. Given the vast volumes of data that are typical of remote sensing, electrical engi- neering also contributes to mapping science through its interest in data compression. Cognitive Science Cognitive scientists study the acquisition and development of mental abilities and their use in daily activities. As the mapping sciences have been affected by information technology, such topics have become increas- ingly important for two reasons. First, as geospatial information becomes more pervasive, it is essential that information be made widely available, including to the young, whose cognitive skills may not be fully devel- oped, and to the disabled, particularly the visually impaired. Second, in- teraction between humans and computers often must occur in such con- strained circumstances as in vehicles while driving, where it is essential that information be presented in ways that are readily understood. In re- cent years, there has been productive interaction between the mapping and cognitive science communities. Statistics Because geospatial information is an approximation toward the real world, its users inevitably face uncertainty when using it to solve real problems. A GPS receiver will yield only an approximate measurement of position, for example, and a map of land use can only give an approxi- mate indication of actual conditions on the ground. Specialists in geo- statistics and spatial statistics are interested in mapping as an application realm for statistical theory, and in recent years several conferences on
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88 APPENDIX C spatial-data uncertainty have drawn mapping scientists and statisticians. Substantial advances have been made in the description and study of error and uncertainty in geospatial information, its propagation through the manipulations that occur in GIS, and in its visualization (Zhang and Goodchild, 2002). The set of core disciplines needed for robust mapping science has grown substantially in the last 30 years. To specialists in these additional disciplines, the mapping sciences are often seen as offering intriguing or unusual applications rather than as an essential parts of the discipline's core. This focus on an application is always risky for a researcher whose priority is advancing the parent discipline--it is too often seen as mar- ginal and less meritorious than core research. Accordingly, researchers pursuing such interests run the risk of being seen as marginal within their own disciplines. Even so, spatial specialties within these relevant disci- plines have emerged, often identified with the adjective "spatial," as in spatial databases, spatial statistics, and spatial cognition. However sound the basis for the mapping sciences as an application topics for these five disciplines, or even as the basis of an important specialty, the tradition of dividing the scientific community along well-established disciplinary lines remains a strong conservative influence. Geographic Information Science By 1991, it was evident that the cumulative force of new technologies and the engagement of new disciplines were producing a creative ten- sion in the mapping sciences. Profound structural changes were under way not only in the agencies primarily concerned with the production of maps but also among the country's academic disciplines. Programs were being reorganized to recognize both the new skills needed by mapping scientists and the new commonalities between them. One of the most conspicuous results of this tension was an attempt to rename some of the components of mapping science. Two new terms emerged: "geomatics," constructed from "informatics" and implying a mapping science heavily dominated by information technology, and "geographic information sci- ence" (GIScience). In proposing the latter term to describe a new field addressing the fundamental issues of geospatial information, Goodchild (1992) intended to imply a strong link to GIS, and to play on the ability of GIS to attract widespread attention. Many surveying departments redefined themselves at this time, and became departments of geomatics or geomatics engineering. The Univer- sity Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) was founded in 1996 as a consortium of U.S. research universities (http://
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APPENDIX C 89 www.ucgis.org [accessed May 24, 2006]). Several journals changed their titles: The American Cartographer became Cartography and Geographic Infor- mation Science, and the International Journal of GIS became the International Journal of GIScience. A series of biennial international conferences in GIScience began in Savannah, Georgia, in 2000, and a number of more established but smaller conferences now address specific aspects of GIScience.2 Since 1995, "GIScience" has come to have two distinct meanings, one referring to the use of GIS in scientific applications and the other address- ing the fundamental research principles on which GIS is based. In 1996, UCGIS recognized the wider import of the latter meaning by developing a 10-point research agenda (UCGIS, 1996), which attests to the breadth of this emerging discipline and the complexity of geospatial technology. Al- though subsequently augmented, its 10 research focuses remain a useful guide to the content and academic context of GIScience: 1. Spatial data acquisition and integration; 2. Distributed computing; 3. Extensions to geographic representations; 4. Cognition of geographic information; 5. Interoperability of geographic information; 6. Scale; 7. Spatial analysis in a GIS environment; 8. The future of the spatial information infrastructure; 9. Uncertainty in geographic information and GIS-based analyses; and 10. GIS and society. Both "geomatics" and "GIScience" were coined in response to a per- ceived need to reshape the academic landscape of the mapping sciences. Their adoption signals a more holistic view of the mapping sciences and the need to integrate content from the disciplines that have recently joined the mapping science community. The terms carry somewhat distinct con- notations: "Geomatics" is more strongly associated with engineering and the surveying tradition, whereas "GIScience" is more strongly associated with geography, information sciences, and computer science. In Canada, geomatics is the dominant term and the focus of government policy. 2For a history of GIScience, see Mark (2003), and for explorations of its epistemological significance see Wright et al. (1997).
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90 APPENDIX C Governments In 2001, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) initiated Geospatial One-Stop, one of a series of interagency, multigovernment e- government activities (Sidebar 1-2) designed to help users find geospatial data. OMB has more recently asked federal agencies that are required to have in place Enterprise Architecture plans for managing information to consider development of a "geospatial profile" for enterprise architec- ture planning. A "Geospatial Enterprise Architecture" (GEA) Working Group is being formed under the auspices of the federal CIO Council Architecture and Infrastructure Committee (AIC) and the FGDC. This group, while conducting some meetings in person, is taking advantage of communications technologies by using a wiki (a collaborative website set up to allow user editing and adding of content) as its primary way to interact and share documents. (Sidebar C-1 and http://colab.cim3.net/ cgi-bin/wiki.pl?GeoSpatialCommunityofPractice [accessed 25 April 2006]). The GEA Working Group was not initiated by geospatial experts, but at the behest of the general information technology community, which saw a need to more effectively integrate geospatial considerations into high-level agency information management efforts. At the state level, most states have formed some sort of coordinating council that facilitates the exchange of knowledge among state agencies regarding geospatial data and activities (http://www.nsgic.org/ [ac- cessed 24 May 2006]). These developments follow the establishment in the early 1990s of the National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC) to provide a forum on GIS/GIScience for communications among the states. Today other levels of government, as well as academ- ics and private-sector representatives participate in NSGIC meetings. The Private Sector The same drivers of change that spurred action in the academic and government sectors have significantly affected the private sector. It has expanded from a handful of small, highly specialized firms 30 years ago to hundreds of enterprises (some of them large) today. Early innovators of GIS software focused on using aerial photographs and producing tour- ing maps and atlases. Today firms range from software developers to consultants and data providers, from producers of airborne digital ortho- photographs to aerospace corporations deploying high-resolution Earth- observing satellites, and from local firms creating vector-based recreation maps to national data vector collection firms (e.g., Navigation Technolo- gies or NAVTEC, Teleatlas, Geographic Data Technology). The growth of this industry is a direct result of the pervasiveness of mapping tools
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APPENDIX C 91 SIDEBAR C-1 The Geospatial Enterprise Community of Practice Objectives · To establish an inclusive community of practice in order to con- sistently integrate and promote geospatial concepts in the context of enter- prise architecture practices; · To develop a Geospatial Profile guidance document for the Fed- eral Enterprise Architecture and companion documentation for program- level implementers; and · To conduct outreach activities and demonstrations to highlight the application of Profile guidance in operational, multijurisdictional set- tings. Roles and Responsibilities The Geospatial Community of Practice / GEA Technical Working Group has representatives from federal, state, local government, and in- dustry. Participating organizations are committed to providing informa- tion and personnel resources integral to the initiative. The FGDC Secre- tariat and the AIC provides project support, guidance, and contractor support. Contractor support includes document interpretation and prepa- ration, meeting synopses, collaborative workspace management and up- dates, and interaction with the commercial sector. See draft charter for additional information. SOURCE: http://colab.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?GeoSpatialCommunityof Practice. Accessed 25 April 2006. that have led to increasing demand for location-based information and more tools. The private sector has created industry associations not only to pro- mote sharing of information but also to lobby Congress and state and local governments for various causes, including increased federal fund- ing to the private sector as contracts (e.g., Management Association for Private Photogrammetric Surveyors) and for enhancing funding for geospatial activities overall (e.g., Spatial Technology Industry Associa- tion). One of the most visible private-sector organizations that has signifi- cantly broadened its membership over the last few years, is the Open GIS
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92 APPENDIX C Consortium (OGC)3 (Sidebar S-3). The OGC promotes open standards4 for the GIS industry and has garnered worldwide support for its agenda from governments, academia, and the private sector. Other organizations, such as the ISO (International Organization for Standards) (which considers geospatial metadata standards) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), also focus on standards, but from a broader perspective. W3C develops interoperable technologies (specifi- cations, guidelines, software, and tools) to develop the Web to its fullest potential (http://www.w3.org/ [accessed 24 May 2006]).5 ISO covers standards relating to everything from screws to practices for environ- mental regulations (http://www.iso.org/iso/en/ISOOnline.frontpage [accessed 24 May 2006]). ISO's work relevant to GIS/GIScience has fo- cused on preliminary aspects of international standards for GIS and for location-based services. The Nonprofit Sector As GIScience has spread throughout the public and private sectors, it has also engaged the interest of the nonprofit sector. The three organiza- tions just mentioned (MAPPS, STIA, and OGC) are all not-for-profit orga- nizations, with varying abilities and inclination to lobby Congress and other governments for funding to support geospatial activities. Other nonprofits include professional societies with specific interests in geospatial data and technology (Association of American Geographers, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Geospatial Information and Tech- nology Association, and the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association). Their conferences and journals often provide a means for many sectors and disciplines to collaborate and interact on issues of com- 3OGC trademarked the phrase "OpenGIS" in 28 countries to enable the consortium to position itself and its products (e.g., OpenGIS Specifications) as truly open and vendor neu- tral. 4Open interfaces and protocols defined by OpenGISŪ Specifications support interoperable solutions that "geoenable" (create standards for interoperability that will advance the use of geospatial data) the Web, wireless- and location-based services, and mainstream informa- tion technology, and empower technology developers to make spatial information and ser- vices accessible to different applications. 5W3C members consist of private technology companies, nonprofit organizations, coali- tions, academic institutions, and government agencies interested in working "together to design Web technologies that build upon its universality, giving the world the power to enhance communication and commerce for anyone, anywhere, anytime and using any de- vice" (http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Member/List).
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APPENDIX C 93 mon interest. For example, URISA was formed after the 1960 U.S. census, when researchers recognized the potential to develop maps from newly available digital census data and to use GIS to analyze urban and regional issues. It carries out its mission through vendor-neutral workshops and publications.
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94 APPENDIX C TABLE C-1 Timeline of Selected Events in the History of the Mapping Sciences in the U.S. Date Event 1790 The first census was taken, under the responsibility of Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. That census, taken by U.S. marshals on horseback, counted 3.9 million inhabitants. 1807 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey established to provide better charts of coastal waters and navigational aids for commercial interests. (They did not begin work until 1812 and shortly thereafter became part of the navy.) 1810 The census was expanded to obtain information on the manufacturing, quantity, and value of products. 1820 New York state funds development of a geological survey to improve agriculture in Albany County. 1823 North Carolina General Assembly authorizes creation of a statewide geological survey. 1824 Congress authorizes army engineers to make engineering surveys for roads and canals for national military, commercial, or postal purposes. Early 1830s Several eastern and central states establish state geological surveys. 1834 Topographical Bureau of the U.S. Army is authorized by Congress to conduct geological investigations to construct a geological map of the United States. 1835 Geological Survey of Great Britain is established. 1840 The census adds questions on fisheries. 1848 U.S. Interior Department is established including the General Land Office, the Pension Office, the Office of Indian Affairs, and the Census. 1850 The census added data on taxation, churches, pauperism, and crime. 1850 George T. Hope is generally credited with having fostered the idea of specialized and detailed fire insurance maps in the United States. Around 1850 Hope, who was at the time secretary of the Jefferson Insurance Company, began to compile a large-scale map of a portion of New York City for use in calculating fire risks. This effort became part of Sanborn. 1853 Congress charges the U.S. Army topographical engineers to conduct surveys to determine the best railroad route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. 1860 California legislature establishes a state geologic survey (the only state geological survey that will survive the Civil War). 1867 Congress authorizes surveys of the West for geology and natural resources along the 40th parallel under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and a geological survey of the State of Nebraska under the Interior General Land Office. 1867 The Sanborn Map Company, primary American publisher of fire insurance maps was established (http://www.lib.utah.edu/digital/ sanborn/browse.html [accessed 24 May 2006]).
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APPENDIX C 95 TABLE C-1 Continued Date Event 1869 First Rand McNally map published: The Western Railway Guide. 1870 National Weather Service (originally called the Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce) established under the secretary of war. 1878 U.S. Geological Survey established with a $100,000 budget and 38 employees. 1883 Sanborn appears to have begun systematic registering of maps, with deposit copies. The sheets carrying the 1883 date are the earliest in the Library of Congress. D. A. Sanborn dies in 1883. 1886 Dr. Herbert Hollerith conducts the first practical test of his "tabulating machine" in recording vital statistics for the Baltimore Department of Health. He patents this machine in 1889. 1888 The National Geographic Society is established. 1890 Dr. Herbert Hollerith's (a Census Bureau statistician) punched-card tabulating machines are used for tabulating census data. The machines use an electric current to sense holes in punched cards to keep a running total of data. Sixty-three million people counted. 1896 Dr. Herman Hollerith, son of a German immigrant and Census Bureau statistician forms the Tabulating Machine Company. 1899 Sanborn Map Company acquired Perris and Browne firm, and the name is changed to Sanborn Perris Map Company Ltd. until in 1902 the name was shortened to the Sanborn Map Company. 1902 The Census Bureau becomes a permanent institution by an act of Congress. 1902 American Automobile Association formed in Chicago. 1904 Rand McNally extends its transportation business to include motorcars and published the New Automobile Road Map of New York City & Vicinity, the first of its kind. 1904 Association of American Geographers is established. 1909 L. P. Lowe, president of the California State Automobile Association (CSAA) proclaims that "California is the first state in the Union to produce a comprehensible, reliable highway map." The map, which showed the "major" highways of California and Nevada, was sent without charge to all members, launching CSAA's renowned cartographic business. 1910 B. F. Goodrich, the nation's most prominent tire company, produced the first of its series of road-sign route books. This required the placing of "guide posts" from coast to coast, each bearing distance and directional information beneath the Goodrich logo. This system served the automobilist through the decade until the free, folding- type oil company road maps became readily available. The strip map lingered on, however, as it led the driver past the businesses of the sponsors. 1910 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is established. continued
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96 APPENDIX C TABLE C-1 Continued Date Event 1911 IBM incorporated in the State of New York as the "Computing- Tabulating-Recording Company, C-T-R. (The name is changed to IBM in 1924). One of the major companies that becomes part of C-T-R is Herbert Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company. 1917 Randy McNally implemented a road-numbering system for Illinois that is still used today (including Route 66). 1924 The National Conference on Street and Highway Safety, whose chairman was the Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, authorized a committee to draft a uniform motor vehicle code for all 48 states. Two years later, the laws were presented and adopted by the second conference. The individual states did not move so quickly, and some adopted the package in their own time, but a standardized code of laws was a major achievement of effective nationwide traffic regulations. 1924-1925 By the 1920s, commercial publishers such as Rand McNally had begun to produce the modern road atlas. The first was published in 1924 (or 1925) and was called "The Rand McNally Auto Chum." Hammond and Gallup produced their own road atlases, each with its own identifiable characteristics. Clason offered an atlas featuring spectacular cover graphics that seemed particularly suited to the West. Jenney issued a free eastern equivalent with covers in art deco style. 1934 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is established. 1939 Within 24 hours of Germany's invasion of Poland in 1939, Rand McNally was publishing escape maps for aviators, illustrating underground safehouses. Producing these maps on vegetable parchment enabled captured pilots to eat the maps instead of allowing them to fall into the hands of the enemy. 1941 American Congress on Surveying and Mapping is established. 1953 OMB issues Circular A-16 to encourage coordinated federal mapping and surveying efforts. 1957 Sputnik, U-2 high-altitude photography for mapping. 1960 William (Bell) Fetter of Boeing coins the term "computer graphics" to describe the work he is doing in analyzing human factors in cockpit drawings. 1961 Dr. Edgar Horwood at the University of Washington receives tapes of census data. At the time there was no mechanism for disseminating digital census data (the tapes were an "internal artifact" of the census). 1962 Horwood, Hugh Calkins, and others conduct two-week training classes in use of census data and computer mapping (origin of URISA). 1963 Roger Tomlinson uses the phrase "geographic information system" as part of the Canadian Land Inventory, which is subsequently called CGIS.
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APPENDIX C 97 TABLE C-1 Continued Date Event 1963 Forty eight people meet in Los Angeles for first URISA gathering. Mayor Yorty's office gives keynote indicating commitment to incorporating information systems and computers into public administration process. 1963 Howard Fischer is developing prototypes of SYMAP (Synagraphic Mapping System) at Northwestern University (related to census tape use). 1964 GPS specifications are developed by the Department of Defense. 1964 One hundred seventy five people meet at the University of Pittsburgh (as "second annual" URISA meeting). Ad hoc committee created to formalize the organization. 1964 Howard Fischer starts the Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis and continues work on SYMAP. 1966 SYMAP is "released." 1967 OMB revises Circular A-16 to outline mapping responsibilities of the Departments of the Interior, Commerce, and State. 1967 DIME (Dual Incidence Matrix Encoding, and later Dual Independent Map Encoding) file format is developed by Census Bureau staff working with the Harvard Graphics Lab and the New Haven Census Study. 1969 ESRI is established by Jack and Laura Dangermond. 1969 M&S Computing (later renamed Intergraph) started by Jim Meadlock and four others. 1969 First spatial-data transfer standard published by Experimental Cartography Unit. 1971 Defense Mapping Agency is created. 1972 NASA launches ERTS-1 (Landsat-1) (operations terminate in 1978). 1973 State of Maryland (John Antenucci) initiates effort to create a statewide GIS (Maryland Automated Geographic Information System) working with ESRI. 1973 U.K. Ordnance Survey started digitizing maps. 1973 Federal Mapping Task Force issues its report. 1974 USGS started digitizing land use and land cover maps (Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis). 1975 NASA launches Landsat-2 (operations terminate in 1981). 1976-1977 USGS pilots and starts producing digital elevation models (DEM) and digital line graphs (DLG) from its traditional paper products. The concept of the National Digital Cartographic Data Base is adopted in 1977. 1978 NASA launches Landsat-3 (operations terminate in 1983). 1979-1981 Carter and Reagan initiate and accelerate process of Landsat commercialization. 1980 NRC Multipurpose Cadastre Report published. 1980 Federal Emergency Management Agency integration of USGS 1:2 million maps. continued
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98 APPENDIX C TABLE C-1 Continued Date Event 1981 FICCDC (Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography) is formed. 1982 Automated Mapping/Facilities Mapping (AM/FM) established. Name later changed to GITA (Geospatial Information and Technology Association). 1982 NASA launches Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data (operations limited as of 1992). 1983 Etak Inc. is formed. 1984 NASA launches Landsat-5 (still operational). 1985 First GPS satellites launched. 1986 First GIS/LIS (land information systems) Conference (sponsored by ASPRS) (meetings continue through 1996, primarily cosponsored by AAG, ASPRS, ACSM, AM/FM-GITA, URISA). 1987 Mapping Science Committee formed. 1988 NCGIA (National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis) funded by National Science Foundation. 1990 Circular A-16 revised to include geographically referenced computer readable (digital) data and to form the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). 1991 USGS topographic map series is completed. 1992 NSGIC (National States Geographic Information Council ) is formed. 1992 OMB Circular A-130 is issued. 1993 NRC report Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation is issued. 1993 NASA launches Landsat-6 (satellite fails to orbit). 1994 Space Imaging is established. 1994 Open GIS Consortium is established. 1994 ISO Technical Committee 211 is established. 1994 Executive Order 12906 for developing the National Spatial Data Infrastructure is signed by President Clinton. 1995 FGDC clearinghouse is established. 1995 FGDC metadata standard is established. 1995 MapInfo Professional Software is available. 1996 OGIS Specification V1 is established. 1999 Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite is launched. 1999 NASA launches Landsat-7 (data anomalies May 2003). 2002 Circular A-16 is revised to clearly define FGDC and NSDI efforts. 2002 Geospatial One-Stop e-government initiative is established.
Representative terms from entire chapter: