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I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N F O R A B E T T E R T O M O R R O W PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM IN HONOR OF ARNOLD BECKMAN Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided with institutional funds. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10116-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800)624-6242 or (202)334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America II INSTRUMENTATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a man- date that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, shar- ing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility of advising the federal gov- ernment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. THE INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to ident- ify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org INSTRUMENTATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW III

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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY BURTON RICHTER, Stanford University, Chair ANNEILA L. SARGENT, California Institute of Technology, Vice Chair ELIHU ABRAHAMS, Rutgers University JONATHAN BAGGER, Johns Hopkins University RONALD C. DAVIDSON, Princeton University RAYMOND J. FONCK, University of Wisconsin at Madison ANDREA M. GHEZ, University of California at Los Angeles PETER GREEN, University of Texas at Austin LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign WICK HAXTON, University of Washington FRANCES HELLMAN, University of California at Berkeley ERICH P. IPPEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California at Berkeley JOSE ONUCHIC, University of California at San Diego JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories WILLIAM PHILLIPS, National Institute of Standards and Technology THOMAS M. THEIS, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center C. MEGAN URRY, Yale University STAFF DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer NATALIA J. MELCER, Program Officer BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate PAMELA A. LEWIS, Program Associate DAVID B. LANG, Research Associate VAN AN, Financial Associate PHILLIP D. LONG, Senior Program Assistant IV INSTRUMENTATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW

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Acknowledgments T his symposium and these proceedings would not have been possible but for the inspiration, dedication, and hard work of many people. In particular, the gracious contributions of time and effort of the staff at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation, the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies, Beckman Coulter, Inc., and the Chemical Heritage Foundation were critical to making this project a success. The speakers themselves gave generously of their time and expertise to reflect on the legacy of a great man and to offer their thoughts on where the future will take us. Among the many individuals to whom we express our heartfelt thanks and appreciations, we specially recognize the following: Jacqueline Dorrance and Kathlene Williams of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation; Amber Westberg of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center; James C. Osborne, Pat Ashton, and Sarah Nessl of Beckman Coulter, Inc.; Charles Casey and A.J. Ribes of the American Chemical Society; Robert Lukens, David Brock, and Robert Hicks of the Chemical Heritage Foundation; Gerald Gallwas of the Board of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation; Barbara Schlein of the President's Office at the National Academy of Engineering; Sharon Baker of the Chancellor's Office at the University of California at Irvine; and all of the dedicated staff at the National Academies' Board on Physics and Astronomy, including Timothy Meyer, Richard Rowberg, Don Shapero, and Pamela Lewis. Finally, conversations with the staff of the Institute of Medicine and the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign and with Francis J. DiSalvo, David C. Clarke, Laura Greene, Frances Hellman, Venkatesh Narayanamurti, Richard Smalley, Paul Ferrara, Harry Gray, Nathan Rosenberg, and Dragana Brzakovic were invaluable. INSTRUMENTATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW V

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers his report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse T perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity and evidence. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Scott Fraser, California Institute of Technology Gerald Gallwas, Beckman Foundation Barbara Jones, IBM Almaden Research Center Pierre Wiltzius, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author- ing committee and the institution. VI INSTRUMENTATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW

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Contents Foreword 1 PART I A Daughter's Remembrances 5 Finding the Sweet Spot of Opportunity 7 PART II A Lifetime of Experience in the Growth of Modern Instrumentation for Organic Chemistry 19 Molecular and Systems Biology 26 Compelling Science and Synchrotron X-ray Sources 30 Chemistry at the Nanoscale Frontier 36 Nanoscale Science and Engineering 39 Forensic Science and Technology 43 Clinical Medicine 47 PART III The Evolving Relationship Between Instrumentation and Research --A Panel Discussion 53 The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies 63 INSTRUMENTATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW IX

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