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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons C Foreign Activity in AMO Science In this appendix the committee gives a very brief summary of a very large amount of research activity in AMO science taking place in other parts of the world. FOREIGN-BASED FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH IN AMO SCIENCE Are foreign research efforts in AMO science comparable to those in the United States? Unfortunately, the committee lacked the resources to answer this complex question in detail—though it appears that the answer is very clearly yes. In many of the forefront research areas of AMO science—in quantum optics, quantum computing and quantum cryptography, atom cooling and trapping, and fundamentals of quantum mechanics—a significant amount of the leading work is being done outside the United States. Of the 15 Nobel prizes awarded in this area since 1995, 3 of the winners did their work in foreign laboratories and 2 more were trained abroad. AMO science is a highly competitive worldwide activity, with front-rank work taking place in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, in addition to the United States. While it is certainly true that no single country can yet match the overall U.S. program, the sum of what is taking place in Europe certainly does. The European Union’s support for research on a continental scale, combined with the national efforts of its member states, means that Europe is well positioned to compete in research efforts of all kinds. Countries like Germany, with a population of 82 mil-
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons lion, and Austria (8 million) have made investments in AMO science that in some cases well surpass U.S. investments even at our most effective and well-funded laboratories (see Box 8–1). The United Kingdom and France, with populations of 60 million each, are not far behind. Japan has committed $ 15 million to develop a cold atom and quantum information research group at the University of Tokyo. China is forming a 5-year national plan for AMO research, including cold atoms, quantum optics, and quantum information science. An example of outstanding quality is the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, founded in 2003 by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. This institute, located in state-of-the art facilities in Innsbruck and Vienna, is composed of four research groups in experimental and theoretical AMO physics. Following the model of the Max Planck Institutes in Germany, and in particular the Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching (an equally outstanding institute), the institute’s goal is to secure a leading role for Austrian science in the fields of quantum optics and quantum information. As a result of this conscious prioritizing and concentrated investment it has succeeded in doing so. One way to measure of emerging trends in international competition in research is to look at how the number of scientific publications from other countries has grown over the past two decades. Figure 8–4 shows some publication data from two of the world’s premier physics journals, The Physical Review and Physical Review Letters. The relative position of the United States has steadily slipped: in 1990, U.S. scientists accounted for half the submissions, but by 2004 they accounted for only 25 percent of the total. The same trend is visible in AMO science by itself. To make the discussion more concrete, the committee describes below research facilities in Europe and Asia that are essentially the equal of similarly oriented U.S. facilities. It includes synchrotron light sources, free-electron lasers, and large-scale laser facilities. However, there are also facilities in Europe that have no equivalent in the United States—for example, the heavy-ion storage ring (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany—that are not discussed. In terms of strategic resources, Europe’s proposed global positioning satellite system, Galileo, and Russia’s existing one, GLONASS, are fully competitive with the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS). FOREIGN-BASED SYNCHROTRON LIGHT AND X-RAY SOURCES Research with synchrotron light is a rapidly growing, worldwide activity. Today one finds many facilities in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and South America that are comparable to those in the United States.1 A significant number of smaller third-generation sources have recently been completed or are currently under 1 For a comprehensive summary of these laboratories, see <http://www.lightsources.org>.
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons construction. Here we provide brief descriptions of the most prominent fourth-generation sources slated for completion in the near term. European X-ray Free-Electron Laser Project (Germany) In February 2003, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, together with European partners, approved the XFEL project at DESY. Project R&D will proceed so that a decision to begin construction can be made in the middle of 2006. After a 6-year construction period, the commissioning of the facility could start in 2012. The laser will be based on a roughly 20-GeV superconducting RF linear accelerator. The XFEL, which will operate with ultra-short duration pulses and a brilliance 109 times any existing facility, will make it possible to do cutting-edge research in Europe and will guarantee Germany’s role as a major location for research and industry. Fourth Generation Light Source (United Kingdom) This facility, known as 4GLS, will be a world-leading photon facility that enables internationally outstanding science at Daresbury in the United Kingdom. 4GLS will combine energy recovery linac and free-electron laser technologies to deliver a suite of naturally synchronized, state-of-the-art sources of synchrotron radiation and FEL radiation covering the terahertz to soft x-ray regimes. 4GLS is the leading energy recovery proposal in Europe and the most comprehensive in terms of utilizing combined sources. It is complementary to the European XFEL, to tabletop lasers, and to existing third-generation sources. The project is currently funded through the design and R&D phases. SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (Japan) The SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS) is a high-peak-brilliance, soft XFEL R&D project that aims to operate in the 0.1-nm regime. SCSS will enhance peak brilliance by six orders of magnitude compared to the current third-generation sources in the 3–20 nm range. Like the other FELs discussed here, it produces x-ray light via self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE).
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons FOREIGN-BASED LASER LIGHT SOURCES Laser Megajoule and the High-Energy Multi Petawatt Laser The French Atomic Energy Center (CEA) is constructing two laser light sources—Laser Megajoule and the High-Energy Multi Petawatt Laser—on the CEA site at Le Barp, Aquitaine. This will be a major research facility comparable to the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States, with similar twin goals of national security and fusion energy. Hundred Terawatt Chirped Pulse Amplified Laser Chain The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has an active research program in atomic physics at high fields. JAERI has constructed a four-stage titanium-doped sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system at the Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment (Kyoto, Japan). The system has achieved a peak power of 0.85 PW in a 33-fs pulse. FOREIGN GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS The GPS has become an indispensable part of the strategic landscape of the U.S. military. Soon such systems also will be a ubiquitous part of public navigational systems worldwide, making possible an enormous variety of useful functions that rely on heretofore inconceivable precision navigation capabilities. These systems rely heavily on AMO technologies, chiefly in the area of ultraprecise and reliable atomic clocks. Because these clocks are but a small step away from the state of the art (simply because state-of-the-art clocks are not usually ready for long-term launch into space), they give an excellent indication of the technological capabilities of the laboratories that created them. A quick look at the two other global navigation satellite systems in the world shows clearly that their technologies are as good as the technology that is available—or planned—for the U.S. GPS. GLONASS GLONASS, Russia’s Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System, is a space-based navigation system comparable to the GPS. It comprises 21 satellites in three orbital planes, with three on-orbit spares. GLONASS provides 100-m positioning accuracy with its deliberately degraded signals and 10- to 20-m accuracy with its military signals. GLONASS has been operational since 1996.
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Galileo Galileo, the European global navigation satellite system, will provide Europe with its own highly accurate, guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control. It is an initiative launched by the European Union and the European Space Agency and will be interoperable with GPS and GLONASS. By offering dual frequencies as standard, however, Galileo will deliver real-time positioning accuracy down to the meter range, which is unprecedented for a publicly available system. It will guarantee availability of the service under all but the most extreme circumstances and will inform users within seconds of a failure of any satellite. This will make it suitable for applications where safety is crucial, such as running trains, guiding cars, and landing aircraft. The fully deployed Galileo system consists of 30 satellites (27 operational and 3 active spares). Once deployed, Galileo will provide a good coverage at latitudes up to 75 degrees north, which corresponds to the northernmost part of Norway and beyond.