thriving, and the committee offers the following conclusions on the status of the science:

  • Revolutionary new methods to measure space and time have emerged within the last decade from a convergence of technologies in coherent control of ultrafast lasers and ultracold atoms. This new capability creates unprecedented new research opportunities.

  • Ultracold AMO physics was the most spectacularly successful new AMO research area of the past decade and led to the development of coherent quantum gases. This new field is poised to contribute significantly to the resolution of important fundamental problems in condensed matter science and in plasma physics, bringing with it new interdisciplinary opportunities.

  • High-intensity and short-wavelength sources such as new x-ray freeelectron lasers promise significant advances in AMO science, condensed matter physics and materials research, chemistry, medicine, and defenserelated science.

  • Ultrafast quantum control will unveil the internal motion of atoms within molecules, and of electrons within atoms, to a degree thought impossible only a decade ago. This capability is sparking a revolution in the imaging and coherent control of quantum processes and will be among the most fruitful new areas of AMO science in the next 10 years.

  • Quantum engineering on the nanoscale of tens to hundreds of atomic diameters has led to new opportunities for atom-by-atom control of quantum structures using the techniques of AMO science. Compelling opportunities in both molecular science and photon science are expected to have far-reaching societal applications.

  • Quantum information is a rapidly growing research area in AMO science and one that faces special challenges owing to its potential application for data security and encryption. Multiple approaches to quantum computing and communication are likely to be fruitful in the coming decade, and open international exchange of people and information is critical in order to realize the maximum benefit.

The compelling research challenges embodied in these conclusions are discussed in more detail in the following chapters, which also highlight the broad impact of AMO science on other branches of science and technology and its strong coupling to national priorities in health care, economic development, the environment, national defense, and homeland security.

The linkages to national R&D goals are clear. The White House set forth the



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