6
Communities

As noted in the Health in the Balance report (IOM, 2005), childhood obesity prevention efforts are ultimately about strengthening com munity capacity and mobilizing community resources and involvement. Whether the community in question is large or small, rural or urban, or termed a neighborhood or barrio, it will inevitably comprise smaller relational networks that include faith-based organizations; worksites; schools; and a variety of government, nonprofit, and voluntary organizations. This chapter uses the term community to denote a geographic entity but acknowledges the strengths and opportunities brought about by groups of people who are linked by social ties; who share common interests, perspectives, and ethnic or cultural characteristics; and who engage in joint action in particular geographic locations or settings (MacQueen et al., 2001).

Communities across the nation are increasingly aware of the childhood obesity epidemic, and this awareness is being transformed into active efforts to improve community access to foods and beverages that contribute to a healthful diet and increase opportunities for regular physical activity. However, the extent of these changes and the degree to which city councils, local businesses, schools, faith-based organizations, local health departments, and other organizations with a stake in the health and quality of life of children and youth are actively engaged in this issue may vary widely.

The community-based approach to the prevention of childhood obesity



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? 6 Communities As noted in the Health in the Balance report (IOM, 2005), childhood obesity prevention efforts are ultimately about strengthening com munity capacity and mobilizing community resources and involvement. Whether the community in question is large or small, rural or urban, or termed a neighborhood or barrio, it will inevitably comprise smaller relational networks that include faith-based organizations; worksites; schools; and a variety of government, nonprofit, and voluntary organizations. This chapter uses the term community to denote a geographic entity but acknowledges the strengths and opportunities brought about by groups of people who are linked by social ties; who share common interests, perspectives, and ethnic or cultural characteristics; and who engage in joint action in particular geographic locations or settings (MacQueen et al., 2001). Communities across the nation are increasingly aware of the childhood obesity epidemic, and this awareness is being transformed into active efforts to improve community access to foods and beverages that contribute to a healthful diet and increase opportunities for regular physical activity. However, the extent of these changes and the degree to which city councils, local businesses, schools, faith-based organizations, local health departments, and other organizations with a stake in the health and quality of life of children and youth are actively engaged in this issue may vary widely. The community-based approach to the prevention of childhood obesity

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? builds on the reality that communities have numerous resources and assets that, if they are mobilized strategically, can directly affect the health and well-being of children and adolescents. These resources and assets can be accessed through the nonprofit organizations that work directly with children and youth. Planning and community development agencies that determine the physical design and use of resources in the built environment, such as paths, parks, and neighborhoods, can make the built environment more user-friendly and thus encourage physical activity. Health care professionals and systems through which primary care services are delivered can address childhood obesity as part of their regular delivery of care. Faith-based organizations, community coalitions, foundations, and worksites can address community and family well-being and are increasingly doing so. Schools are also a vital asset that serve as a link between families and communities and have the capacity to strengthen and reinforce childhood obesity prevention strategies and initiatives and will be discussed more thoroughly in Chapter 7. The present Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee recommends increased efforts to address the community-based recommendations presented in the Health in the Balance report (Box 6-1) and to incorporate an evaluation component into all policies, programs, and initiatives. This chapter highlights the key actions that need to be taken to activate a community’s assets around the common goal of preventing childhood obesity. It begins with a brief review of key strategies associated with effective community-based prevention efforts. That review is followed by examples of progress that focus on mobilizing communities, improving the built environment, and enhancing the role of health care providers and the health care system in childhood obesity prevention. The chapter concludes with recommendations for guiding communities to assess their progress in establishing promising childhood obesity prevention efforts. KEY ELEMENTS OF COMMUNITY-BASED STRATEGIES Although communities may vary widely in their demographics and resources, efforts to engage communities in promoting healthy lifestyles generally involve active grassroots efforts that build on the strengths of the residents and the locale. Mobilizing community participation, developing partnerships, and creating synergistic actions were some of the many themes that emerged from the discussions at the committee’s symposium, Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Communities, held in Atlanta, Georgia, on October 6 and 7, 2005, in collaboration with the Healthcare Georgia Foundation and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) (Appendix G). The key elements of community-based strategies are discussed below.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? BOX 6-1 Recommendations for Communities from the 2005 IOM report, Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance Community Programs Local governments, public health agencies, schools, and community organizations should collaboratively develop and promote programs that encourage healthful eating behaviors and regular physical activity, particularly for populations at high risk of childhood obesity. Community coalitions should be formed to facilitate and promote crosscutting programs and community-wide efforts. To implement this recommendation: Private and public efforts to eliminate health disparities should include obesity prevention as one of their primary areas of focus and should support community-based collaborative programs to address social, economic, and environmental barriers that contribute to the increased obesity prevalence among certain populations. Community child- and youth-centered organizations should promote healthful eating behaviors and regular physical activity through new and existing programs that will be sustained over the long term. Community evaluation tools should incorporate measures of the availability of opportunities for physical activity and healthful eating. Communities should improve access to supermarkets, farmers’ markets, and community gardens to expand healthful food options, particularly in low-income and underserved areas. Built Environment Local governments, private developers, and community groups should expand opportunities for physical activity, including recreational facilities, parks, playgrounds, sidewalks, bike paths, routes for walking or bicycling to school, and safe streets and neighborhoods, especially for populations at high risk of childhood obesity. To implement this recommendation: Local governments, working with private developers and community groups should Revise comprehensive plans, zoning and subdivision ordinances, and other planning practices to increase the availability of and accessibility to opportunities for physical activity in new developments. Leadership Committed and sustained leadership is a common and essential element emerging from promising community-based efforts to address childhood obesity. At a minimum, leadership is viewed as the investment of adequate resources and the commitment of the institutions and organizations that engage in obesity prevention efforts. The sustainability of community-improvement initiatives has been attributed to leaders’ transition from a

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Prioritize capital improvement projects to increase opportunities for physical activity in existing areas. Improve the street, sidewalk, and street-crossing safety of routes to school; develop programs to encourage walking and bicycling to school; and build schools within walking and bicycling distance of the neighborhoods that they serve. Community groups should Work with local governments to change their planning and capital improvement practices to give higher priority to opportunities for physical activity. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Transportation should Fund community-based research to examine the impact of changes to the built environment on the levels of physical activity in the relevant communities and populations. Health Care Pediatricians, family physicians, nurses, and other clinicians should engage in the prevention of childhood obesity. Health care professional organizations, insurers, and accrediting groups should support individual and population-based obesity prevention efforts. To implement this recommendation: Health care professionals should routinely track body mass indices, offer relevant evidence-based counseling and guidance, serve as role models, and provide leadership for obesity prevention efforts in their communities. Professional organizations should disseminate evidence-based clinical guidance and establish programs on obesity prevention. Training programs and certifying entities should require obesity prevention knowledge and skills in their curricula and examinations. Insurers and accrediting organizations should provide incentives for maintaining a healthy body weight and include screening and obesity preventive services in routine clinical practice and quality assessment measures. SOURCE: IOM (2005). focus on projects addressing the symptoms of societal problems (e.g., chronic disease outcomes) to a focus on changing the underlying cultures, incentives, and settings that give rise to these symptoms (Norris and Pittman, 2000). Because of the multiple sectors and stakeholders involved in childhood obesity prevention, leadership on this issue can come from the private or the public sector: from government leaders, health care professionals, school administrators and staff, community residents, and local business leaders. Leaders at the forefront of change in this area are often inspired by

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? a personal health problem or by an interest in health promotion. Individual and organizational leadership are needed as driving forces in sustaining collaborative efforts, dedicating resources, and working to change social norms that support healthier lifestyles. Building Community Coalitions Community coalitions consist of public- and private-sector organizations, together with individual citizens, working to achieve a shared goal through the coordinated use of resources, leadership, and action and the provision of direction in these areas. The synergistic effects of these collaborative partnerships result from the multiple perspectives, talents, and expertise that are brought together to work toward a common goal. However, challenges exist in developing and refining appropriate methods to evaluate the impact of coalition efforts on a variety of outcomes (Fawcett et al., 2000; Lasker et al., 2001; Roussos and Fawcett, 2000; Shortell, 2000). The efforts needed to prevent childhood obesity require a diverse set of skills and expertise—from renovating community recreational facilities to developing multimedia campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles. Because childhood obesity prevention is central to the health of the community’s children and youth, the development of community coalitions is a particularly relevant means of addressing this issue. The characteristics of successful coalitions include focusing on a well-defined and specific issue, determining common goals, and keeping the coalition focused on providing leadership and direction rather than micromanaging the solutions (Kreuter et al., 2000). All these characteristics are attainable for community coalitions focused on childhood obesity prevention. The diverse set of community organizations and businesses that need to be involved to address childhood obesity includes more than just those stakeholders in the traditional health-related disciplines. These other organizations and businesses that are stakeholders include the building industry, food and beverage companies, the restaurant and food retail sectors, the entertainment industry and the media, the educational community, the public safety sector, transportation divisions, parks and recreation departments, environmental organizations, community rights advocates, youth-related organizations, foundations, employers, and universities, among others. Many stakeholders who might not have considered childhood obesity prevention as an area of interest now find that they have an important role to play in working toward healthier communities. Nevertheless, these organizations face challenges in developming and maintaining community coalitions. These challenges include effectively addressing competing priorities, transforming organizational cultures, and identifying sustainable funding sources.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Cultural Relevance Building on a community’s cultural assets to enhance childhood obesity prevention efforts is fundamental to the promotion of grassroots involvement and the sustainability of policies, programs, and initiatives. The extent to which culturally competent adaptations are made can greatly affect intervention and policy outcomes (Chapter 3). Culturally appropriate enhancement strategies can be categorized as peripheral (developing packaging to appeal to a particular group by using certain colors, images, graphics, pictures of group members, or titles), evidential (presenting data and information documenting the impact of the relevant health issue on a specific group), linguistic (increasing accessibility by using the preferred language or dialect of the group), constituency based (drawing directly on the experiences of group members through their inclusion as project staff or their substantive engagement as decision makers), and sociocultural (integrating the group’s normative attitudes, values, and practices into messages and approaches) (Hopson, 2003; Kreuter et al., 2003). Sufficient Resources and Sustained Commitment Community-wide childhood obesity prevention efforts require careful planning and coordination, well-trained staff, and sufficient resources. Success is greatly enhanced by community engagement in the issue, which can take a great deal of time and effort to achieve. Insufficient resources may result in messages and other planned campaign interventions that are inadequate to achieve the exposure necessary to change the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors of target groups over time, especially among high-risk populations. Furthermore, a sustained commitment is needed from community leaders, as implementing the changes necessary to alter the physical environment can be both time and resource intensive. For example, the revision of city zoning or planning policies may require extensive time, including the time required to engage community residents, organizations, and businesses in discussions on the proposed changes. Focus on Safety Safety is an important construct of the social environment that is likely to influence childhood obesity prevention efforts (Lumeng et al., 2006). Crime rates and residents’ perceptions of neighborhood safety will affect the likelihood that people will walk or bicycle in their neighborhoods. These barriers include both “stranger danger” and “traffic danger,” which are important influences on the decisions that parents make regarding their children’s outdoor play and mode of transportation to school and which also influence the decisions that adolescents make regarding walking or

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? cycling for transport (Carver et al., 2005). Many of the ongoing walk-to-school efforts (e.g., the Safe Routes to Schools program) began as efforts to address child safety concerns. It is anticipated that both community safety and obesity prevention efforts would mutually benefit from attempts to enhance the community environment and that other benefits would also ensue. Community-Based Participatory Research Developing effective intervention actions in communities involves the activation of community group members to take ownership and influence the content and implementation of interventions, the evaluation process, and the dissemination of findings. These concepts are often grouped under the rubric community-based participatory research. This research paradigm recalls the historical roots of public health, in which problems were identified and addressed through collaboration with the public or community for the common good (Israel et al., 1998). By nature, community-based participatory interventions are culturally competent and congruent with the needs and values of a target group because the methods emerge from affected communities as well as university, government, and foundation partners. As discussed in Chapter 3, this is an area of particular relevance for planning, implementing, and evaluating culturally relevant interventions involving racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse subpopulations at high risk for obesity and related chronic diseases. Building on Multiple Social and Health Priorities As discussed in Chapter 3, childhood obesity prevention may not rank high as a priority for some communities and neighborhoods that are facing more immediate concerns such as poverty, crime, violence, underperforming schools, and limited access to health care. The opportunity in these communities is to identify and support efforts that can produce many potential benefits; for example, improving playgrounds and recreational facilities may enhance safety, reduce crime, increase physical activity, and improve quality of life. Finding common ground may serve as a key element in garnering sufficient investment for sustained efforts. The challenge is that many of these efforts are resource intensive and require significant political commitment and social support to be accomplished. Building and strengthening the partnerships between organizations working to empower communities can result in collective efficacy, which has been described as “the willingness of community members to look out for each other and intervene when trouble arises” (Cohen et al., 2006). A recent study found that adolescents living in communities with higher levels of collective efficacy had

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? lower body mass index (BMI) levels than those living in communities without a strong sense of connection. These differences remained significant even while the level of neighborhood disadvantage was held constant. This suggests that even youth living in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic status may be adversely affected when they lack a connection to their community (Cohen et al., 2006). EXAMPLES OF PROGRESS IN PREVENTING CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN COMMUNITIES Given that the United States has approximately 36,000 incorporated cities and towns and many more locales (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2006), the committee can provide only selected examples of the array of positive changes that are occurring throughout the nation in response to childhood obesity. As sufficient outcome data with which to evaluate the effectiveness of various policies, programs, and interventions are not yet available for most of the efforts, the descriptions provided are intended to highlight the many and varied efforts that have been and that are being made to address the problem of childhood obesity. They are characterized here as promising practices rather than best practices because sufficient evidence to directly link the effort with reducing the incidence or prevalence of childhood obesity and related co-morbidities is lacking. Mobilizing Communities Communities that promote healthy lifestyles and that actively engage their citizens in improving access to opportunities for healthful eating and regular physical activity draw on the talents, resources, and energies of multiple community stakeholders. As noted earlier, efforts to prevent childhood obesity compete with many other efforts to address health and social priorities for the scarce resources that are available at the local level. Furthermore, challenges often arise when attempts are made to coordinate programs under completely different administrative structures (e.g., schools and local health departments) within the community, state, and region. However, these challenges can be effectively confronted in many communities. Programs and initiatives at the community level often work to engage children, youth, and adults in obesity prevention efforts focused on all age groups. Community Programs and Initiatives The nature and breadth of community-based programs and initiatives vary widely and may involve community youth organizations, voluntary

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? health organizations, and public-private partnerships. Programs may also range from multi-city and well-resourced efforts sponsored by corporations or national organizations to efforts sponsored by individual communities engaging in specific projects or programs such as building a playground or expanding bike trails. Likewise, the scope of the evaluation may be modest or sophisticated, and the outcome indicators or performance measures may differ depending on the purpose for which they are intended (Chapter 2). Evaluation methodologies may range from research-based efforts with multiple comparison groups to assessments using more modest outcome measures, such as implementing a policy that supports a capital improvement project to build a new community playground where parents can engage in physical activity with their children. A number of national youth-related organizations are working with their multiple local chapters to incorporate obesity prevention efforts and goals into their programs, often with the support of foundation or corporate sponsors. For example, Girl Scout councils have developed partnerships with community parks and recreation departments, sports organizations, as well as schools and colleges for physical activity instruction and facilities. Girl Scout programs that are focused on healthy lifestyles include shape UP! and GirlSports (Girl Scouts, 2006). Additionally, the Girl Scouts organization conducted focus group research with online surveys of more than 2,000 8- to 17-year-old girls to explore how they view obesity, how they define health, and what motivates them to lead a healthy lifestyle (Girl Scout Research Institute, 2006). Other examples are also available. The YMCA has instituted YMCA Activate America™, a long-term commitment to obesity prevention that focuses on improving their programs; providing community leadership; and developing strategic partnerships with universities, government, and corporations (YMCA, 2006). The Boys and Girls Clubs of America feature a number of fitness-related programs, including Triple Play: A Game Plan for the Mind, Body and Soul. The Coca-Cola Company and Kraft Foods Inc. have sponsored that program with the goal of increasing healthy habits and physical activity, and promoting healthful diets (BGCA, 2006). At the IOM committee’s symposium in Wichita, Kansas, students presented a local 4-H-sponsored mentoring program, Kansas Teen Leadership for Physically Active Lifestyles, in which high school students engage with elementary school children in after-school and summer programs focused on promoting physical activity and healthful eating (Sparke et al., 2005). Community centers, after-school programs, and summer camps are often used as sites for obesity prevention interventions. For example, the GEMS (Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies) set of research-based studies has examined a variety of approaches (e.g., dance, team building, games, aerobics, nutrition education, and reduced television viewing) that

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? are being implemented in community settings to engage 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in obesity prevention and management (Baranowski et al., 2003; Beech et al., 2003; Robinson et al., 2003; Story et al., 2003). Faith-based organizations are also becoming more engaged in promoting healthy lifestyles. The leaders of many faiths are realizing that messages about physical health and spiritual health are congruent. Indeed, participants at the IOM committee’s symposium on healthy communities in Atlanta described several efforts being undertaken by different faith-based groups to promote health (Appendix G). This process often starts with the minister addressing his or her own health concerns as well as encouraging congregation members to make healthful nutrition and physical activity choices as a way of demonstrating their concern for others and the church family. Congregations are encouraging members to bring healthier meals to church potluck gatherings and are sponsoring health fairs, cooking and exercise demonstrations, physical activity classes, and informational sessions on how to improve the health of the congregation. Others are partnering with local health departments or other health care providers to offer health screenings at places of worship, a setting where people may feel more comfortable than they would in a health clinic. Some congregations have parish nurses or ministers who provide health information, facilitate health promotion activities, and conduct health screenings for congregational members (Brudenell, 2003; Chase-Ziolek and Iris, 2002). Research-based efforts are evaluating the effectiveness of faith-based approaches to obesity prevention; for example, a program called Healthy Body Healthy Spirit is an intervention funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to increase physical activity and the levels of consumption of fruits and vegetables among African Americans recruited through churches (Resnicow et al., 2005). National efforts that work at the community level often involve successful collaborations among federal agencies, corporations, and community-based, youth-related organizations (Chapters 4 and 5). The numerous ongoing public-private collaborations include Action for Healthy Kids (a collaborative public-private effort focused on changes in schools and involving a number of partners including Aetna Foundation, the American Public Health Association, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], the Department of Education, the Kellogg’s Fund, the National Dairy Council, the National Football League, the National PTA, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and USDA) (Action for Healthy Kids, 2006) and the 5 A Day for Better Health Program (a national public-private partnership with multiple collaborators including the American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education, CDC, National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity, National Cancer Institute, Pro-

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? duce for Better Health Foundation, Produce Marketing Association, United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association, and USDA (PBH, 2006) (Chapter 4). Other national initiatives include NikeGO, sponsored by Nike, Inc. (Nike, 2006); Girls on the Run, sponsored by New Balance and the Kellogg Company (Girls on the Run, 2006); America on the Move® (2006), a nonprofit organization that promotes small lifestyle changes to increase physical activity and reduce calorie intake, with multiple sponsors including PepsiCo and Cargill; and the Women’s National Basketball Association’s Be Smart - Be Fit - Be Yourself program for youth (WNBA, 2005). Evaluations of these programs vary in scope. For example, the America On the Move Foundation’s assessment strategy includes scientific research in clinical environments of America On the Move programs conducted through the University of Colorado’s Center for Human Nutrition; evaluation of the national online program for individuals and groups based on pre- and post-intervention data and on programs customized for specific settings; and survey data collection through national and state-based instruments of individuals’ health-related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors, including actual physical activity levels (through the use of stepometer data) (Wyatt et al., 2004). Numerous state and federal programs operate at the local level. For example, six cities, five counties, and three American Indian tribes have received funding through the STEPS to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program (Steps Program) that enables communities to develop an action plan, a community consortium, and an evaluation strategy that supports chronic disease prevention and health promotion (DHHS, 2006) (Chapter 4). Cooperative extension services are another example of federal, state, and local partnerships that work through land-grant universities and local extension offices to disseminate information to families and individuals and engage communities to work on a range of nutrition- and agriculture-related issues (CSREES, 2006). Additionally, federal food and nutrition programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), provide opportunities to convey information about dietary and physical activity changes to the parents of young children and to the employees working in these programs (Box 6-2; Chapters 4 and 8). Furthermore, work site efforts focused on improving employee health often have direct and indirect benefits for children and youth by providing parents with information that they can use to influence the nutrition and physical activity behaviors of their children. For example, the National Business Group on Health has developed a tool kit for employers and fact sheets for parents focused on healthy weight for families (NBGH, 2006).

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? To accomplish this, Communities should make childhood obesity prevention a priority through the coordinated leadership of local government, community organizations, local businesses, health care organizations, and other relevant stakeholders. These efforts would involve increased resources, an emphasis on collaboration among community stakeholders, and the development and implementation of policies and programs that promote opportunities for physical activity and healthful eating, particularly for high-risk communities. Recommendation 2: Policy makers, program planners, program implementers, and other interested stakeholders—within and across relevant sectors—should evaluate all childhood obesity prevention efforts, strengthen the evaluation capacity, and develop quality interventions that take into account diverse perspectives, that use culturally relevant approaches, and that meet the needs of diverse populations and contexts. Implementation Actions for Communities Community stakeholders should strengthen evaluation efforts at the local level by partnering with government agencies, foundations, and academic institutions to develop, implement, and support evaluation opportunities and community-academic partnerships. To accomplish this, Federal and state agencies, foundations, academic institutions, community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, youth-related organizations, local governments, and other relevant community stakeholders should Increase funding and technical assistance to conduct evaluations of childhood obesity prevention policies and interventions, Develop and widely disseminate effective evaluation training opportunities, and Develop and support community-academic partnerships. Recommendation 3: Government, industry, communities, and schools should expand or develop relevant surveillance and monitoring systems and, as applicable, should engage in research to examine the impact of childhood obesity prevention policies, interventions, and actions on relevant outcomes, paying particular attention to the unique needs of diverse groups and high-risk populations. Additionally, parents and caregivers should monitor changes in their family’s food, beverage, and physical activity choices and their progress toward healthier lifestyles.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Implementation Actions for Communities Community stakeholders and relevant partners should expand the capacity for local-level surveillance and applied research and should develop tools for community self-assessment to support childhood obesity prevention efforts. To accomplish this, Federal and state agencies, foundations, academic institutions, community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, youth-related organizations, local governments, and other relevant community stakeholders should Expand the surveillance of outcomes of community-level activities and changes to the built environment, as they relate to childhood obesity prevention; Facilitate the collection, analysis, and interpretation of relevant local data and information; Develop, refine, and disseminate community assessment tools, such as a community health index; Develop methods for the rapid evaluation of natural experiments; Explore the use of spatial mapping technologies to assist communities with their assessment needs and to help communities make changes that increase access to opportunities for healthy lifestyles; and Encourage the evaluation of interventions to examine both the risk and protective factors related to obesity. Recommendation 4: Government, industry, communities, schools, and families should foster information-sharing activities and disseminate evaluation and research findings through diverse communication channels and media to actively promote the use and scaling up of effective childhood obesity prevention policies and interventions. Implementation Actions for Communities Community stakeholders should partner with foundations, government agencies, faith-based organizations, and youth-related organizations to publish and widely disseminate the evaluation results of community-based childhood obesity prevention efforts. To accomplish this, Community stakeholders should publish evaluation results using diverse communication channels and media; and develop incentives to encourage the use of promising practices.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? REFERENCES 1000 Friends of New Mexico. 2006. Grow Smart! 1000 Friends of New Mexico. [Online]. Available: http://www.1000friends-nm.org/ [accessed June 3, 2006]. AAFP (American Academy of Family Physicians). 2004. Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Keep a Healthy Weight. [Online]. Available: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20040215/928ph.html [accessed June 2, 2006]. AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). 2006. Overweight and Obesity. [Online]. Available: http://www.aap.org/healthtopics/overweight.cfm [accessed June 2, 2006]. Abramson S, Stein J, Schaufele M, Frates E, Rogan S. 2000. Personal exercise habits and counseling practices of primary care physicians: A national survey. Clin J Sport Med 10(1):40–48. Action for Healthy Kids. 2006. Action for Healthy Kids. [Online]. Available: http://www.actionforhealthykids.org/ [accessed July 26, 2006]. ACT!vate Omaha. 2006. Welcome to ACT!vate Omaha. [Online]. Available: http://www.activateomaha.org/ [accessed July 26, 2006]. Active Living Leadership. 2004. Healthy Community Design: Success Stories from State and Local Leaders. San Diego, CA: Active Living Leadership. Active Living Network. 2005. Making Places for Healthy Kids. [Online]. Available: http://www.activeliving.org/downloads/aln_report_final.pdf [accessed May 2, 2006]. Algert SJ, Agrawal A, Lewis DS. 2006. Disparities in access to fresh produce in low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Am J Prev Med 30(5):365–370. America on the Move. 2006. America on the Move Sponsors. [Online]. Available: http://aom.americaonthemove.org/site/c.hiJRK0PFJpH/b.1311205/ k.DED2/sponsors.htm [accessed July 23, 2006]. Baker EL, Potter MA, Jones DL, Mercer SL, Cioffi JP, Green LW, Halverson PK, Lichtveld MY, Fleming DW. 2005. The public health infrastructure and our nation’s health. Annu Rev Public Health 26:303–318. Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Cullen KW, Thompson DI, Nicklas T, Zakeri IE, Rochon J. 2003. The Fun, Food, and Fitness Project (FFFP): The Baylor GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 13(1 Suppl 1):S30–S39. Beech BM, Klesges RC, Kumanyika SK, Murray DM, Klesges L, McClanahan B, Slawson D, Nunnally C, Rochon J, McLain-Allen B, Pree-Cary J. 2003. Child- and parent-targeted interventions: The Memphis GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 13(1 Suppl 1):S40–S53. BGCA (Boys and Girls Clubs of America). 2006. Sports, Fitness, and Recreation. [Online]. Available: http://www.bgca.org/programs/sportfitness.asp [accessed June 19, 2006]. Boarnet MG, Anderson CL, Day K, McMillan T, Alfonzo M. 2005. Evaluation of the California Safety Routes to Schools legislation: Urban form changes and children’s active transportation to school. Am J Prev Med 28(2 Suppl 2):134–140. Bobbitt-Cooke M. 2005. Energizing community health improvement: The promise of microgrants. Prev Chronic Dis [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2005/nov/05_0064.htm [accessed March 4, 2006]. Borron SM. 2003. Food Policy Councils: Practice and Possibility. Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow Congressional Hunger Center Hunger-Free Community Report. Eugene, Oregon. [Online]. Available: http://www.lanefood.org/pdf/food_policy_councils/food_policy_council_report_february_2003.pdf [accessed May 8, 2006]. Brennan Ramirez LK, Hoehner CM, Brownson RC, Cook R, Orleans CT, Hollander M, Barker DC, Bors P, Ewing R, Killingsworth R, Petersmarck K, Schmid T, Wilkinson W. 2006. Indicators of activity-friendly communities: An evidence-based consensus process. Am J Prev Med 31(6):515–524.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Brink L, Yost B. 2004. Transforming inner-city school grounds: Lessons from learning landscapes. Children, Youth, and Environments 14(1):208–232. Brownson RC, Baker EA, Leet TL, Gillespie KN. 2003. Evidence-Based Public Health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA. 2005. Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: What are the contributors? Annu Rev Public Health 26:421–443. Brownson RC, Haire-Joshu D, Luke DA. 2006. Shaping the context of health: A review of environmental and policy approaches in the prevention of chronic diseases. Annu Rev Public Health 27(1):341–370. Brudenell I. 2003. Parish nursing: Nurturing body, mind, spirit, and community. Public Health Nurs 20(2):85–94. BTS (Bureau of Transportation Statistics). 2006. National Household Travel Survey. [Online]. Available: http://www.bts.gov/programs/national_household_travel_survey/ [accessed May 16, 2006]. California Center for Public Health Advocacy. 2005. Rates of Childhood Overweight in California Counties, Cities and Communities. [Online]. Available: http://www.publichealthadvocacy.org/policy_briefs/overweight 2004.html [accessed July 31. 2006]. California Department of Health Services. 2006. Communities of Excellence in Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Prevention (CX3). [Online]. Available: http://www.ca5aday.org/CX3 [accessed July 14, 2006]. California Endowment. 2006. Healthy Eating, Active Communities. [Online]. Available: http://www.calendow.org/program_areas/heac.stm [accessed May 12, 2006]. Carver A, Salmon J, Campbell K, Baur L, Garnett S, Crawford D. 2005. How do perceptions of local neighborhood relate to adolescents’ walking and cycling? Am J Health Promot 20(2):139–147. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1999. Framework for program evaluation in public health. MMWR 48(RR-11):1–40. CDC. 2000. Measuring Healthy Days: Population Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/pdfs/mhd.pdf [accessed July 31, 2006]. CDC. 2002. Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/handbook/pdf/handbook.pdf [accessed May 2, 2006]. CDC. 2006a. School Health Profiles: Surveillance for Characteristics of Health Education Among Secondary Schools (Profiles 2004). Atlanta, GA: CDC. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/profiles/index.htm [accessed May 12, 2006]. CDC. 2006b. SMART: Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends: Frequently Asked Questions for SMART BRFSS. [Online]. http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/smart/faqs.htm [accessed July 31, 2006]. CFSC (Community Food Security Coalition). 2004. Community Food Security News. Special Issue on Community Food Assessments. Spring. Venice, CA: CFSC. Chase-Ziolek M, Iris M. 2002. Nurses’ perspective on the distinctive aspects of providing nursing care in a congregational setting. J Community Health Nurs 19(3):173–186. CLOCC (Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children). 2006. Welcome to CLOCC. [Online]. Available: www.clocc.net [accessed July 26, 2006]. CMA (California Medical Association) Foundation. 2006. Physicians for Healthy Communities. [Online]. Available: http://www.calmedfoundation.org/ projects/phyChampion.aspx [accessed July 26, 2006]. Cohen B. 2002. Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit. Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Report E-FAN-02-013. [Online]. Available: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/efan02013/efan02013.pdf [accessed June 8, 2004].

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Cohen DA, Finch BK, Bower A, Sastry N. 2006. Collective efficacy and obesity: The potential influence of social factors on health. Soc Sci Med 62(3):769–778. Cohen L, Larijani S, Aboelata M, Mikkelsen L. 2004. Cultivating Common Ground: Linking Health and Sustainable Agriculture. Oakland, CA: Prevention Institute. [Online]. Available: http://www.preventioninstitute.org/ pdf/Cultivating_Common_Ground_112204.pdf [accessed May 10, 2006]. Cradock AL, Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Hannon C, Melly SJ, Wiecha JL, Gortmaker SL. 2005. Playground safety and access in Boston neighborhoods. Am J Prev Med 28(4):357–363. Crawford PB, Gosliner W, Strode P, Samuels SE, Burnett C, Craypo L, Yancey AK. 2004. Walking the talk: Fit WIC wellness programs improve self-efficacy in pediatric obesity prevention counseling. Am J Public Health 94(9):1480–1485. Craypo L, Schwarte L, Samuels S. 2006 (April 3). Evaluating Youth Engagement and Leadership in a Multi-Site Initiative to Change Community Food and Physical Activity Environments. Abstract 526.3. Experimental Biology, San Francisco, CA, April 1–5, 2006. CSREES (Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service). 2006. Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. [Online]. Available: www.csrees.usda.gov [accessed May 10, 2006]. Dannenberg AL, Bhatia R, Cole BL, Dora C, Fielding JE, Kraft K, McClymont-Peace D, Mindell J, Onyekere C, Roberts JA, Ross CL, Rutt CD, Scott-Samuel A, Tilson H. 2006. Growing the field of health impact assessment in the United States: An agenda for research and practice. Am J Pub Health 92(2):262–270. DeVault N, Watson S. 2005. (October 6). Healthy Kids Partnerships. Presentation at the Institute of Medicine Regional Symposium Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Communities, Atlanta, Georgia. Institute of Medicine Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity. DHHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2006. Steps to a Healthier U.S. Initiative: Community Fact Sheets. [Online]. Available: http://www.healthierus.gov/steps/grantees.html [accessed May 3, 2006]. Emery J, Crump C, Bors P. 2003. Reliability and validity of two instruments designed to assess the walking and bicycling suitability of sidewalks and roads. Am J Health Promot 18(1):38–46. Fawcett SB, Francisco VT, Paine-Andrews A, Schultz JA. 2000. A model memorandum of collaboration: A proposal. Public Health Rep 115(2-3):174–179. Fawcett SB, Carson V, Lloyd J, Collie-Akers VL, Schultz JA. 2005. Promoting Healthy Living and Preventing Chronic Disease: An Action Planning Guide for Communities. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas. [Online]. Available: www.communityhealth.ku.edu [accessed May 15, 2006]. FHWA, DoT (Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation). 2006. Safe Routes to School. [Online]. Available: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/saferoutes/ [accessed May 2, 2006]. Fit City Madison. 2006. Welcome to Fit City Madison! [Online]. Available: http://www.fitcitymadison.com/ [accessed July 26, 2006]. Flournoy R, Treuhaft S. 2005. Healthy Food, Healthy Communities: Improving Access and Opportunities Through Food Retailing. Oakland, CA: PolicyLink and The California Endowment. [Online]. Available: http://www.policylink.org/pdfs/HealthyFoodHealthyCommunities.pdf [accessed August 1, 2006]. Food Trust. 2006. Fresh Food Financing Initiative. [Online]. Available: http://www.thefoodtrust.org/php/programs/super.market.campaign.php#1 [accessed July 26, 2006]. Frable PJ, Dart L, Bradley PJ. 2004. The Healthy Weigh/El Camino Saludable: A community campus partnership to prevent obesity. J Interprof Care 18(4):447–449.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Frank E, Breyan J, Elon L. 2000. Physician disclosure of healthy personal behaviors improves credibility and ability to motivate. Arch Fam Med 9(3):287–290. Franks AL, Brownson RC, Bryant C, McCormack Brown K, Hooker SP, Pluto DM, Shepart DM, Pate RR, Baker EA, Gillespie KN, Leet TL, O’Neall MA, Simoes EJ. 2005. Prevention Research Centers: Contributions to updating the public health workforce through training. Prev Chronic Dis [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/Pcd/issues/2005/apr/04_0139.htm [accessed July 23, 2006]. Frieden TR. 2004. Asleep at the switch: Local public health and chronic disease. Am J Public Health 94(12):2059–2061. Garden Mosaics. 2006. TRUCE Carrie McCracken Community Garden. New York, NY: Garden Mosaics. [Online]. Available: http://www.gardenmosaics.cornell.edu/pgs/data/inventoryread.aspx?garden=84 [accessed June 3, 2006]. Girl Scout Research Institute. 2006. The New Normal? What Girls Say About Healthy Living. [Online]. Available: http://www.girlscouts.org/research/publications/original/healthy_living.asp [accessed April 13, 2006]. Girl Scouts. 2006. Health and Wellness. [Online]. Available: http://www.girl scouts.org/program/program_opportunities/health_wellness/ [accessed May 12, 2006]. Girls on the Run. 2006. Girls on the Run. [Online]. Available: http://www.girlsontherun.org/ [accessed July 26, 2006]. Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD. 2005. Healthy nutrition environments: Concepts and measures. Am J Health Promot 19(5):330–333. Glasgow RE, Vogt TM, Boles SM. 1999. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. Am J Public Health 89(9):1322– 1327. Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, Popkin BM. 2006. Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics 117(2): 417–424. Green LA. 2005. Prescription for health: Round 1 initial results. Ann Fam Med 3(Suppl 2): S2–S3. Greenberg JS, Howard D, Desmond D. 2003. A community-campus partnership for health: The Seat-Pleasant-University of Maryland Health Partnership. Health Promot Pract 4(4):393–401. Hamilton N. 2002. Putting a face on our food: How state and local food policies can promote the new agriculture. Drake J Agric Law 7:408–443. [Online]. Available: http://www.statefoodpolicy.org/faceon.pdf [accessed May 8, 2006]. Handy S, Boarnet MG, Ewing R, Killingsworth RE. 2002. How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urban planning. Am J Prev Med 23(2S):64–73. Hannon C, Cradock A, Gortmaker SL, Wiecha J, El Ayadi A, Keefe L, Harris A. 2006. Play Across Boston: A community initiative to reduce disparities in access to after-school physical activity programs for inner-city youths. Prev Chronic Dis [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/Pcd/issues/2006/jul/ 05_0125.htm [accessed August 31, 2006]. Hardy D. 2005 (October 6). Washington Wilkes County/Medical College of Georgia Partnership. Presentation at the IOM Regional Symposium Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Communities, Atlanta, GA. Institute of Medicine Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity. Health and Wellness Coalition of Wichita. 2005. Community Comparisons and Common Language. [Online]. Available: http://www.hwcwichita.org/images/Health%20Wellness%20Rprt.pdf [accessed May 12, 2006]. Health Collaborative. 2003. 2002 Community Health Assessment and Health Profiles. San Antonio, TX: Health Collaborative. [Online]. Available: http://www.healthcollaborative.net/Assessment/AssessmentHome.html [accessed May 10, 2006].

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Health Collaborative. 2006. The Health Collaborative. [Online]. Available: http://www.healthcollaborative.net/ [accessed July 26, 2006]. Hopson R. 2003. Overview of Multicultural and Culturally Competent Program Evaluation. Oakland, CA: Social Policy Research Associates. [Online]. Available: http://www.calendow.org/reference/publications/pdf/evaluations/TCE0509-2004_Overview_of_Mu.pdf [accessed April 18, 2006]. IHS (Indian Health Service). National Diabetes Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2004. Interim Report to Congress: Special Diabetes Program for Indians. Washington, DC: Indian Health Service. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2003. The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2005. Preventing Childhood Obesity. Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Israel BA, Schulz AJ, Parker EA, Becker AB. 1998. Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annu Rev Public Health 19(1):173–202. Jump Up and Go! 2006. About Jump Up and Go! [Online]. Available: http://jumpupand go.com/about.htm [accessed July 26, 2006]. Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, Heath GW, Howze EH, Powell KE, Stone EJ, Rajab MW, Corso P. 2002. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity. A systematic review. Am J Prev Med 22(4 Suppl 1):73–107. Kaiser Permanente. 2004. Kaiser Permanente Farmers’ Market Resource Guide. [Online]. Available: http://www.noharm.org/details.cfm?ID= 1112&type=document [accessed July 31. 2006]. Kaiser Permanente. 2006. Kaiser Permanente’s Comprehensive Approach to the Obesity Epidemic. [Online]. Available: http://www.calwic.org/docs/ kaiserbroch_feb06.pdf [accessed July 31. 2006]. Kertesz L. 2006a. Weighing in on obesity. AHIP Coverage January/February Pp. 16–20. Kertesz L. 2006b. Reaching out on obesity. AHIP Coverage March/April. Kreuter MW, Lezin NA, Young LA. 2000. Evaluating community-based collaborative mechanisms: Implications for practitioners. Health Promot Pract 1(1):49–63. Kreuter MW, Lukwago SN, Bucholtz RD, Clark EM, Sanders-Thompson V. 2003. Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: Targeted and tailored approaches. Health Educ Behav 30(2):133–146. Larsen L, Mandleco B, Williams M, Tiedeman M. 2006. Childhood obesity: Prevention practices of nurse practitioners. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 18(2):70–79. Lasker RD, Weiss ES, Miller R. 2001. Partnership synergy: A practical framework for studying and strengthening the collaborative advantage. Milbank Q 79(2):179–205. Latino New Urbanism. 2006. Latino New Urbanism. [Online]. Available: http://www.latinonewurbanism.org/ [accessed May 16, 2006]. Leslie E, Coffee N, Frank L, Owen N, Bauman A, Hugo G. 2005. Walkability of local communities: Using geographic information systems to objectively assess relevant environmental attributes. Health Place. Dec. 29 Epub. [Online]. Available: www.elsevier. com/locate/healthplace [accessed May 16, 2006]. Lewis CE, Wells KB, Ware J. 1986. A model for predicting the counseling practices of physicians. J Gen Intern Med 1(1):14–19. Librett JJ, Yore MM, Schmid TL. 2003. Local ordinances that promote physical activity: A survey of municipal policies. Am J Public Health 93(9):1399–1403. Lumeng JC, Appugliese D, Cabral HJ. Bradley RH, Zuckerman B. 2006. Neighborhood safety and overweight status in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160(1):25–31.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? MacQueen KM, McLellan E, Metzger DS, Kegeles S, Strauss RP, Scotti R, Blanchard L, Trotter RT II. 2001. What is community? An evidence-based definition for participatory public health. Am J Public Health 91(12):1929–1937. Mair JS, Pierce MW, Teret SP. 2005a. The City Planner’s Guide to the Obesity Epidemic: Zoning and Fast Food. [Online]. Available: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Zoning%20City%20Planners%20Guide.pdf [accessed May 11, 2006]. Mair JS, Pierce MW, Teret SP. 2005b. The Use of Zoning to Restrict Fast Food Outlets: A Potential Strategy to Combat Obesity. [Online]. Available: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Zoning%20Fast%20Food%20Outlets.pdf [accessed May 11, 2006]. Mapping A Vision. 2006. Mapping A Shared Vision of Hope. [Online]. Available: http://mappingavision.unm.edu/ [accessed June 9, 2006]. Martin SL, Heath GW. 2006. A six-step model for evaluation of community-based physical activity programs. Prev Chronic Dis [Online]. Available: www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2006/jan/05_0111.htm [accessed May 2, 2006]. McCullum C, Desjardins E, Kraak VI, Lapido P, Costello H. 2005. Evidence-based strategies to build community food security. J Am Diet Assoc 105(2):278–283. Meister JS, de Zapien JG. 2005. Bringing health policy issues front and center in the community: Expanding the role of community health coalitions. Prev Chronic Dis [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/Pcd/issues/2005/jan/04_0080.htm [accessed August 4, 2006]. Moore LV, Diez Roux AV. 2006. Associations of neighborhood characteristics with the location and type of food stores. Am J Public Health 96(2):325–331. Moudon AV, Lee C. 2003. Walking and bicycling: An evaluation of environmental audit instruments. Am J Health Promot 18(1):21–37. NACCHO (National Association of County and City Health Officials). 2004. Achieving Healthier Communities Through MAPP. A User’s Handbook. [Online]. Available: http://mapp.naccho.org/MAPP_Handbook.pdf [accessed May 11, 2006]. National Community Youth Mapping. 2006. National Community Youth Mapping. [Online]. Available: http://www.communityyouthmapping.org/ Youth/ [accessed June 9, 2006]. National Research Center, Inc. 2004a. Community Food Project Evaluation Handbook. Venice, CA: Community Food Security Coalition. [Online]. Available: http://www.foodsecurity.org/Handbook2005JAN.pdf [accessed May 11, 2006]. National Research Center, Inc. 2004b. Community Food Project Evaluation Toolkit. Venice, CA: Community Food Security Coalition. [Online]. Available: http://www.foodsecurity.org/CFPTOOLKIT030805.pdf [accessed May 11, 2006]. NBGH (National Business Group on Health). 2006. An Employer Toolkit: Reducing Child & Adolescent Obesity — Addressing Healthy Weight for Employees and Their Children. [Online]. Available: http://www.wbgh.org/prevention/et_childobesity.cfm [accessed May 1, 2006]. New Urbanism. 2006. New Urbanism: Creating Livable Sustainable Communities. [Online]. Available: http://www.newurbanism.org/ [accessed June 2, 2006]. NICHQ (National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality). 2006. Accelerating Improvement in Childhood Obesity. [Online]. Available: http://www.nichq.org/NICHQ/Programs/ConferencesAndTraining/2006ObesityCongressSummit.htm?TabId=8 [accessed April 28, 2006]. NIHCM Foundation. 2006. Prevention Corner. [Online]. Available: http://www.nihcm.org/finalweb/pg_prevention.htm [accessed July 26, 2006]. Nike. 2006. NikeGo. [Online]. Available: http://www.nike.com/nikebiz/nikego/index.jsp [accessed July 26, 2006]. Norris T, Pittman M. 2000. The Healthy Communities Movement and the Coalition for Healthier Cities and Communities. Public Health Rep 115(2-3):118–124.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Northridge ME, Sclar ED, Biswas P. 2003. Sorting out the connections between the built environment and health: A conceptual framework for navigating pathways and planning healthy cities. J Urban Health 80(4):556–568. O’Neall MA, Brownson RC. 2005. Teaching evidence-based public health to public health practitioners. Ann Epidemiol 15(7):540–544. Partnership for a Healthy West Virginia. 2006. Walkable Communities Workshop. [Online]. Available: http://www.healthywv.com/community/ walkable_communities.aspx [accessed June 20, 2006]. PATH Foundation. 2006. About the PATH Foundation. [Online]. Available: http://www.pathfoundation.org/about/index.cfm [accessed June 3, 2006]. PBH (Produce for Better Health Foundation). 2006. National 5 a Day Partnership Structure. [Online]. Available: http://www.5aday.org/html/background/partners.php [accessed July 23, 2006]. PedNet Coalition. 2006. PedNet. [Online]. Available: http://www.pednet.org/ [accessed April 28, 2006]. Perrin EM, Flower KB, Ammerman AS. 2005. Pediatricians’ own weight: Self-perception, misclassification, and ease of counseling. Obes Res 13(2):326–332. Policy Leadership for Active Youth. 2005. Addressing Overweight: Interventions Tailored to the Rural South. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University. [Online] Available: http://publichealth.gsu.edu/pdf/PLAY%20Policy%20Brief%20II%20Community%20-%20Readers%20Layout%206-6-05.pdf [accessed May 8, 2006]. Porter DE, Kirtland KA, Neet MJ, Williams JE, Ainsworth BE. 2004. Considerations for using a geographic information system to assess environmental supports for physical activity. Prev Chronic Dis [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2004/oct/04_0047.htm [accessed April 28, 2006]. Pothukuchi K, Joseph H, Burton H, Fisher A. 2002. What’s Cooking in Your Food System? A Guide to Community Food Assessment. Venice, CA: Community Food Security Coalition. Promoting Active Communities. 2006. Welcome to the Promoting Active Communities Award Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.mihealthtools.org/communities [accessed July 27, 2006]. Public Health Informatics Institute. 2005. Charting the Information and Systems Needed to Support Effective Response to Childhood Obesity. [Online]. Available: http://www.phii.org/Obesity.html [accessed February 21, 2006]. Resnicow K, Jackson A, Blissett D, Wang T, McCarty F, Rahotep S, Periasamy S. 2005. Results of the healthy body healthy spirit trial. Health Psychol 24(4):339–348. Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Matheson DM, Haskell WL, Pruitt LA, Powell TM, Owens AS, Thompson NS, Flint-Moore NM, Davis GJ, Emig KA, Brown RT, Rochon J, Green S, Varady A. 2003. Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: The Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 13(1 Suppl 1):S65–S77. Roussos ST, Fawcett SB. 2000. A review of collaborative partnerships as a strategy for improving community health. Annu Rev Public Health 21:369–402. RWJF (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation). 2006. Healthy Eating Research: Building Evidence to Prevent Childhood Obesity. [Online]. Available: http://www.healthyeating research.org/ [accessed May 16, 2006]. Saarlas KN, Hinman AR, Ross DA, Watson WC Jr, Wild EL, Hastings TM, Richmond PA. 2004. All Kids Count 1991–2004: Developing information systems to improve child health and the delivery of immunizations and preventive services. J Public Health Manag Pract (Suppl):S3–S15.

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Sallis J, Glanz K. 2006. The role of built environments in physical activity, eating, and obesity in childhood. In: Paxon C, ed. Future Child 16(1):89–108. San Antonio Metropolitan Health Department. 2006. Overview of MAPP Process in San Antonio and Bexar County. [Online]. Available: http://www.sanantonio.gov/health/MAPP/progress.asp?res=1024&ver=true [accessed June 2, 2006]. Schmid TL, Pratt M, Witmer L. 2006. A framework for physical activity policy research. J Physical Activity Health 3(Suppl 1):S20–S29. Shortell SM. 2000. Community health improvement approaches: Accounting for the relative lack of impact. Health Serv Res 35(3):555–560. Sisson SB, Lee SM, Burns EK, Tudor-Locke C. 2006. Suitability of commuting by bicycle to Arizona elementary schools. Am J Health Promot 20(3):210–213. Smart Growth Network. 2003. Getting to Smart Growth II: 100 More Policies for Implementation. [Online]. Available: http://www.smartgrowth.org/library/articles.asp?art=870&res=1024 [accessed June 2, 2006]. Sonoma County. 2006. Family Activity and Nutrition Task Force. [Online]. Available: http://www.sonoma-county.org/health/prev/fantf.htm [accessed July 26, 2006]. Sparke A, Walters C, Byram M. 2005 (June 27). Kansas Teen Leadership for Physically Active Lifestyles. Presentation at the IOM Regional Symposium Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Schools, Wichita, Kansas. Institute of Medicine Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity. Spokane and Kootenai Counties. 2005. Spokane and Kootenai Regional Travel Survey. [Online]. Available: http://www.srtc.org/HTCS%20final%20report.pdf [accessed June 20, 2006]. Story M, Orleans CT. 2006. Building evidence for environmental and policy solutions to prevent childhood obesity: The healthy eating research program. Am J Prev Med 30(1): 96–97. Story M, Sherwood NE, Himes JH, Davis M, Jacobs DR Jr, Cartwright Y, Smyth M, Rochon J. 2003. An after-school obesity prevention program for African-American girls: The Minnesota GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 13(1 Suppl 1):S54–S64. TFAH (Trust for America’s Health). 2005. F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies are Failing America 2005. Washington, DC: The Trust for America’s Health. [Online]. Available: http://healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity2005/Obesity2005Report.pdf [accessed July 23, 2006]. Thompson LS, Grey M. 2002. Fighting childhood obesity with university-community partnerships. Nurs Leadership Forum 7(1):20–24. Thompson PD, Buchner D, Pina IL, Balady GJ, Williams MA, Marcus BH, Berra K, Blair SN, Costa F, Franklin B, Fletcher GF, Gordon NF, Pate RR, Rodriguez BL, Yancey AK, Wenger NK. 2003. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity) of the American Heart Association. Circulation 107:3109–3116 and Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23(8):E42–E49. TRB (Transportation Research Board) and IOM. 2005. Does the Built Environment Influence Physical Activity? Examining the Evidence. TRB Special Report 282. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. [Online]. Available: http://books.nap.edu/html/SR282/SR282.pdf [accessed December 29, 2005]. Turnock BJ. 2001. Public Health: What It Is and How It Works, 2nd ed. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers. University of Kansas. 2006. Community Tool Box. [Online]. Available: http://ctb.ku.edu [accessed July 27, 2006].

OCR for page 228
Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2006. County, municipal, and township governments by population size: 2002, Table 417. In: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2005. Fit WIC: Programs to Prevent Childhood Overweight in Your Community. Special Nutrition Program Report Series, No. WIC-05-FW. Alexandria, VA: Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. [Online]. Available: http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/WIC/FILES/fitwic.pdf [accessed July 23, 2006]. Washington State Department of Health. 2006. Healthy Communities Tool Kit. [Online]. Available: http://www.doh.wa.gov/cfh/NutritionPA/healthy_communities_tool_kit.htm [accessed June 2, 2006]. Webb KL, Pelletier D, Maretzki AN, Wilkins J. 1998. Local food policy coalitions: Evaluation issues as seen by academics, project organizers, and funders. Agric Human Values 15(1):65–75. WHO (World Health Organization). 2002. A Physically Active Life through Everyday Transport. [Online]. Available: http://www.euro.who.int/document/e75662.pdf [accessed June 20, 2006]. Williams JE, Evans M, Kirtland KA, Cavnar MM, Sharpe PA, Neet MJ, Cook A. 2005. Development and use of a tool for assessing sidewalk maintenance as an environmental support of a physical activity. Health Promot Pract 6(1):81–88. Winnebago Tribe. 2006. Ho-Chunk Community Development Corporation (HCCDC). [Online]. Available: http://www.hochunkcdc.org/aboutus.html [accessed July 26, 2006]. WNBA (Women’s National Basketball Association). 2005. WNBA Launches New Fitness Initiative. [Online]. Available: http://www.wnba.com/community/fitnesseventtourrelease_050517.html [accessed May 12, 2006]. Wyatt HR, Peters, JC, Reed GW, Grunwald GK, Barry M, Thompson H, Jones J, Hill JO. 2004. Using electronic step counters to increase lifestyle physical activity: Colorado on the Move™. J Physical Activity Health 1:178–188. YMCA. 2006. YMCA Activate America. [Online]. Available: http://www.ymca.net/activate america/ [accessed June 19, 2006]. Zimring C, Joseph A, Nicoll GL, Tsepas S. 2005. Influences of building design and site design on physical activity: Research and intervention opportunities. Am J Prev Med 28(2 Suppl 2):186–193.