Index

A

Academic partnerships, 39-41, 56, 135, 241, 259-260, 266, 269, 289, 311, 416

Accountability, 140, 145-146, 205, 206, 217, 252, 262, 372

ACNielsen Fresh Foods Homescan data, 207-208

Action for Healthy Kids, 237, 286, 288

Action plans for prevention

community, 238

country and regional initiatives, 354-356

public health approach, 128

state, 136-137, 141

ACT!vate Omaha, 243

Active Living by Design, 98, 175, 240

Active Living Leadership, 240

Ad Council, 124, 192, 195

Administration for Children and Families, 396

Adolescents. See Childhood and adolescent obesity;

Children and youth

Adults.

See also Parents and caregivers

diabetes, 26

obesity risk and prevalence, 24, 25, 83, 112

Advergames, 196

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study, 86

Advertising and marketing

advergames, 196

bans and restrictions, 257, 304

branding, 175-176, 190, 196

Children’s Advertising Review Unit, 118, 170, 193-197, 214-215, 219, 374, 418

communication venues, 190-197, 413

consumer promotion, 173

definitions of terms, 173

and eating behavior, 193

evaluation of health promotion initiatives, 192, 193, 209, 210, 211, 215

expenditures, 172, 174

federal monitoring and support, 168, 195-197, 214, 216, 418

food industry, 172, 174, 188, 190, 191, 193-197, 206

guideline development, 116, 117, 168, 193-197, 214-215, 216, 219, 405, 413, 418

health promotion, 191-193, 251

in-store merchandising and promotion activities, 184, 191

integrated marketing, 172, 193, 196, 380

Internet, 190, 196

prevention of obesity through, 55, 123-124;

see also Public education



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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Index A Academic partnerships, 39-41, 56, 135, 241, 259-260, 266, 269, 289, 311, 416 Accountability, 140, 145-146, 205, 206, 217, 252, 262, 372 ACNielsen Fresh Foods Homescan data, 207-208 Action for Healthy Kids, 237, 286, 288 Action plans for prevention community, 238 country and regional initiatives, 354-356 public health approach, 128 state, 136-137, 141 ACT!vate Omaha, 243 Active Living by Design, 98, 175, 240 Active Living Leadership, 240 Ad Council, 124, 192, 195 Administration for Children and Families, 396 Adolescents. See Childhood and adolescent obesity; Children and youth Adults. See also Parents and caregivers diabetes, 26 obesity risk and prevalence, 24, 25, 83, 112 Advergames, 196 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study, 86 Advertising and marketing advergames, 196 bans and restrictions, 257, 304 branding, 175-176, 190, 196 Children’s Advertising Review Unit, 118, 170, 193-197, 214-215, 219, 374, 418 communication venues, 190-197, 413 consumer promotion, 173 definitions of terms, 173 and eating behavior, 193 evaluation of health promotion initiatives, 192, 193, 209, 210, 211, 215 expenditures, 172, 174 federal monitoring and support, 168, 195-197, 214, 216, 418 food industry, 172, 174, 188, 190, 191, 193-197, 206 guideline development, 116, 117, 168, 193-197, 214-215, 216, 219, 405, 413, 418 health promotion, 191-193, 251 in-store merchandising and promotion activities, 184, 191 integrated marketing, 172, 193, 196, 380 Internet, 190, 196 prevention of obesity through, 55, 123-124; see also Public education

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? promotion of products, 170, 173, 384, 386 public-private partnerships, 192 public service advertising, 124, 183, 191, 192, 385 recommendations, 115, 116, 168, 169, 196, 214 research data, 13, 55, 66-67, 207-208, 219, 304, 397, 418, 419 in schools, 290, 304 self-regulation by industry, 118, 170, 193-197, 214-215, 216, 413 spokescharacters, 170, 175, 191, 192, 193, 195, 209, 215 standards development, 169, 170 strategies, venues, and vehicles, 190-193 targeting children, 62, 180, 190, 197, 402, 413 television commercials, 174, 190-191, 208 tracking, 208 trade associations and groups relevant to, 194-195 unmeasured media, 208, 388-389 viral marketing, 190 vulnerability of children to, 197, 397 workshop, 196-197 Advocacy and advocacy groups, 51, 97, 194, 202, 247, 249, 250, 251 Aetna Foundation, 203, 237 African Americans. See also Diverse populations; High-risk populations; Race/ethnicity diabetes, 79 interventions for, 93, 95-96, 97, 128, 202, 236-237, 298-299, 332, 333, 337, 400 obesity trends, 74, 76, 77, 79, 83 socioeconomic status, 82, 83 surveillance and monitoring initiatives, 98 Afterschool Alliance, 299 Age and brand recognition, 175 and child obesity trends, 24, 25, 76 and diabetes, 79-80 and effectiveness of family-based programs, 334 and physical activity rates, 357 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 396 Agricultural policies, 112, 123, 476 Alaska, 26, 74, 94-95, 202, 399 All Kids Count program, 252 Alliance for a Healthier Generation, 45-46, 202-203, 240, 288 America on the Move®, 202, 204, 238 American Academy of Family Physicians, 249, 331 American Academy of Pediatrics, 27, 51, 122, 249, 329, 392-393, 399 American Advertising Federation, 194 American Association of Advertising Agencies, 194 American Beverage Association, 45, 203 American Cancer Society, 51, 237 American Community Survey, 131 American Diabetes Association, 27 American Dietetic Association, 331 American Heart Association, 45, 49, 51, 202, 237, 260, 288, 294 Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations, 177, 179 American Indians/Alaska Natives. See also Diverse populations; High-risk populations; Race/ethnicity access to health care, 84 community mapping, 266 diabetes, 79-80, 89-90, 94, 266 interventions for, 89-90, 94-95, 119, 122, 123, 128, 202, 238, 245, 246, 290, 332-333, 399 obesity trends, 74, 77-78 surveillance and monitoring initiatives, 98, 262, 263 American Marketing Association, 195 American Public Health Association, 237 American School Health Association, 305 Arizona, 26, 122, 265, 282, 305 Arkansas, 140, 142, 185, 282, 283, 287, 303, 304, 335 Asians/Pacific Islanders. See also Diverse populations; High-risk populations; Race/ethnicity obesity trends, 74, 77, 78-79, 85 programs targeting, 128 surveillance and monitoring initiatives, 98, 144 Assessment, defined, 372. See also Evaluation of programs and policies Association of National Advertisers, 194, 195

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education, 237 B Back to Sleep campaign, 336-337 Be Smart - Be Fit - Be Yourself program, 238 Behavioral branding, 175, 373 Behavioral research, 154-155 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 24, 26, 112, 128, 129, 132-133, 262, 342, 358, 390-391, 397 Beverages. See Food and beverage industries; Foods and beverages; School foods and beverages Bexar County (Texas) Community Health Collaborative, 241-242, 243 Bike, Walk, and Wheel Week, 245 Black Entertainment Television (BET) Foundation, 202 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts, 250 Body mass index collective efficacy of communities and, 234-235 comorbidities, 144 defined, 373-374 distribution trends, 76, 77-78, 234-235 ethnicity and, 77-79, 83, 85 obesity definition, 17 n.1, 374 as outcome measure, 128, 210, 211, 212, 250, 253 report card, 66 school screening, 138, 140, 283, 287, 303-304 socioeconomic status and, 83 surveys, 50, 77, 130-131, 390-391 Body weight healthy, 17 n.2, 379 management programs, 94, 251 survey data, 130-131, 143, 390-393 Border Health Strategic Initiative, 241 Boy Scouts, 284 Boys and Girls Clubs of America, 202, 236, 284 Branding and brand recognition, 175-176, 184, 189-190, 196, 197-199, 212, 216, 290, 373 Breastfeeding, 338, 390-393 Built environment. See also Community-based strategies; Local communities cultural considerations, 244, 245, 246 designing for physical activity, 229, 230-231, 244-246 and eating behavior, 247-249 evaluation of interventions, 64-65, 400 examples of changes, 243-249 food access, 93, 244, 247-249, 266 funding for research and changes, 231, 245, 246 implementation actions for, 230-231, 244 land use and zoning policies, 112, 140, 153, 233, 244, 248, 257, 380 mixed-use concepts, 300 outcome measures, 261 parks, playgrounds, and recreational facilities, 242, 244, 245, 257, 264 recommendations, 115, 239-240 research needs, 115, 116 safety considerations, 62, 64-65, 230, 233-234, 244, 246, 298 school siting, 112 smart growth initiatives, 140, 244, 245, 263 spatial mapping technologies, 248, 265-266, 270, 419 surveillance and monitoring, 261, 263 transportation issues, 244, 247 walking and biking opportunities, 112, 139, 140, 244, 245, 246, 254, 255, 261, 264, 298 Bureau of Indian Affairs, 262 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 174n.4 Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 131, 261 C California Adolescent Nutrition and Fitness Program, 51 BMI screening in schools, 304 Center for Public Health Advocacy, 51, 263 Department of Education, 263 Department of Health Services, 54, 153, 250 enhancements to built environment, 245 Fit WIC program, 122, 239, 333

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? 5 a Day Campaign, 51 food policy council, 248 GEMS pilot program, 299 Governor’s Summit for a Healthy California, 137 Health Interview Survey, 262 integration of programs, 141-142 Latino Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative, 93-94 Marin County SRTS program, 54 Nutrition Network for Healthy, Active Families, 250 population diversity, 80-81 Safe Routes to School, 246, 298 school food standards, 282, 293, 304 Sonoma County Family Activity and Nutrition Task Force, 242 surveillance and monitoring, 143, 153 Teen Eating, Exercise, and Nutrition Survey (CalTEENS), 50, 51 worksite farmer’s markets, 250 The California Endowment, 22, 201, 239-240 California Medical Association (CMA) Foundation, 250 Calories. See also Energy defined, 374 discretionary, 181, 199, 376-377 intakes from restaurant food, 187-188 reducing intakes, 202 Camp Fire USA Alaska Council, 202 Canada, 264, 354 Cancer, 76 Cardiovascular disease, 76, 77, 79, 95, 96 Carol M. White Physical Education Program Grants, 296-297, 401 Carolina Population Center, 390-391 CATCH Kids Club, 298 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 91, 331 academic partnerships, 266 BMI charts, 77 n.1 capacity-building activities, 9-10, 56-57, 127-128, 150, 153, 157, 216, 237, 396, 405 Division of Adolescent and School Health, 287 evaluation guidelines, 42, 44, 154, 257, 259 grants program, 120, 148, 305, 311, 397 health promotion activities, 192, 287, 397 Healthy Days Measures, 265 nutrition and physical activity programs, 41, 55, 66, 119, 120, 121, 124-125, 126, 127-128, 144, 246, 291, 297, 303, 305, 312, 315, 396, 397, 398, 404 Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool, 300 Prevention Research Centers, 41, 135, 397 REACH initiative, 95, 97, 98, 241, 257 recommended role, 14, 157, 219, 291, 361, 418 research activities, 397 School Health Index, 265, 285, 303, 396 surveillance and monitoring activities, 24, 66, 112, 130-131, 132, 142-143, 144, 154, 262, 285, 312, 390-393, 397-398, 405 VERB campaign, 12, 55, 124-125, 126, 130, 158, 175, 397 Wellness Policy Tool, 286 Champion for Healthy Kids™ grants program, 201 Chartbook on the Health and Well-Being of Children, 399 Cherokee Choices, 95, 98 Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, 332 Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 122, 403 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, 119, 284-286, 290, 328, 405 Child Nutrition Labeling Program, 402 Childhood and adolescent obesity. See also Prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and adult obesity risk, 83 adverse childhood experiences and, 86 at-risk population, 17, 77 n.1, 78 causes of epidemic, 62, 175, 243-244 comorbid health risks, 76, 77, 79-80 defined, 17 n.1 health care costs, 25-26, 83 integrated care delivery, 203 risk factors, 84 trends, 24-26, 77-79, 84

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Children and youth. See also Infants ad targeting of, 62, 190, 197, 402, 413 balanced diet, 373 BMI distributions, 234-235 brand awareness and loyalty, 175, 190, 198 caloric intakes from away-from-home foods, 187-188 critical development periods, 86 diabetes, 79 energy balance, 181, 280, 377 energy expenditure, 64, 377 healthy weight, 17 n.2, 379 in poverty, 83 vulnerability to advertising, 197, 397 Children’s Advertising Review Unit, 118, 170, 193-197, 214-215, 219, 374, 418 Coalitions community, 39-41, 191, 229, 230, 232, 238, 241-243 defined, 48 n.7, 374. See also individual coalitions Cochrane Database, 23, 337 Collaboration, defined, 48 n.7, 372-375 Collective efficacy and, 89, 100, 234-235, 267, 375 Colorado, 127, 245 Communities of Excellence in Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Prevention (CX3) database, 153 Community-based strategies. See also Built environment; Local communities; School programs and policies academic partnerships, 39-41, 56, 135, 241, 259-260, 266, 269, 416 advocacy, 97, 247, 249 barriers to implementation, 87-88 capacity-building, 9, 39-41, 56, 100, 128, 228, 240, 269, 416 coalition building, 39-41, 191, 229, 230, 232, 238, 241-243 collective efficacy and, 89, 100, 234-235, 267, 375 corporate-sponsored, 141, 201-203, 204, 238, 240, 258, 416 culturally competent approaches, 9, 88 n.5, 89-90, 92-98, 100, 124, 128, 157, 233, 234, 236-237, 238, 253, 258, 260, 267, 269, 416 data collection and analysis, 261-264, 270, 419 demonstration projects, 93-94, 95, 239-240 design of interventions, 97-98 determinants of progress, 252-253 disseminating and using evaluation results, 11, 14, 267-268, 270, 419, 421, 422 evaluation approaches, 9-10, 96-99, 229, 232, 234, 236, 237, 241-242, 247, 269, 416 examples of promising practices, 235-252 faith-based organizations, 90, 96, 229, 237 food-access-related, 90, 93, 139, 140, 230, 247-249, 257, 289 food policy councils, 247-248 foundation partnerships, 94, 201-203, 229, 239-241 framework for evaluation, 61, 253-254, 255-256 funding, 115, 117, 153, 201, 231, 238, 239-241, 245, 246, 247, 258-259, 269, 297, 416 gardens and markets, 93, 247, 248, 250-251, 254, 256 by health providers and organizations, 229, 231, 237, 241, 249-252 healthy communities movement, 241 for high-risk populations, 87-97, 239-240 implementation actions for, 114-115, 230, 413-414, 416, 419, 422 indicators of progress, 257, 265 leadership and collaboration, 9, 39-40, 230-232, 233, 240, 241, 257, 251-252, 254, 255-256, 268-269, 423-424 legislation, 139, 140, 246 mapping initiatives, 242, 264, 266, 298 measuring risk and protective factors, 267 natural experiments, 155, 266-267, 270, 382, 419 needs and next steps, 13-14, 254, 257-268, 360-361 nutrition-related, 94, 95, 139, 237, 238, 240, 258, 289, 290 outcome and performance measures, 236, 241, 253, 254-256, 260, 261

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? participatory research, 57, 89, 99, 234, 241, 248, 258 physical activity opportunities, 90-91, 94, 95, 129, 139, 140, 204, 237, 258, 296, 297 program-level tools, 248-249 public-private partnerships, 94, 128, 231, 237-238, 240, 247, 258-259, 266, 413 recommendations, 9-10, 114-115, 229, 230, 268-270, 413-414 resources and commitment, 9, 233, 254, 255-256, 258-259 safety focus, 93, 233-234 school-related, 289, 290, 298 stakeholders, 232, 241 sites for, 236-237, 260 surveillance and monitoring, 10, 90, 144, 261-264, 269-270, 419 system-level tools, 242, 248-249, 375 task force/coordinating committee, 139 taxes on energy-dense foods, 139, 140 tools for self-assessing and planning, 13- 14, 242, 248-249, 258, 264-265, 268, 270, 419 wellness initiatives, 96, 176, 201, 239, 250, 260, 268 workplace opportunities, 176, 229, 238, 250-251 by youth organizations, 236, 248, 375 Community Tool Box, 264 Connecticut, 202, 248 Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children, 243 Consumer information, 119. See also Nutrition education; Nutrition labeling Cooperative extension services, 238 Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) program, 135, 296, 298 Coordinated School Health program, 397 Coordination of activities defined, 48 n.7, 375 of federal prevention activities, 117, 129, 134-135, 148-150, 156, 402 of funding for programs, 148-150 incentives and rewards for, 159 recommendations and implementations actions, 156 of research activities, 134-135, 148, 149 of state prevention activities, 140-142 of surveillance and monitoring, 132, 144 Council of Better Business Bureaus, 194, 195, 197, 214 Council of State Governments, 136 Cultural competence, 88, 376 Culturally appropriate strategies. See also Diverse populations; Race/ethnicity; built environment and, 244, 245, 246 community-based, 9, 88 n.5, 89-90, 92-98, 100, 124, 128, 157, 233, 234, 236-237, 238, 253, 258, 260, 267, 269, 416 constituency-based, 233 defined, 376 evaluation of programs, 9, 36, 37, 70, 96-99, 157, 258, 414-417 participatory research, 98, 234 D Dance Dance Revolution®, 189, 297 Data. See also Research, obesity-related; Surveillance and monitoring collection and analysis, 36, 49, 57-58, 66, 98-99, 142, 238, 261-264, 270, 312, 419 fitness, 263 proprietary, 207-208, 216, 385, 418 Delaware, 293 Demonstration projects, 93-94, 95, 239-240 Diabetes, type 2 in adults, 26 age and, 79-80 in children, 79 in ethnic minority groups, 76, 79-80, 89-90, 94, 95, 266 integrated care delivery, 203 prevalence, 76 prevention studies and programs, 89-90, 94, 95, 128, 192, 203, 241 Diet balanced, 373 socioeconomic status and, 82 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 118-119, 121-122, 130, 131, 183, 197, 198, 199, 206, 344, 376, 339, 404 Dietary intake consumer estimates of, 357 evaluation of, 289 measuring, 62, 63-64, 314 parental work experience and children’s intakes, 329

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? state initiatives, 136 surveys, 143, 158, 390-393 Dietary interventions community-based, 238 home-based, 260, 329, 333, 336, 337 Dietary Reference Intakes, 197 District of Columbia, 26, 81 Diverse populations. See also Community-based strategies; Culturally appropriate strategies; High-risk populations; Low-income populations; Race/ethnicity; individual ethnic groups evaluation of interventions for, 96-99 geographic variation, 80-81 health disparities and health outcomes, 85-87 health effects of obesity, 79-80 immigration and acculturation issues, 80-81, 83-85 implementation of recommendations, 414-421 interventions and policy levers for high-risk subgroups, 87-96, 129 recommendations for, 9-10, 70, 100, 414-421 sociodemographic profiles, 80-81 socioeconomic status, 81-83 surveillance and monitoring, 10, 98-99, 417-421 transferability of interventions, 65 DoD Fresh Program, 123, 290, 405 E Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, 95 Eat Smart, Grow Strong™ Campaign, 199, 335 Eat Smart. Play Hard. campaign, 334-335, 344, 403 Eating behavior advertising and, 193 breakfast, 84, 337 built environment and, 247-249 home environment and, 337 promoting healthy food choices, 122, 181, 339, 340 public perceptions of, 355 research initiatives, 240 socioeconomic status and, 82 TV viewing during meals and, 85 Eating disorders, 42 Economic costs of obesity, 25-26 Education. See Public education Electronic media. See also Television; Videogames home environment, 337, 357 screen time, 302, 380, 386 Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program, 194, 197 Employers and worksite interventions, 204, 238, 338 Energy balance, 181, 280, 377 density of foods, 377 expenditure, 64, 377 intake, 63-64, 377 measurement of, 63-64 Entertainment industry. See Leisure, entertainment, and recreation industries; Media and entertainment industry; Television Environment. See also Built environment; Community-based strategies; Home environment; School defined, 377 obesogenic, 382 Environmental justice, 377 Ethnic groups. See Culturally appropriate strategies; Diverse populations; Race/ethnicity; individual ethnic groups Evaluation of programs and policies. See also Framework for evaluation; Research, obesity-related; individual sectors accountability and transparency, 140, 145-146, 205, 206, 217, 372 adverse or unanticipated impacts, 42, 54 audiences for, 3, 35-36 automobile and highway safety model, 65 availability, 396-405 barriers to, 27-28 baseline measures, 39 BMI distribution as measure of change, 50 capacity building, 9-10, 12-13, 56, 62, 70, 153-154, 157, 212-214, 218, 258-260, 311-312, 317, 415-419 case studies, 59 causation issues, 62, 63 changing negative perceptions about, 4-5, 27-28, 56-61

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? checklists, 286 community-academic partnerships, 56, 241, 259-260 community-based participatory studies, 57, 89, 99, 234, 241, 248, 257, 258 contextual factors, 5, 7, 32, 36, 37, 42, 55, 60, 69, 375; see also Diverse populations cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, 55, 376 cost-utility analysis, 376 cultural considerations, 9, 36, 37, 70, 96-99, 157, 258, 414-417 data collection and analysis, 36, 49, 57-58, 66, 98-99, 142, 238, 261-264 defined, 3, 26, 33, 377-378 demonstration projects, 93-94, 95, 239-240 determinants of progress, 144-146, 205-207, 252-253, 306-309, 337-338 developing interventions, 62, 64-65, 70 dietary intakes, 289 dissemination of results, 10-11, 14, 36, 37-38, 64, 68, 70, 120, 126, 129, 158, 219-220, 238, 267-268, 269, 270, 314-315, 416, 419, 421, 422 experimental and quasiexperimental approaches, 59 external validity, 97 fidelity of assessment, 39, 378 formative-type, 36, 37, 48-49, 55, 56-57, 124-125, 198, 244, 335, 378 funding and technical assistance support for, 8, 26-27, 28, 38, 41, 42, 62, 64, 69, 119, 125, 214, 219, 247, 258-259, 266, 269, 387, 416 guidelines, 42, 44, 154, 257, 259 health impact assessments, 66, 264, 379 health promotion advertising initiatives, 192, 193, 209, 210, 211, 215 impact evaluation, 380 implementation actions, 9-10, 157 importance, 3, 18, 32, 34 incentives for, 315 indicators of progress, 33-34, 42, 45-46, 64, 66, 67, 68, 93-94, 99, 128-129, 206-207, 213-213, 257, 265, 380 input measures, 146, 210, 211 intermediate goals and, 97 internal validity, 97 issues and challenges in design, 62-69, 96-99 leadership assessment, 45, 146, 148-150, 210 measuring dietary patterns and activity behaviors, 62, 63-64 measuring program implementation, 119 methodological approaches, 57-60, 92, 98-99, 236, 238, 245, 293 mixed-method design, 59-60, 68 multiple ongoing efforts, 36, 46 multisectoral approach, 8, 37 natural experiments, 266-267, 382 opportunity-capacity gap, 39-41 outcomes, 27, 36, 37, 39, 50-55, 59, 61, 62, 97, 123, 125, 146, 210-211, 215, 305, 383 overview and definitions, 33-39 performance measures, 64 pilot programs, 38, 41, 116, 122, 123, 142, 198, 239, 245, 298 policy implementation tracking, 49-50, 59, 61, 66, 146, 305 population-wide, 63, 68 preintervention/postintervention comparisons, 59, 238, 241-242, 260 process-type, 36, 37, 48-49, 58, 93, 123, 125, 128, 258, 384 public private partnerships, 258-259 purposes, 2-3, 8, 18, 26, 33, 35-36 qualitative methods/measures, 58, 96-97, 99, 123, 206, 258 quantitative methods/measures, 206-207 recommendations, 7-12, 69-70, 153-154, 157, 412-422 report cards, 66, 90, 146, 147-148, 265 research support, 8, 46, 67-68, 150 resource and input assessments, 5, 42, 45-46, 60-61, 121, 127, 209-211, 240, 266-267 review of current efforts, 27 scope and complexity, 3-4, 34 selection criteria, 36-37, 97, 182 social determinants of health and, 81 spatial mapping technologies and, 265-266 of strategy development and implementation 48-50, 56-61, 209, 210-211 subgroup analyses, 98 surveillance and monitoring, 1, 8, 39, 50, 62, 63, 66-67, 125, 130, 238, 261-264, 291-293

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? technical assistance, 142, 153, 154, 286 tools for, 13-14, 49-50, 64, 66, 146, 242, 248-249, 258, 264-265, 268, 270, 286, 293, 419 training for, 41, 154, 259 translating and transferring findings, 4, 62, 65-66, 68 types, 33-34, 36, 37 Evaluative research, 378, 381 Exercise. See Physical activity F Faith-based organizations, 90, 96, 229, 237 Family-based interventions. See Home environment; Parents and caregivers Farm Bill, 123 Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program, 403 Farmers’ markets, 139, 140, 403 Fast food, 187, 378. See also Restaurant industry and restaurants Fat, dietary, discretionary, 377 Federal Communications Commission, 156, 216, 401, 412 Federal government. See also Public health programs; individual departments and agencies accountability, 145-146 advertising oversight, 168, 195-197, 214, 216 capacity-building activities, 9-10, 56-57, 113, 117, 126-129, 146, 150-151, 153, 157, 237, 396, 402, 405 context for congressional action, 112-113 coordination of activities, 117, 129, 134-135, 148-150, 155, 156, 402 determinants of success, 145, 146 evaluation of programs, 9-10, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124-126, 128, 130, 131, 145-146, 153-154, 155-156, 157, 216, 396-405 funding and expenditures for programs, 117, 120-126, 127, 131, 132-133, 146, 148, 155, 397 implementation of recommendations, 9-10, 114, 157, 158 industry collaboration with, 124, 213-214, 305 interagency collaboration, 114, 119, 123, 128, 134-135, 149, 150, 290, 404-405 leadership activities, 9, 117-120, 134, 145, 146, 152, 291, 311, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 404, 405 nutrition and physical activity programs, 51, 54, 112, 118-119, 121-122, 127-128, 129, 131, 238 obesity prevention goals, 119 policymaking and regulatory activities, 118, 119, 121, 123, 146, 401, 402 programs for obesity prevention, 127-129, 396, 397, 399, 400, 401, 402-403, 404, 405 public health mission, 113, 117 recommendations for, 9, 10, 114, 117-118, 121, 123, 126-127, 130, 152, 216 research activities, 109, 133-135, 145, 216, 396, 397, 400, 403-404 responsibilities, 109, 110, 113, 117, 153 stakeholder workshop, 118 surveillance and monitoring activities, 24, 66, 98, 112, 128, 129, 130-133, 142-143, 144, 145, 154, 155, 158, 262, 285, 390-393, 397-398, 399, 400, 401, 405 task force, 12, 119-120, 134-135, 137, 139, 148, 152, 156, 400 technical assistance from, 109, 127, 128, 153, 213 Federal Highway Administration, 131, 245, 261 Federal Interagency Working Group on Overweight and Obesity, 134, 155, 404 Federal Trade Commission, 116, 117, 118, 130, 156, 168, 170, 195-197, 215, 216, 402, 405, 412 50 Schools in 50 States Initiative, 401 Filipinos, 79 Fit City Madison, 243 Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn, 286 Fit WIC, 122, 239, 331, 333, 403 Fitness award programs, 302 community-based strategies, 236, 258 data collection and analysis, 263 surveys, 313 testing/evaluating, 49-50, 300-301, 304 Fitnessgram®/Activitygram®, 49-50, 66, 301 5 a Day and Fresh from Florida, 289-290 Florida Interagency Food and Nutrition Agency, 141

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Focus groups, 57, 236, 378 Food and beverage industries. See also Advertising and marketing; Foods and beverages; Restaurant industry and restaurants; School food and beverages advertising and marketing practices, 172, 174, 188, 190, 191, 193-197, 206 AHA recommendations to, 177, 179 branding/branded products, 175, 184, 190, 197-199, 290 consumer information and education, 197-201, 209, 210, 213, 335 corporate foundations, 201-202 corporate social reporting, 204-205 economic characteristics, 172, 174, 179-180 evaluation of changes, 182, 184, 187, 205-207, 208-210, 212 examples of innovations, 45, 182-184 federal regulation, 188, 201 indicators of progress, 206-207, 212-213 Internet marketing, 190 litigation, 188 motivation for change, 185, 213, 220, 422 phases of response to obesity epidemic, 177 product cross-promotions, 191 product development and reformulation, 168, 169, 177-186 public-private partnerships, 183, 191, 198, 199, 418 recommendations to, 168, 169, 177, 179, 418 restrictions on school sales, 291 retailers, 169, 170, 179-180, 184, 191, 199, 200, 205, 213, 219 sales to young consumers, 179-181, 207, 290 targeted marketing of foods, 180 Food and Drug Administration, 177 nutrition labeling regulation, 115, 117-118, 198, 201, 216, 398 nutrition standards, 197 obesity prevention activities, 260, 398-399 Obesity Working Group, 200, 201, 398 recommendations for, 216, 219, 418 Food and Nutrition Service, 121 Food assistance. See Nutrition assistance programs Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program, 404 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, 403 Food insecurity, 82, 131 Food Marketing to Children report recommendations, 167, 169-170, 196, 207, 216 Food policy councils, 247-248 Food security, 90 Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP), 121, 129, 132, 344, 403 Food Stamp Program (FSP), 12, 90, 120, 122, 142, 250, 359, 402 Food Trust of Philadelphia, 247 Foods and beverages. See also Advertising and marketing; School foods and beverages access and opportunity issues, 62, 90, 93, 121, 139, 140, 230, 244, 247-249, 251, 257, 266, 289 added sugars, 182, 198 away-from-home foods, 177, 186, 187-188, 200, 372; see also Restaurant industry and restaurants brand recognition and loyalty, 175 built environment, 93, 244, 247-249, 266 community-based interventions, 90, 93, 139, 140, 230, 237, 247-249, 250-251, 257, 289 consumption drivers, 178-179, 184-186, 188 consumption trends, 84, 175, 187-188, 390-391 convenience products, 180, 187 costs, 178 demand for healthier foods, 183-185, 188 fat content, 182, 188, 198 fruits and vegetables, 93, 175, 181, 183, 184, 188, 189, 191, 193, 198, 208, 237, 390-391 gardens and markets, 93, 247, 248, 250-251, 254, 256 grocery store selection and placement of, 169, 170, 184 at home, 260, 329, 333, 336, 337 “house” or value brands, 184 labels and nutrition information, 115, 117-118, 168, 178, 187, 190, 197-199, 200, 201, 206, 213, 216, 382, 399, 402

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? marketing research data, 207-208 meal planning tools, 199 organic and natural foods, 183 packaging and presentation, 168, 169, 175, 178, 184, 186-187, 206 policy and political considerations, 121, 123, 188, 201 portion/serving sizes, 45, 178, 184, 187, 199, 201, 203, 383 promotion of healthful foods, 175, 183, 189, 197-201 rating, 169, 200 reduced-calorie products, 182, 198 snack foods, 181, 186-187, 191, 213 sodas and fruit drinks, 84, 139, 140, 180-181, 203 sodium content, 182, 198, 201 taste/flavor, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184-185, 186 taxes on energy-dense foods, 139, 140 vitamin and mineral content, 182 Foundations. See also individual foundations community partnerships, 94, 201-203, 229, 239-241 corporate, 201-202 funding from, 201-203 Framework for evaluation application to interventions, 60-61, 208-212, 252-254, 255-256 of capacity building, 150-152 CDC guidelines, 42, 44 communities, 61, 253-254, 255-256 components, 43, 44-55 criteria for judging design, quality, or changes, 7, 37-38, 182 crosscutting factors, 5-7, 42, 43, 44, 55 government progress assessment, 148-152 industry progress assessment, 208-212 outcomes, 5, 34, 43, 44, 50-55 questions to guide policies and interventions, 4, 18, 56-61 scope and maturity of program and, 61 strategies and actions, 5, 46-50, 60-61, 209, 210-211 Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP), 120, 123, 290-291, 344, 403 Fruit and Vegetables Galore, 290 Fruits and Veggies—More Matters!™, 175, 198 Funding for programs assessing progress in, 121, 127 community-based interventions, 115, 117, 153, 201, 231, 239-241, 245, 246, 247, 258-259, 269, 297, 416 cooperative agreements, 121, 124 coordination of, 148-150 discretionary or competitive project grants, 120 entitlements, 120 evaluation of adequacy of, 5, 42, 45-46, 60-61, 121, 127, 146, 148-150, 209-211, 240, 241, 266-267 for evaluation studies, 8, 26-27, 28, 38, 41, 42, 62, 64, 69, 119, 125, 214, 219, 247, 258-259, 266, 269, 387, 416 federal, 117, 120-126, 127, 131, 132-133, 146, 148, 155, 397 of food and nutrition programs, 120 formula and block grants, 120, 399 industry, 201-203, 209, 210, 211, 240, 305, 421-422 need-based formula grants, 121 physical activity, 296-297, 401 from private foundations, 201-203 for research, 158, 250 school-related programs, 116, 143-144, 203, 283-284, 286-287, 290, 291, 296-297, 305, 313-314 surveillance and monitoring, 131, 132-133, 142, 262 G Games for Health, 189 Garden Mosaic Project, 93 Gender and obesity trends, 24, 76, 78, 83 Geographic information systems, 248, 265-266, 270, 378, 419 Georgia, 21-22, 92, 136, 201, 240, 245, 260, 294 Georgia FitKid Project, 298 Girl Scouts, 236, 284 Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies (GEMS), 236-237, 299, 337 Girls on the Run, 204, 238 GirlSports, 236 Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, 204, 205

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Office of Minority Health, 400-401 Office of Public Health and Science, 405 Office of Science and Technology Policy, 134 Office of the Surgeon General, 27, 401 Ohio, 123 Oklahoma, 282, 328 Oregon, 127, 248 Outcomes advertising and marketing changes, 215 behavioral, 53, 54, 97, 210, 211, 212, 254-256, 286, 373 BMI, 128, 210, 211, 212, 250, 253 capacity-building measures, 150-152 categories, 50-55 cognitive, 52-53, 210, 211, 254-256, 286, 374 community programs and policies, 236, 241, 253, 254-256, 260, 261 data systems for tracking, 131 defined, 27 n.5, 34, 382 dietary, 286 environmental, 52, 210, 211, 212, 254-256, 306-308, 377 evaluation, 36, 37, 39, 50-55, 123, 210, 211, 254-256, 383 health, 53, 55, 82, 85-86, 149, 150, 151, 210, 211, 212, 253, 379 individual-level, 54, 306-308, 311 institutional, 51, 52, 148-150, 212, 254-256, 286, 380 intermediate, 8, 28, 97, 253, 306 long-term, 8, 306 negative impacts, 54, 303, 339 population-level, 54, 65, 306-308 short-term, 8, 28, 97, 253 social, 52-53, 210, 211, 254-256, 386 structural and systemic, 51, 52, 64-65, 140-150, 151, 210, 211, 254-256, 286, 306-308, 386, 387 Outputs, defined, 90 n.7, 383 P Pacific Islanders. See Asians/Pacific Islanders Parent Teacher Association, 328 Parents’ Action for Children, 327 Parents and caregivers as advocates, 327, 328, 339 and BMI screening for children, 303 checklist for, 342 eating behavior, 333 educational materials for, 204, 238 meal planning tools, 199 media campaigns targeting, 191 mobilizing, 335 monitoring lifestyle changes, 10, 100, 157, 181, 269-270, 419 participation in interventions, 93-94, 203, 298-299, 327-328, 339 perception of weight as health issue, 122, 249, 330-331 physical activity patterns of, 392-393 physician counseling of, 331 promoting healthy food choices, 122, 181, 339, 340 promoting physical activity, 298-299, 340 resources and support, 327-328, 334, 339, 342, 396 role modeling, 123-124, 125, 192, 330, 332-333, 335, 336, 339 toolkit for obesity prevention, 396 worksite health promotion, 204, 238, 339 Parents as Teachers National Center, 327 Parks, playgrounds, and recreational facilities, 242, 244, 245, 257, 264 Partnership for a Healthy West Virginia, 49, 50, 245 PATH Foundation, 245 Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS), 130, 132, 133, 392-393, 398 PE4Life, 204 PedNet Coalition, 245 Pennsylvania, 127, 142, 286, 288, 293, 304, 315 Fresh Food Financing Initiative, 247 Physical activity. See also Inactivity; Sedentary behaviors; Walking and biking opportunities active living, 98, 175, 240, 372 after-school programs, 297, 298-299, 337 age and, 357 barriers to increasing, 296 behavioral curricula, 302 branded equipment, 189-190, 216, 418 built environment and, 62, 91, 112, 229, 230-231, 244-246, 300 classroom curricula, 91-92, 296, 302

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? community-based, 90-91, 94, 95, 129, 139, 140, 204, 237, 258, 296, 297, 299 competitive sports, 297 dance classes, 236-237, 297, 299, 337 defined, 383 documentation of programs, 297 effectiveness of interventions, 125, 126 evaluation of programs and policies, 49-50, 54, 64, 92, 124-125, 126, 189, 208-209, 211-212, 293-302 examples of innovative programs, 91-92, 94, 95-96, 124-125, 202 family promotion of, 236-237, 260, 298-299, 336, 337, 340, 341 fitness evaluation, 300-301 funding for programs, 296-297, 401 home environment and, 236-237, 260, 299, 336, 337, 341 indicators of program success, 128-129 industry-sponsored efforts, 168, 191, 192, 204, 208-209, 211-212, 297, 418 legislation, 138 in low-income communities, 90-92, 202 measurement of, 64, 313-314 media promotion, 191, 192 PE classes and recess, 91, 92, 138, 282-283, 286, 294-296, 300, 305 public-private partnerships, 204 race/ethnicity and, 55, 91-92, 93-94 recommendations, 91, 168 research activities, 135, 296 safety considerations, 62, 64-65, 91, 138, 230, 233-234, 244, 246 school-based interventions, 48, 49-50, 51, 54, 91-92, 93-94, 95, 112, 129, 138, 204, 234, 237, 246, 281, 292-302, 309, 313 social environment and, 62 socioeconomic status and, 82 standards, 140, 294 state initiatives, 136, 294-296, 300 surveillance and monitoring, 50, 130, 158, 294, 296, 297, 299-301, 313, 390-393 videogames, 189, 297 Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC), 92 Physical Activity Policy Research Network, 135 Physical education, 91, 92, 138, 282-283, 286, 294-296, 300, 305 Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool, 300 Physical environment. See Built environment Physical fitness. See Fitness Physicians for Healthy Communities, 250 Pilot programs, 38, 41, 116, 122, 123, 142, 198, 239, 245, 298, 313, 331 Pima Indians, 89-90 Planet Health, 54-55, 135 Play Across Boston, 244 Policymaking and regulation advertising industry, 116, 118, 170, 193-197, 214-215, 216, 413 agricultural policies, 121, 123 definition, 33 n.2, 383 evaluation of, 49-50, 59, 61, 66, 146, 305 evidence-based, 65-66 federal activities, 118, 119, 121, 123, 146, 401, 402 food industry, 188, 201 media campaign to support, 123-124 monitoring compliance with, 130 nutrition education, 118 parental role, 328 reforms and revisions, 111-112, 121-122 research network, 135 surveying changes in, 131, 144, 154, 263, 264, 306, 309 tools and toolkits for, 136, 286 Portion sizes, 45, 383 Poverty guidelines, 82 n.4, 383-384 and health, 81-82 rates, 82 thresholds, 384 Pre-Assessment of Community-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions Project, 56-57 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, 132 Presidential Champions program, 301 President’s Challenge, 301 401 President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, 297, 313, 401 Prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity age-related trends, 24, 25, 76 BMI distribution, 76, 77 defined, 384

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? gender differences, 24, 76, 78 international dimension, 353 racial/ethnic disparities, 24, 74, 76, 77-79, 83, 85 regional differences, 77 socioeconomic status and, 24, 26, 76, 77 surveillance and monitoring, 143 tipping point in epidemic, 176, 352 trends, 24-25, 77-78, 112-113 Prevention of childhood/adolescent obesity. See also Action plan for prevention; Interventions; Progress in preventing obesity; individual sectors and programs barriers to, 249 best practices, 8, 34-35, 373 collaboration among sectors, 50 comprehensive approach, 20, 75 contexts for, 75-87, 112-113 cross-cutting approaches, 141-142 definitions, 384 evidence-based approach, 8 federal commitment to, 396-405 global dimension, 353, 354-356 goals, 29, 119 individual-level approach, 29 intermediate goals, 29 leadership, 9, 45-46 next steps, 11-15, 358-362 population-level approach, 29 portfolio approach to planning, 35 promising practices, 8, 27, 34, 37, 129, 384 resource allocation, 8, 9, 45-46 sectors where actions can be taken, 44-45; see also Government; Industry social environment and, 353-358 sociocultural considerations, 55 stakeholders, 1, 17, 32 systems approach, 28, 46, 62, 387 targeted to high-risk populations, 387 task force, 119-120 underinvestment in, 1 Prevention Research Centers, 41, 135, 397 Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grants, 397 Produce for Better Health (PBH) Foundation, 191, 198, 237-238, 289 Produce Marketing Association, 258 Program, defined, 33 n.3 Program Assessment Rating Tool, 146 Programs. See also Interventions; individual programs defined, 384 sustainability, 386-387 Progress in preventing obesity determinants of, 144-146, 205-207, 252-253, 306-309, 337-338 examples of, 92-96 indicators of, 33-34, 42, 45-46, 64, 66, 67, 68, 93-94, 99, 128-129, 206-207, 213-214, 257, 265, 302, 380 issues in assessing, 1-2, 26-28 measurement challenges, 207-208 needs and next steps, 11-15, 152-155, 212-217, 254, 257-268, 351-361 symposia on, 21-22, 92-93, 171, 198, 236, 237, 240, 260, 281-282, 286, 289, 294, 296, 311 Protective factors, 385 Public education. See also Nutrition education evaluation and monitoring component, 61 industry-sponsored, 55, 123-124, 199-201 media campaigns, 115, 123-124 nutrition and physical activity programs, 199 Public health programs. See also Health-care services and providers; Prevention of childhood/adolescent obesity agricultural policies and, 121 capacity building, 126 community preventive services, 237 defined, 120, 385 evaluation of, 120 funding and resource allocation, 120-121 health screening, 237 horizontal integration, 140-141 mission, 113, 117 prevention programs, 90, 237 social norm changes through, 239 surveillance and monitoring, 130-133 training of staff, 150, 151, 259 vertical integration, 389 Public Law 109-108, 118 Public relations campaigns, 123-124, 385 Public service announcements, 124, 183, 191, 192, 385

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Q Quality of life, 385 Quick-serve restaurants, 385 R Race/ethnicity. See also African Americans; American Indians/Alaska Natives; Asians/Pacific Islanders; Diverse populations; Hispanics/Latinos acculturation issues, 84-85 and BMI, 77-79, 83, 85 defined, 385 and diabetes, 76, 79-80, 89-90, 94, 95, 266 faith-based interventions, 237 and health, 76, 85-86 industry-sponsored programs, 201-203 interventions targeted to, 92-101, 124-125, 126, 201-203, 400 and physical activity, 55, 90-92, 93-94 prevalence of obesity, 24, 74, 76, 77-79, 83-85 surveillance and monitoring needs, 98-99 U.S. population diversity, 80 Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health ( REACH) 2010, 95, 97, 98, 241, 257 Recommendations. See individual sectors Regional Community Health Grants Program, 203 Regional differences in prevalence of obesity, 77 Regulation. See Policymaking and regulation Research, obesity-related. See also Evaluation of programs and policies behavioral, 154-155, 240 on built environment, 115, 116, 135 clinical practice approach, 238 collaborative, 135 community-based, 57, 89, 98, 99, 155, 234 cost-effectiveness analyses, 154 cultural considerations, 98 data sources, 55, 66-67, 207-208, 397 dietary contributions, 135 disseminating results, 10-11, 68, 135, 158 evaluation of adequacy of, 8, 46, 67-68, 150 evaluative, 150, 154-155, 378, 381 federal activities, 109, 133-135, 396, 397, 400, 403-404 focus groups, 57, 236, 378 funding, 158, 250 high-risk populations, 240 home environment, 343 industry initiatives, 214-217 leadership and coordination, 134-135, 148, 149 marketing research data, 207-208 natural experiments, 155, 266-267, 270, 382, 419 needs and next steps, 115, 116, 133, 154-155 networks, 135 participatory, 57, 89, 99, 234, 241, 248, 257, 258 physical activity, 135, 296 population-based, 134, 240 prevention-related, 98, 99, 135 quasi-experimental, 267 randomized controlled trials, 385 recommendations, 158 state and local government activities, 135 Strategic Plan, 134-135 translational, 134-135 Restaurant industry and restaurants advertising and marketing, 175, 188, 192 bans and restrictions on location, number, and density, 248 branding, 175 children’s menus, 200 demand for healthier foods, 185-186 energy density of foods, 187, 188 evaluation of programs, 205, 213, 418 full-serve restaurants, 177, 185, 187, 188, 200, 213, 216 healthier food options, 168, 177, 185-186, 187, 188, 200, 213 incentive/awards programs for, 185 marketing risk and opportunities, 188 nutrition information, 139, 140, 169, 178, 187, 199, 200-201, 206, 216 portion sizes, 187 presentation of foods. 186, 187-188 quick-serve restaurants, 177, 185, 187-188, 200, 205, 213, 248 recommendations, 168, 169, 200

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Rhode Island, 305 Risk factors, defined, 386 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), 1, 19, 45, 56, 183, 191, 201, 203, 229, 237, 240, 247, 281, 288, 385 Role modeling, 123-124, 125, 192, 252, 330, 332-333, 335, 336, 339 S Safe Routes to School Program, 51, 54, 120, 138, 234, 246, 298, 401 Safety in built environment, 62, 64-65, 230, 233-234, 244, 246, 298 community focus, 93, 233-234 defined, 386 schools as community centers, 299, 300 Salsa Sabor y Salud, 202 School Breakfast Program, 119, 122, 285, 290, 386, 403 School foods and beverages access to healthy foods, 48, 49 advertising, 281, 290, 291, 304 after-school programs, 298 agricultural commodity programs and, 112 cafeteria offerings, 45 challenges for food service managers, 289 competitive foods, 118, 119, 140, 146, 242-243, 282, 288, 290, 291, 292, 293, 375, 397 evaluation of innovations, 289, 290-293 examples of improvements, 45, 48, 288-293 farm-to-school and garden programs, 290, 293 federal meal programs, 12, 90, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 131, 146, 281, 285, 288, 290, 292, 382, 386 fresh fruits and vegetables, 123, 248, 289, 290, 298, 302 funding of meals, 123 for fundraisers, 290, 291 garden programs, 248 government accountability for, 146 industry initiatives, 291 meal times, 315 nutrition education programs, 48, 54, 93-94, 124, 129, 146, 280, 282, 283, 302 nutrition guidelines, 203 nutritional quality and standards, 119, 131, 138, 140, 281, 282, 286, 288, 291 pilot programs, 281 portion sizes, 291 recommendations, 116, 291 restricting sales of, 203, 242-243, 288, 291 revenue issues, 289 standards setting, 138, 140, 288 surveys, 285, 288-289, 291-293, 302, 312-313, 392-393 tools for promoting healthy choices, 290 vending machine, 138, 140, 155, 288, 290, 292, 293, 304, 315, 328, 392-393 School Health Index, 265, 285, 292, 300, 301, 305, 309, 314, 396 School Health Policy and Programs Study (SHPPS), 12, 132, 133, 142, 154, 158, 285, 291-292, 297, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 313, 392-393, 398 School Health Profiles (SHP), 131, 132, 133, 142, 262, 285, 288-289, 292, 297, 299, 300, 301, 302, 313, 392-393, 398 School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children, 386 School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, 131, 285, 292, 312, 392-393, 404 School programs and policies. See also School foods and beverages academic partnerships, 289, 311-312 active transport, 51, 54, 120, 138, 234, 245, 246, 254, 255, 297-298, 309, 401 after-school and extracurricular programs, 91, 95, 146, 236, 297, 298-299, 306-307, 309 behavioral curricula, 302 BMI screening, 138, 140, 287, 283, 303-304 body weight and height screening, 143 built environment and, 112 capacity building, 10, 307-308, 311-312, 317, 416-417 classroom curricula, 91-92, 124, 138, 296, 297, 300 community access to school buildings, 146, 299, 300, 306, 308

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? community involvement, 289, 290, 298, 299 competitive sports, 297 culturally competent approaches, 298-299 data linkages, 314 determinants of progress, 306-309 disseminating information on, 11, 280, 283, 289, 297, 298, 305, 314-315, 318, 422 effective programs, 54-55 evaluation of, 10, 93-94, 123, 280, 284, 286, 299-302, 305, 317, 416-417 fitness screening and counseling, 49-50, 138, 263, 283, 300-301, 303-304 foundation-sponsored, 288 framework for evaluation, 306-309 funding and technical assistance, 116, 143-144, 203, 283-284, 286-287, 290, 291, 296-297, 305, 307-308, 311, 313-314 health education, 135, 138, 280, 281, 302, 392-393 health report cards/profiles, 66, 90, 131, 132, 133, 142, 262, 392-393, 398 health services, 138, 140, 250, 281, 283, 287, 303-304 implementation actions, 10, 41, 305, 306-309, 310-318, 414, 416-417, 419-420, 422 indicators of progress, 93-94, 302 industry partnerships, 203 intramural sports programs, 297, 300 leadership and collaboration, 9, 284, 307-308, 310-311, 316-317, 414 legislative and policy changes, 138, 284-286, 287, 306-309, 312-313 local authority for policy setting, 138 mentoring, 236 model policies, 138, 286 needs and next steps, 14, 309-315, 361-362 opportunities and challenges, 283-284, 296-297, 305 outcome measures, 286, 305, 306-309, 311 parental involvement in, 328, 333-334, 336, 339 physical activity opportunities, 48, 49-50, 51, 54, 91-92, 93-94, 95, 112, 129, 138, 204, 234, 237, 246, 281, 292-302, 309, 313 physical education, 91, 92, 138, 282-283, 286, 294-296, 300, 305 progress in obesity prevention, 284-305 public-private partnerships, 237, 287, 312 recess, 296, 315 recommendations, 10, 116, 280, 315-318 research, 298-299, 312-314 self-assessment and planning tools, 10, 49-50, 92, 284, 300-301, 305, 309, 314 siting issues, 112 stakeholders, 282 state policies and standards, 294 surveillance and monitoring, 10, 49-50, 66, 131, 284, 285, 294, 296, 299-301, 309-310, 312-313, 317-318, 392-393, 419-420 wellness policies, plans, and councils, 14, 119, 132, 284-288, 299, 306, 309, 315, 328, 339 Sectors, defined, 386. See also Government; Industry Sedentary behaviors defined, 386 entertainment guidelines, 118 reducing, 189 Select Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART), 262 Serving size, 186. See also Portion sizes defined, 386 Sesame Workshop, 175, 191, 193 Shape UP!, 236 Shaping America’s Youth, 27 SmallStep, 124, 125, 157, 344, 400 SmallStep Kids!, 124, 157, 344, 400 Smart Growth America, 50 Smart Growth movement, 140, 244, 245, 263 Social determinants, 386 Social marketing behavioral branding, 124-125, 126, 373 data to inform programs, 207 defined, 386 networks, 129 VERB campaign, 55, 124-125, 126 Social norms and values, 62 adoption by immigrants, 84 defined, 386 family difficulties in changing, 249

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? progress in changing, 352, 353-358 vehicles for change, 239 Social reporting, corporate, 204-205 Social services providers, 239 Socioeconomic status. See also Diverse populations; Low-income populations and BMI, 83 and community interventions, 96 and diet, 82 and eating behavior, 82 and health, 81, 82 and healthful food access, 82 and obesity prevalence and risk, 24, 74, 81-84, 85 racial/ethnic disparities, 82, 83, 85 Sonoma County (California) Family Activity and Nutrition Task Force, 242 South Carolina, 282, 287 South Dakota, 282 Special Diabetes Program for Indians, 94 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. See WIC program Spokane and Kootenai County (Washington) Regional Travel Survey, 261 Spokescharacters, 170, 175, 191, 192, 193, 195, 209, 215 Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK), 298 Stakeholders collective responsibility of, 351-352 defined, 386 Stanford SMART (Student Media Awareness to Reduce Television), 236 Start Healthy, Stay HealthyTM campaign, 335 State and local governments. See also individual states action plans, 136-137, 141 capacity building, 12, 127-128, 129, 141, 148 collaborative efforts, 136 coordination and integration of interventions, 140-142, 149, 159 evaluation of initiatives, 142, 146-148 federal allocations to, 120, 122, 127, 148 funding, 141 implementation actions for, 114, 156, 158 incentives and rewards for, 159 leadership activities, 9, 12, 135, 136-140, 152-153, 311, 412-413 legislation, 66, 137-139, 147-148 nutrition standards, 288 parental advisory role, 328 physical education standards, 294-296, 300 program resources, 116, 140-142 recommendations for, 114, 116, 135-136, 152-153, 156 report cards, 300 research activities, 135 responsibilities, 109, 110-111, 136 surveillance and monitoring, 12, 66, 112, 142-144, 150, 158, 300 task forces and coordinating committees, 137, 156 training of staff, 150, 151 State-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases, 150, 157 State Child Health Insurance Program, 90 STEPS to a Healthier U.S. Cooperative Agreement Program, 121, 124, 128-129, 153, 157, 238, 396 Stigmatization, 42, 54 Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit After-School program, 298-299 Summer Food Service Program, 403 Summercise program, 94-95 Sunflower Foundation, 201, 240 Support for State Nutrition Action Plans, 204 Surveillance and monitoring. See also individual surveys adolescent health and behavior, 84-85, 125, 128, 129, 130, 390-391, 392-393, 398, 401 advertising and marketing practices, 208 BMI, 50, 77, 130-131, 390-391 body weight and height, 130-131, 143, 390-393 built environment, 261, 263 capacity development, 150 collaboration and coordination, 50, 132, 144 community-based strategies, 10, 90, 144, 261-264, 269-270, 419 of compliance with federal regulations and policies, 130

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? cross-sectional, 66, 376, 390-393 data sources, 66-67, 113 defined, 386 dietary intake, 143, 158, 390-393 diverse populations, 10, 98-99, 417-421 ethnic minority representation, 98-99, 100, 144, 262, 263 evaluation of programs, 1, 8, 39, 50, 62, 63, 66-67, 125, 130, 238, 261-264, 291-293 federal activities, 24, 66, 98, 112, 128, 129, 130-133, 142-143, 144, 145, 154, 155, 158, 262, 285, 390-393, 397-398, 399, 400, 401, 405 funding, 131, 132-133, 142, 262 high-risk populations, 70 implementation actions, 158 importance, 76-77 industry-based strategies, 10, 130, 214-217, 218-219, 417, 418-419 legislation monitoring, 66, 144 linkages of datasets, 154, 305, 309-310 longitudinal, 66, 381, 392-393 marketing research data, 207-208 measurement tools, 66 needs and next steps, 12, 98-99, 143-144, 154-155 nutrition and health, 50, 130, 131 opportunities for, 131, 132 by parents and caregivers, 100 physical activity and fitness, 50, 130, 158, 294, 296, 297, 299-301, 313, 390-393 policy and regulatory changes, 131, 144, 154 prevalence of obesity, 143, 158 public availability of data, 125 public health, 130-133 recommendations, 10, 70, 100, 130, 157-158, 417-421 sample sizes, 133, 262 school-based, 130, 131, 262 sedentary behaviors, 158 by state and local governments, 66, 112, 142-144, 154 supermarket scanner point-of-sale data, 207-208 systems dynamics simulation modeling, 66 technical assistance for, 142 television viewing, 390-393 T Table Talks, 260 Take 10!, 91-92, 296 Task Force on Community Preventive Services, 257 Taxation and pricing interventions, 139, 140 Team Nutrition: Local Wellness Policy database, 129, 286, 290, 293, 403 Technical assistance, 109, 127, 128, 387 capacity, 387 Television bedroom sets, 330 commercials, 174, 190-191, 208 and eating behavior, 85 health promotion initiatives, 191 interventions to reduce time, 54, 329-330, 336, 337 mealtime viewing, 330 and obesity prevalence, 85 surveys, 390-393 targeting children, 191 Tennessee, 248, 282, 283, 299 Texas, 81, 136-137, 140, 241-242, 243, 247, 260, 282, 286, 296, 298, 328 Tobacco control analogies, 145 Trade associations, 169, 177, 194-195, 213, 418. See also individual associations Transportation-related issues, 244, 247 Travel surveys, 261 Treatment of obesity, 82, 135 Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls, 296 Triple Play: A Game Plan for the Mind, Body, and Soul, 236 TRUCE Fitness and Nutrition Center, 93 Trust for America’s Health (TFAH), 66, 144, 263, 282-283, 294, 296 U Underweight, prevalence trends, 77 United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association, 258 Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Program, 401 U.S. Census Bureau, 131 U.S. Conference of Mayors, 136 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 114, 404, 412

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Agricultural Marketing Service, 123 Agricultural Research Service, 403 Cooperative Extension Service, 402 coordination and collaboration among programs, 12, 129 dietary guidelines, 118-119, 121-122, 199 Economic Research Center, 208 evaluation of programs, 146, 216, 315 Food and Nutrition Service, 121, 123, 334 food assistance and nutrition programs, 12, 90, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121-122, 123, 129, 131, 141, 239, 285, 290-291, 297, 331, 359 industry collaboration with, 199, 418 nutrition standards, 118, 289 obesity prevention activities, 117, 122, 123, 134, 239, 258, 402-404 recommendations for, 12, 129, 152, 156, 216, 291 research activities, 134 State Nutrition Action Plans, 141 surveillance and monitoring activities, 131, 132, 154, 172, 174, 285, 392-393 technical assistance for schools, 119, 311 wellness policy database, 286 U.S. Department of Defense, 12, 114, 156, 359, 404, 412 Fresh Program, 123, 290, 405 U.S. Department of Education, 12, 51, 114, 116, 119, 146, 152, 156, 237, 296-297, 359, 401, 404, 405, 412 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services advertising and marketing guidelines, 117, 118, 195-197 collaboration with CDC, 128 corporate partnerships, 115, 202, 265, 418 funding of community-based health efforts, 117, 231 obesity prevention activities, 124, 128, 134, 359, 396-398, 404 Office of Science Technology, and Policy, 404 recommended role, 12, 114, 115, 117, 123-124, 152, 156, 157, 168, 216, 265, 291, 359, 412 Small Steps campaign, 124, 125, 157, 400 Strategic Plan FY 2004–2009, 119 technical assistance for schools, 119 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 12, 114, 359 U.S. Department of the Interior, 12, 14, 114, 146, 156, 265, 359, 361, 401, 412 U.S. Department of Labor, 131, 392-393, 401 U.S. Department of Transportation, 14, 115, 116, 117, 146, 156, 231, 265, 359, 361, 401, 412 U.S. Government Accountability Office, 145-146 U.S. Surgeon General, 27, 113, 401 Utah, 249, 263 Blueprint to Promote Healthy Weight for Children, Youth, and Adults, 141 Gold Medal Schools program, 315 V VERB™ campaign, 12, 55, 124-125, 126, 130, 158, 175, 397 Vermont, 122, 333 Videogames, 188, 189, 297, 337 Viral marketing, 190 Virginia, 122, 302, 333 W W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 237, 240 Walk and Talk program, 95 Walkable Communities Workshops, 245 Walking and biking opportunities assessing opportunities for, 264, 265, 300 Bike, Walk, and Wheel Week, 245 built environment and, 112, 139, 140, 244, 245, 246, 254, 255, 261, 264, 298 to and from school, 51, 54, 120, 138, 234, 245, 246, 254, 255, 297-298, 309, 401 Walking School Bus program, 245 Washington, 127, 248, 261, 268 We Can! (Way to Enhance Children’s Activity & Nutrition), 199, 334, 344, 399

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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Weight. See Body weight Well-being, defined, 389 Wellness policies, plans, and councils, 96, 119, 132, 176, 201, 204, 238, 239, 250, 260, 268, 284-288, 299 West Virginia, 49, 136, 282, 283, 297, 299, 300 Action for Healthy Kids Team, 49 Department of Education, 49, 297 Health Education Assessment Project, 50 State Medical Association, 49 Walkable Communities Workshops, 245 WV Walks, 142 West Virginia University, 142, 297 Whites. See also Diverse populations; Race/ethnicity diabetes, 79 obesity prevalence, 76, 77, 79, 84 U.S. population, 81 WIC program, 12, 78-79, 90, 120, 121-122, 130, 131, 132, 141, 143, 144, 238, 344, 359, 402 Wilkes (Georgia) Wild About Wellness, 260 William J. Clinton Foundation, 45, 201, 202, 288 Winnebago Tribe, 245, 246 Wisconsin, 243 Women’s National Basketball Association, 238 Worksite initiatives, 176, 229, 238, 250-251, 338 World Health Organization, 204, 205, 353 WV Walks, 142 Y YMCA, Activate America™, 202, 236 Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey, 12, 125, 130, 158, 392-393, 398 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 12, 128, 129, 130, 132, 133, 142-143, 154, 158, 262, 285, 294, 301, 312, 313, 342, 358, 392-393, 398 Youth Sports National Report Card, 297 Z Zuni Indian Tribal Organization, 123

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