Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place

Residence Rules in the Decennial Census

Panel on Residence Rules in the Decennial Census

Daniel L. Cork and Paul R. Voss, Editors

Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Panel on Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Daniel L. Cork and Paul R. Voss, Editors Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The project that is the subject of this report was supported by contract no. YA132304CN0005 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Census Bureau. Support of the work of the Committee on National Statistics is provided by a consortium of federal agencies through a grant from the National Science Foundation (Number SBR-0112521). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-10299-5 International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-10299-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2006935988 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20001; (202) 334-3096; Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2006). Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census. Panel on Residence Rules in the Decennial Census. Daniel L. Cork and Paul R. Voss, eds. Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating societyof distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census PANEL ON RESIDENCE RULES IN THE DECENNIAL CENSUS PAUL R. VOSS (Chair), Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin–Madison (emeritus) JORGE CHAPA, Center on Democracy in a Multiracial Society, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign DON A. DILLMAN, Social and Economic Sciences Research Center and Departments of Sociology and Community and Rural Sociology, Washington State University KATHRYN EDIN, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania COLM A. O’MUIRCHEARTAIGH, National Opinion Research Center and Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago JUDITH A. SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles C. MATTHEW SNIPP, Department of Sociology, Stanford University ROGER TOURANGEAU, Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland, and Survey Research Center, University of Michigan DANIEL L. CORK, Study Director MICHAEL L. COHEN, Senior Program Officer AGNES E. GASKIN, Senior Program Assistant BARBARA A. BAILAR, Consultant MEYER ZITTER, Consultant

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS 2005–2006 WILLIAM F. EDDY (Chair), Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University KATHARINE G. ABRAHAM, Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland ROBERT M. BELL, AT&T Labs—Research, Florham Park, New Jersey ROBERT M. GROVES, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, and Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland JOHN C. HALTIWANGER, Department of Economics, University of Maryland PAUL W. HOLLAND, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey JOEL L. HOROWITZ, Department of Economics, Northwestern University DOUGLAS S. MASSEY, Department of Sociology, Princeton University VIJAYAN NAIR, Department of Statistics and Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan DARYL PREGIBON, Google, New York, New York SAMUEL H. PRESTON, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania KENNETH PREWITT, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University LOUISE RYAN, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University NORA CATE SCHAEFFER, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin–Madison CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Director

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Acknowledgments THE PANEL ON RESIDENCE RULES in the Decennial Census of the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) is pleased to submit this final report and wishes to thank the many people who have contributed to our work over the panel’s lifetime. We thank the staff of the U.S. Census Bureau, under the leadership of director C. Louis Kincannon, deputy director Hermann Habermann, and associate director for decennial census Preston Jay Waite, for their accessibility and cooperation in providing information and materials to the panel and for several valuable interactions with the panel. Philip Gbur and Frank Vitrano acted superbly as lead liaisons between the Census Bureau and the panel, and Vitrano was a particular pleasure to work with as the lead technical contact between the panel and the Bureau. Ed Byerly, head of the Census Bureau’s internal residence rules working group, merits recognition for guiding panel members and other participants through lengthy, comprehensive “walk-through” sessions at two of the panel’s five public meetings. In plenary sessions and in smaller working group activities, the panel also benefited from its interaction with other talented members of the Census Bureau staff, including Robert Fay, Eleanor Gerber, Nancy Gordon, Deborah Griffin, Karen Humes, Elizabeth Krejsa, John Long, Sue Love, Elizabeth Martin, Louisa Miller, Laurel Schwede, Dave Sheppard, Annetta Clark Smith, and Maria Urrutia. Our Panel on Residence Rules on the Decennial Census was one of three simultaneous CNSTAT panels studying different topics related to the upcoming 2010 census and the emergence of the American Community Survey as a data collection vehicle. As our work has progressed, we have found multiple points of overlap with the other two panels—the Panel on the Functionality and Usability of Data from the American Community Survey and the Panel on Coverage Measurement and Correlation Bias in the 2010 Census. We have

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census benefited from our interaction with our colleagues on these panels, and we particularly thank their respective chairs, Graham Kalton and Robert Bell, for their cooperation with activities of our panel. To assist in its work, the panel commissioned two papers for presentation at its meetings and to inform our deliberations. Terri Ann Lowenthal, an independent consultant and a former congressional staff member with expertise in the census, outlined the congressional and regulatory perspectives on census residence issues and reviewed legislative and judicial precedents. We thank her for her contribution, as well as for her ongoing work of informing the broader census stakeholder community of legislative developments in her series of “News Alerts” from the Census Project (http://www.censusproject.org). In the second paper, futurist Joseph F. Coates reviewed broad societal trends that may complicate the definition and interpretation of residence in the next 25 years. His paper provoked a stimulating discussion at the panel’s December 2004 meeting, and we appreciate his work. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Margo Anderson, History and Urban Studies, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; Beth Osborne Daponte, Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University; Vincent Fu, Department of Sociology, University of Utah; Kimberly Goyette, Department of Sociology, Temple University; Martha Jones, Division of Workers’ Compensation Research Unit, Department of Industrial Relations, State of California; Steven Ruggles, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota; Nora Cate Schaeffer, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin–Madison; and John H. Thompson, Office of the Executive Vice President, National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, Illinois. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Kenneth Wachter, Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley, and Stephen E. Fienberg, Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional proce-

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census dures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution. In addition to the Census Bureau staff, we wish to thank the other expert speakers who contributed to our plenary meetings: Patricia Allard, Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law; Robert Goldenkoff, U.S. Government Accountability Office; David McMillen, National Archives (formerly with the U.S. House Committee on Government Reform); Jim Moore, U.S. House Committee on Government Reform; and Peter Wagner, Prison Policy Initiative. Our meeting drew attendants from several other federal agencies and interested groups. We can not list them all, but we do wish to thank those whose active contributions helped further the work of the panel: Allen Beck, Bureau of Justice Statistics; John Drabek, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Robert Parker, U.S. Government Accountability Office (retired); D.E.B. Potter, National Center for Health Statistics; Susan Schechter, U.S. Office of Management and Budget; Ed Spar, Council of Professional Associations on Federal Statistics; and Katherine Wallman, U.S. Office of Management and Budget. The panel appreciates the efforts of the reports office of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Eugenia Grohman provided careful editing of the manuscript, Kirsten Sampson-Snyder patiently shepherded the report through scheduling and review processes, and Yvonne Wise managed the production of the finished volume. Logistical support for the panel was provided with great skill and cheerfulness by Agnes Gaskin, senior program assistant. Research assistance was provided by Marisa Gerstein prior to her resumption of graduate studies in early 2005. The panel also benefited greatly from the long experience and wise counsel of CNSTAT consultants Barbara Bailar and Meyer Zitter. The panel is particularly indebted to the regular and active participation in its meetings of Constance Citro, director of CNSTAT. We simply could not have wished for a more experienced and talented group of committee staff as we worked our way through the history of residence rules in the census and particular problems regarding the concept of residence and its implementation in the 2000 census, and as we explored alternative ways to better ensure that future censuses will count each person living in the country once, and only once, and in the correct place. I speak for the entire panel in expressing our profound gratitude to the panel’s study director, Daniel Cork. His uncanny ability to somehow bring to the screen exactly the relevant paragraph from some obscure report or a needed statistic from some data set regularly delighted panel members and routinely kept us on task. He carefully guided the panel during the process of coming to consensus regarding a final set of recommendations, and he drafted

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census the text of our report during a time when his efforts were also very much in heavy demand by another CNSTAT panel. Finally, I thank my fellow panel members for their generous contributions of time and expert knowledge. We worked extraordinarily well together, somehow always maintaining a wonderful sense of spirited camaraderie despite occasional disagreements over matters of emphasis or substance. Paul R. Voss, Chair Panel on Residence Rules in the Decennial Census

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Contents Executive Summary   1 I Residence and the Census   13 1   Introduction   15      1–A  The Panel and Its Charge   17      1–B  Previous Efforts   18      1–C  Plans for the 2010 Census   20      1–D  Overview of the Report   21 2   Residence Rules: Development and Interpretation   23      2–A  Why Are Residence Rules Needed?   24      2–B  What Are the Residence Rules?   25      2–B.1  Historical Development   26      2–B.2  The Changing Role of Residence Rules: From Enumerator Interviews to Self-Response   29      2–B.3  Assessment of the 2000 Census Residence Rules   31      2–C  Why Is Measuring Residence Difficult for the Census Bureau?   33      2–C.1  Definitional Challenges   33      2–C.2  Discrepant Standards   37      2–C.3  Changing Norms and Living Situations   41      2–C.4  Inherent Tie to Geography   43      2–D  Why Is Defining Residence Difficult for Respondents?   44      2–E  Consequences of Residence Complexities   46      2–E.1  Omission and Duplication   46      2–E.2  Group Quarters Enumeration   50

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census      2–F  Plans for 2010   51      2–F.1  One Rule: Proposed Residence Rules Revision   51      2–F.2  Assessment   51 II Residence Rules Meet Real Life: Challenges in Defining Residence   59 3   The Nonhousehold Population   61      3–A  The Concept of “Group Quarters”   62      3–B  Students   67      3–B.1  Colleges and Universities   67      3–B.2  Boarding Schools   76      3–C  Health Care Facilities   77      3–D  Correctional Facilities   82      3–D.1  Prisons   84      3–D.2  Jails   99      3–D.3  Juvenile Facilities   101      3–E  Children in Foster Care   103      3–F  Military and Seaborne Personnel   105      3–F.1  Personnel Stationed at Domestic Bases or Living in Nearby Housing   106      3–F.2  Shipboard Personnel   110 4   Complex and Ambiguous Living Situations   113      4–A  Multiple Residence and Highly Mobile Populations   113      4–A.1  “Snowbirds” and “Sunbirds”   114      4–A.2  Modern Nomads: Recreational Vehicle Users   118      4–A.3  Commuter Workers and Commuter Marriage Partners   120      4–A.4  Residential Ambiguity Due to Occupation   123      4–A.5  Minority Men   124      4–A.6  Migrant Farm Workers   127      4–B  Complex Household Structures: The Changing Nature of Families   131      4–B.1  Children in Joint Custody   133      4–B.2  Cohabiting Couples   140      4–B.3  Recent Immigrants   141      4–B.4  Issues Unique to Native Americans   144      4–C  The Homeless Population   146      4–D  People Missed by Census Questions and Operations   151      4–D.1  Census Day Movers   151      4–D.2  Census Day Births and Deaths   153      4–D.3  Babies and Young Children   155

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census      4–E  Ambiguity Due to Housing Stock Issues   156      4–E.1  Hotels and Motels   159      4–E.2  People Dislocated by Disasters   161 5   Mirroring America: Living Situations and the Census   165      5–A  Lessons from a Review of Living Situations   166      5–B  Needed Research on Living Situations   174      5–B.1  Fuller Use of Internal Data   174      5–B.2  Monitoring Social Trends   175      5–B.3  Basic Research on Living Situations   176 III Improvements for the Future   179 6   Residence Principles for the Decennial Census   181      6–A  A Core Set of Principles   182      6–B  Products for Implementation of the Principles   186      6–C  Presentation of Residence Concepts to Respondents and Enumerators   189      6–D  Instructions and Residence Questions in Recent Censuses and Tests   192      6–D.1  Previous U.S. Censuses   192      6–D.2  Coverage Probes   197      6–D.3  Foreign Census Questionnaires   201      6–D.4  Alternative Questionnaire Tests and Approaches   202      6–D.5  Toward 2010: Mid-Decade Census Tests   203      6–E  Changing the Strategy: Getting the Right Residence Information   208      6–E.1  Questions, Not Instructions   210      6–E.2  The Short Form Is Too Short   211      6–E.3  Mode Effects   217      6–E.4  Testing ARE in 2010   218      6–F  A Violation by Design: The Census Day Response Problem   220      6–G  Research Needs   222 7   Nonhousehold Enumeration   225      7–A  Implementation Problems in the 2000 Census   226      7–B  Rethinking the Concept   233      7–C  Allow “Any Residence Elsewhere”   238      7–D  Conducting the Count   238      7–D.1  Facility and Administrative Records   238      7–D.2  Different Forms for Different Settings   240      7–E  Counting Prisoners in the Census   241

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census 8   Operations, Research, and Testing   249      8–A  Master Address File   250      8–B  Unduplication Methodology   252      8–C  Clashing Residence Standards: The Census and the American Community Survey   254      8–D  Testing and Research in 2010 and Beyond   266      8–E  The Census Bureau Research and Testing Program   267 References   273 Appendixes   293 A   Residence Rules of the 2000 Census   295 B   Residence Concepts and Questions in Selected Foreign Censuses   303      B.1  United Nations/Economic Commission of Europe Guidelines   303      B.2  United Nations Statistics Division   305      B.3  Australia   305      B.4  Canada   308      B.5  Estonia   312      B.6  Ireland   313      B.7  Israel   314      B.8  Italy   315      B.9  Japan   315      B.10  New Zealand   316      B.11  South Africa   319      B.12  Switzerland   320      B.13  United Kingdom   321 C   Americans Residing Overseas   327      C.1  Treatment in Past Censuses   328      C.2  The 1990 Census   331      C.3  The 2000 Census   334      C.4  The 2004 Overseas Census Test   335      C.5  Concepts in Counting American Civilians Overseas   336 D   Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff   339 Index   343

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census List of Figures 2-1   Basic residence question (Question 1), 2000 census questionnaire   26 6-1   Basic residence question, advance materials distributed prior to enumerator visits, 1960 census   193 6-2   Basic residence instructions and Question 1, 1970 census questionnaire   194 6-3   Basic residence question (Question 1), 1980 census questionnaire   196 6-4   Basic residence question (Item 1), 1990 census questionnaire   198 6-5   Coverage probe questions, 1970 census questionnaire   200 6-6   Coverage probes (Questions H1–H3), 1980 census questionnaire   201 6-7   Coverage treatment groups, 2005 National Census Test   206 6-8   Coverage probe questions, 2005 National Census Test   209 8-1   Introductory household count question, 2005 American Community Survey   259 8-2   Excerpt of household roster question and instructions, 2005 American Community Survey   260 8-3   Excerpt of household roster question and instructions, 1996–1998 American Community Survey   263 8-4   Question 25, 2005 American Community Survey   264 B-1   Proposed form of basic usual residence questionnaire item (UR1), 2006 Census of Population and Housing, Australia   307 B-2   Residence instructions, 2001 Census of Population, Canada   309 B-3   Basic residence questions, 2001 Census of Population, Canada   310 B-4   Questionnaire items to collect primary and secondary address information, 2000 Census of Population, Switzerland   320

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census List of Tables 2-1   Residence Rules for the Current Population Survey   55 3-1   Group Quarters Population by Group Quarters Type, 2000 Census   64 3-2   Undergraduate College Housing, 2003–2004   75 3-3   Patient Discharges and Distribution of Current Nursing Home Residents, by Length of Stay (in percent)   81 3-4   Sentence Length for Most Serious Individual Offense, New Court Commitments to State Prisons, by Offense, 1993 and 2002   94 3-5   Time Served by Newly Released State Prisoners, 1993–2002   95 3-6   Time Served by Newly Released State Prisoners, by Offense Type, 1993 and 2002   96 4-1   Classification of Farm Workers   129 4-2   Children Under Age 18 by Household Composition, 1996 and 2001 (in thousands)   132 4-3   Divorces by Whether and to Whom Physical Custody of Children was Awarded, Selected States, 1989 and 1990   137 4-4   Type of Child Custody per Most Recent Agreement, 1994–1998 (in percent)   139 4-5   Births and Deaths in the United States by Month, 2004, Provisional Vital Statistics Data   154 4-6   Criteria for Distinguishing Separate Units in Multi-Unit Dwellings, 1850–2000   158 7-1   Mode of Completion, Group Quarters Individual Census Reports, 2000 Census   229 7-2   Group Quarters Questionnaire Records in the Non-ID Process by Form Type, 2000 Census   231 B-1   Usual Residence Categories as Delineated by the Census Order 2000, United Kingdom   322

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census List of Boxes 2-1   Why Is April 1 “Census Day”?   29 2-2   Types of Enumeration Areas (TEAs), 2000 Census   32 2-3   Group Quarters Categories for the 2000 Census   35 2-4   State Definitions of Residence: California   39 2-5   Franklin v. Massachusetts (1992)   42 2-6   Undercount and Overcount in the 2000 Census   48 2-7   Census Bureau’s Proposed 2010 Census Residence Rule   52 3-1   Individual, Military, and Shipboard Census Reports   68 3-2   Borough of Bethel Park v. Stans (1971)   72 3-3   District of Columbia v. U.S. Department of Commerce (1992)   90 4-1   Types of Child Custody Arrangements   135 4-2   Colonias   143 4-3   S-Night   149 4-4   Service-Based Enumeration   150 5-1   Ethnographic Research in the Census   167 5-2   Living Situation Survey   168 5-3   Alternative Questionnaire Experiments   169 5-4   Residence Rules for the 1990 Census   171 5-5   Include and Exclude Instructions in the 1950 Census   173 6-1   Illustration of Application of Residence Principles as the Basis for “Frequently Asked Questions”   188 6-2   Residence Question and Instructions in the 2000 Census and the 2000 Alternative Questionnaire Experiment   204 6-3   Coverage Follow-Up Plans for the 2010 Census   217 7-1   2006 Census Test Group Quarters Definitions   234 7-2   Kansas Census Adjustment   247

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census 8-1   Unduplication in the 2000 Census   253 8-2   Residence Rules for the American Community Survey   257 8-3   Cognitive Testing   269 A-1   Guiding Principles for the Residence Rules as They Apply to Individual(s) with Multiple Residences   296