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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering BEYOND BIAS AND BARRIERS FULFILLING AND POTENTIAL OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING, AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Academies; the National Institutes of Health Office for Research on Women’s Health under Contract 1-OD-4-2137, Task Order 166; Eli Lilly Company; the National Science Foundation award SBE-0536999; and the Ford Foundation. Eli Lilly funds were used only to support project research. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering (U.S.) Beyond bias and barriers : fulfilling the potential of women in academic science and engineering / Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-10042-7 (hardback) ISBN-10: 0-309-10042-9 (hardback) ISBN-13: 978-0-309-65454-8 (pdf) ISBN-10: 0-309-65454-8 (pdf) 1. Women in science—United States. 2. Women in engineering—United States. 3. Science—Study and teaching—United States. 4. Engineering—Study and teaching— United States. 5. Women—Education—United States. 6. Vocational interests—United States. I. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (U.S.) II. Title. Q130.C65 2006 500.82’0973—dc22 2006036337 Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 500 Fifth Street NW, Washington, DC 20001; 202-334-2807; Internet, http://www.nationalacademies.org/cosepup. Additional copies of this workshop summary are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Denice Dee Denton, 1959-2006 A valued member of this committee, Denice Denton was an extraordinarily talented scholar, educational leader, and relentless voice for progress. She helped shape the direction of our nation’s science and engineering enterprise through her research, teaching, technology development, service, leadership, mentoring, public communication of science and engineering, initiatives to promote diversity and inclusion, and outreach to our schools. She was bigger than life. She opened doors, and stood in them to let others through. She mentored young scholars and students. Her enthusiasm for science was clear and infectious. She was a force—a magnificent force. She pushed the institutions she inhabited to be better than they wanted to be. With her tragic death we lost a friend, a colleague, and a champion. We proudly dedicate this report to her. We will miss her. Donna E. Shalala Chair, Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering COMMITTEE ON MAXIMIZING THE POTENTIAL OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DONNA E. SHALALA [IOM] (Chair), President, University of Miami, Miami, Florida ALICE M. AGOGINO [NAE], Roscoe and Elizabeth Hughes Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California LOTTE BAILYN, Professor of Management, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts ROBERT J. BIRGENEAU [NAS], Chancellor, University of California, Berkeley, California ANA MARI CAUCE, Executive Vice Provost and Earl R. Carlson Professor of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington CATHERINE D. DEANGELIS [IOM], Editor-in-Chief, Journal of the American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois DENICE DEE DENTON,* Chancellor, University of California, Santa Cruz, California BARBARA J. GROSZ, Higgins Professor of Natural Sciences, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Dean of Science, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts JO HANDELSMAN, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin NANNERL O. KEOHANE, President Emerita, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina SHIRLEY MALCOM [NAS], Head, Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC GERALDINE RICHMOND, Richard M. and Patricia H. Noyes Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon ALICE M. RIVLIN, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC RUTH SIMMONS, President, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island ELIZABETH SPELKE [NAS], Berkman Professor of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering JOAN STEITZ [NAS/IOM], Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ELAINE WEYUKER [NAE], Fellow, AT&T Laboratories, Florham Park, New Jersey MARIA T. ZUBER [NAS], E. A. Griswold Professor of Geophysics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts Principal Project Staff LAUREL L. HAAK, Study Director JOHN SISLIN, Program Officer NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor JUDY GOSS, Senior Program Assistant IAN CHRISTENSEN, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow ERIN FRY, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow JENNIFER HOBIN, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow MARGARET HORTON, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow RACHAEL SCHOLZ, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow * Served from September 2005 to June 2006.
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PUBLIC POLICY GEORGE WHITESIDES (Chair), Woodford L. and Ann A. Flowers University Professor, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts UMA CHOWDHRY, Vice President, Central Research and Development, DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware RALPH J. CICERONE (Ex officio), President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC R. JAMES COOK, Interim Dean, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington HAILE DEBAS, Executive Director, University of California at San Francisco Global Health Sciences, Maurice Galante Distinguished Professor of Surgery, San Francisco, California HARVEY FINEBERG (Ex officio), President, Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC MARYE ANNE FOX (Ex officio), Chancellor, University of California, San Diego, California ELSA GARMIRE, Sydney E. Junkins Professor of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire M.R.C. GREENWOOD (Ex officio), Professor of Nutrition and Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, California NANCY HOPKINS, Amgen Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts MARY-CLAIRE KING, American Cancer Society Professor of Medicine and Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington W. CARL LINEBERGER, Professor of Chemistry, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado RICHARD A. MESERVE, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC ROBERT M. NEREM, Parker H. Petit Professor and Director, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, Retired Sector Vice President for Integrated Solutions, Science Applications International Corporation, La Jolla, California ANNE PETERSEN, Professor, University of Michigan and President, Global Philanthropic Alliance, Kalamazoo, Michigan CECIL PICKETT, President, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey EDWARD H. SHORTLIFFE, Professor and Chair, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering HUGO SONNENSCHEIN, Charles L. Hutchinson Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois LYDIA THOMAS, President and Chief Executive Officer, Mitretek Systems, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia SHEILA E. WIDNALL, Abby Rockefeller Mauze Professor of Aeronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts WM. A. WULF (Ex officio), President, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC MARY LOU ZOBACK, Senior Research Scientist, Earthquake Hazards Team, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff RICHARD BISSELL, Executive Director DEBORAH STINE, Associate Director LAUREL HAAK, Program Officer MARION RAMSEY, Administrative Coordinator
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Preface When I started graduate school at Syracuse University in the late sixties, the chair of my department informed me that I would not be eligible for fellowships, because I was a woman. Pulling out a page of statistics, he pointed to the data indicating that women didn’t finish PhD programs, and if they did, they interrupted their academic careers for marriage and children and therefore didn’t go back to catch up with their peers. They were, he concluded, “a bad investment” for the department and the university. Needless to say, with assistance from the Dean and other more progressive members of the faculty, I did finish my PhD. Then I went to New York to begin my academic career at the City University. At the end of my second semester of teaching, the department chair called me in for an evaluation. After pointing out that I was an excellent teacher and had published more than all of the other professors in the department put together, he said that he felt it necessary to be candid with me. “We have never tenured a woman, and never will; a bad investment,” he said. I immediately called a department chair at Columbia University who had been trying to recruit me and moved over there. Overt gender discrimination is now very rare, but it is still an issue. There has been considerable progress since I started my career, but it has been painfully slow, especially in science and engineering. The playing field is still not level. Growing numbers of women have earned undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees. More and more of these well-qualified scientists and engineers have sought to pursue their calling in both aca-
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering versity of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, and MRC Greenwood [IOM], Professor of Nutrition and Internal Medicine at the University of California at Davis, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author committee and the institution. In addition, we thank the guidance group that oversaw this project: NANCY HOPKINS [NAS/IOM] (Guidance Group Chair), Amgen Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts ELSA GARMIRE [NAE], Sydney E. Junkins Professor of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire W. CARL LINEBERGER [NAS], Professor of Chemistry, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado ANNE PETERSEN [IOM], President, Global Philanthropic Alliance, Kalamazoo, Michigan MAXINE SINGER [NAS/IOM], President Emerita, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC HUGO SONNENSCHEIN [NAS], Charles L. Hutchinson Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois LILLIAN SHIAO-YEN WU, Director of University Relations, International Business Machines, New York, New York MARY LOU ZOBACK [NAS], Senior Research Scientist, Earthquake Hazards Team, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Finally, we thank the staff of this project for their guidance, including Laurel Haak, program officer with COSEPUP and study director, who managed the project; John Sislin, the collaborating program officer with CWSE; Beryl Benderly, science writer; Norman Grossblatt, report editor; Rita Johnson, managing editor of reports; Judy Goss, who provided research, writing, and project support; Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Graduate Policy Fellows Ian Christensen, Erin Fry, Jennifer Hobin, Margaret Horton, and Rachael Scholz, who provided research and analytical support; Jong-On Hahm, former director of CWSE; Peter Henderson, acting director of CWSE; Mary Mattis, former senior program officer, National Academy of Engineering; Richard Bissell, executive director, and Charlotte Kuh, deputy executive director of the Policy and Global Affairs Division; and Deborah Stine, associate director of COSEPUP.
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Contents SUMMARY 1 Findings, 2 Conclusions, 4 Recommendations, 7 Call to Action, 12 1 INTRODUCTION 13 Recognizing Obstacles, 15 Defining the Issues, 22 2 LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE 24 Chapter Highlights, 24 Findings, 25 Recommendation, 26 Research Approaches, 26 Cognition, 28 Mathematical and Spatial Performance, 29 Verbal and Written Performance, 32 Longitudinal Manifestation of Cognitive Differences, 36 Biology, 37 Brain Structure and Function, 37 Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Performance, 38 Psychological Development in Infancy, 39 Evolutionary Psychology, 41
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Society and Culture, 42 Socialization of Infants and Children, 43 Education, 44 Social Effects on Women’s Cognitive Performance, 45 Conclusion, 49 3 EXAMINING PERSISTENCE AND ATTRITION 50 Chapter Highlights, 50 Findings, 51 Recommendations, 52 Course Selection in High School, 59 College-Going and Majors, 61 Undergraduate Persistence to Degree, 61 Social Factors Influencing Undergraduate Attrition, 63 College to Graduate School, 66 Graduate School, 68 Graduate School Attrition, 75 Postgraduate Career Plans, 76 Postdoctoral Appointments, 77 Professional Development and Productivity, 77 Funding Source, 78 Faculty Positions, 79 Hiring New Doctorates into Faculty Positions, 80 The “Pool”, 85 Faculty Mobility, 89 Exiting the Tenure Track, 91 Tenure, 92 Promotion, 93 Faculty Retention, 95 Departments vs. Centers, 99 Economic Impact of Faculty Attrition, 100 Case Study: Chemistry, 104 Conclusion, 109 4 SUCCESS AND ITS EVALUATION IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 113 Chapter Highlights, 113 Findings, 114 Recommendations, 115 Building a Career, 117 Productivity, 117 Sex Differences in Publication Productivity, 121 Recognition, 123
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Leadership Positions, 125 Grants and Contracts, 129 Evaluation of Leaders, 129 Evaluation of Success, 135 Gender Bias in Evaluation, 143 Understanding Discrimination, 150 Subtle, Implicit, or Unexamined Bias, 151 The Case for Diversity: “There Goes the Neighborhood?”, 153 Accountability and Evaluation, 155 Beyond Bias, 159 Conclusion, 159 5 INSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS 160 Chapter Highlights, 160 Findings, 161 Recommendations, 162 The “Ideal” Scientist or Engineer, 166 Recruitment, 167 Institutional Interactions, 169 Family Responsibilities and the Bias Against Caregivers, 174 The Maternal Wall, 176 Glass Ceilings, 179 Pioneers and Tipping Points, 180 The Legal Landscape, 189 Bringing Institutional Change, 196 Small-Win Experiments, 197 Identifying Barriers to Success in Science and Engineering, 200 Establishing an Inclusive Work Environment, 205 Integrating Work into One’s Whole Life, 207 Service Obligations, 210 Breaking the Conspiracy of Silence: Minority-Group Women Faculty, 210 Funding-Agency-Driven Institutional Transformation, 211 Conclusion, 212 6 FULFILLING THE POTENTIAL OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 214 Root Causes of Disparities, 214 Why Change is Necessary, 217 What Must Be Done: A Blueprint for Action, 219 Change Institutional Processes to Combat Bias, 219 Create New Institutional Structures, 225 Create Methods for Evaluation and Accountability, 229
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Coordinating Body, 232 Continuous Evaluation: Scorecard, 237 Federal Standards and Compliance Issues, 237 Sanctions, 239 Possible Unintended Consequences, 239 Call to Action, 240 APPENDIXES A Biographical Information 245 B Statement of Task 256 C Chapter 4, Measuring Racial Discrimination, Theories of Discrimination 258 D References 275 INDEX 301
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Figures, Tables, and Boxes FIGURES 1-1 Percentage of science and engineering PhDs awarded to women, 1974-2004, 14 1-2 Comparison of the proportion of women in PhD pools with those in tenure-track or tenured professor positions in 2003, by field, 16 3-1 Occupations of science and engineering PhDs by sector, 2002, 54 3-2 Proportion of women CAREER and PECASE awardees, 1995-2004, 79 3-3 Number of women faculty in the School of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1963-2006, 85 3-4 Biological and health sciences applicant pool and faculty positions at the University of California, Berkeley, 2001-2004, 87 3-5 Physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering applicant pool and faculty positions at the University of California, Berkeley, 2001-2004, 88 3-6 Advancing through the ranks: University of California, Berkeley, faculty, by sex and field, 94 3-7 Comparison of the number of men and women chemistry faculty members at RI institutions, 107 4-1 Individual and perceived institutional value of student mentoring, by rank and sex, 119
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering 4-2 University of California faculty, 30-50 years old, self-reported hours per week engaged in professional work, housework, and caregiving, 121 4-3 Average NIH research grant award to women and men by budget category, FY 2004, 142 5-1 Percent of women and men doctoral scientists and engineers in tenured or tenure-track positions, by sex, marital status, and presence of children, 2003, 171 5-2 Spousal employment of science and engineering PhDs, 30-44 years old in 1999: Married PhDs, 172 5-3 Employment expertise of spouses of science and engineering PhDs, 30-44 years old in 1999: Married PhDs with employed spouses, 173 TABLES S-1 Evidence Refuting Commonly Held Beliefs About Women in Science and Engineering, 5 2-1 The Magnitude (“d”) of Sex Differences in Mathematics Performance, by Age and Test Cognitive Level, 36 3-1 Percentage of High School Graduates Completing Advanced Coursework in Mathematics and Science, by Sex and Year of Graduation, 60 3-2 Percentages of First-Year College Students Intending to Major in Science and Engineering, by Sex and Race or Ethnicity, 2004, 62 3-3 Number of Bachelor’s Degrees in Science and Engineering, by Sex and Race or Ethnicity, 2001, 64 3-4 Top Reasons for Leaving Science, Engineering, or Mathematics Undergraduate Degree Program, by Sex, 67 3-5 Number of PhD Degrees Awarded in Science and Engineering, by Race or Ethnicity and Sex, 2003, 70 3-6 Primary Source of Support (Percent) for US Citizen and Permanent Resident Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Sex and Race or Ethnicity, 1999-2003, 73 3-7 Top 10 US Baccalaureate Institutions of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, 1999-2003, 74 3-8 Location and Type of Planned Postgraduate Study for US Citizens and Permanent Resident Science and Engineering PhD Recipients, by Sex, 2003, 76
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering 3-9 Bachelor’s Degree Recipients Compared with Faculty, by Sex and Field, 2002, 80 3-10 Reasons for Job Change by Sex, All Faculty Ranks, All Fields, 1995-2003, 92 3-11 Average Start-up Packages for Assistant Professors in Selected Fields Starting in 2000-2001 at Public Research I Universities, 102 3-12 Start-up Costs Associated with New Professors, 103 3-13 2001 Chemistry Faculty Members, by Country of Doctorate, 106 3-14 Chemistry Faculty, by Sex and Rank, 2001, 107 3-15 Proportion of Chemistry Doctorates Who Obtain Chemistry Faculty Positions at Research I Institutions, by Sex and Year of PhD, 108 3-16 Institutions Training the Greatest Number of Chemistry Faculty at Research Institutions, by Sex and Year of PhD, 109 3-17 Number of Faculty Hired at Selected Research I Institutions, by Sex, 1988-1997, 110 3-18 Women PhD Chemists Working Full-Time at PhD-Granting Institutions, by Rank and Sex, 1990-2005, 111 4-1 Percentage of Women Nominated to an Honorific Society or for a Prestigious Award and the Percentage of Women Nominees Elected or Awarded, 1996-2005, 128 4-2 Percentage of Women Chief Editors at Top-Ranked Journals, by Field, 133 4-3 Department of Energy National Laboratories Leadership Positions, 136 4-4 National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center Leadership Positions, 138 4-5 National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center Leadership Positions, 140 C-1 Map of the Potential Points of Discrimination within Five Domains, 271 BOXES Controversies 2-3 The Evolution of Motivation, 42 3-1 Models of Faculty Representation, 56
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Defining the Issues 1-1 Diversity among Women, 18 1-2 Building Engineering and Science Talent: The CAWMSET and BEST Projects, 20 2-2 The Variability Hypothesis, 34 3-3 Academic Medicine, 82 3-5 Factors Affecting Faculty Attrition, 96 5-1 Universities Reaffirm Pledge for Gender Equity, 180 5-3 A Primer on Anti-discrimination Laws, 192 5-4 Types of Discrimination Banned under the Anti-discrimination Laws, 195 5-8 Creating Flexibility in Tenure-Track Faculty Careers, 201 5-10 Women’s Initiative, Duke University, 204 6-2 The Harvard University Task Force on Women in Science and Engineering, 220 6-9 Title IX, 239 6-10 Elephants in the Room, 242 Focus on Research 1-3 Committee on Women in Science and Engineering: Gender Differences in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty, 22 2-1 Meta-analysis, 27 2-4 Stereotype Threat, 46 4-5 Blinded Peer Review, 146 4-7 Making Diversity Work, 156 4-9 Top Research Articles on the Effects of Bias on Evaluation, 158 5-2 Workplace Pioneers: “Men in Skirts”, 183 6-1 Benefits of Presumed Competence, 216 Experiments and Strategies 3-2 Carnegie Mellon’s Women in Computer Science Program, 68 3-6 Task Force on the Retention and Promotion of Junior Faculty, Yale Women Faculty Forum, 100 3-7 The University of Washington Faculty Retention Toolkit, 105 4-1 Speaker Representation at Scientific and Professional Society Meetings, 126 4-2 Pioneer Award, 130 4-3 Breaking through the “Polycarbonate Ceiling”—The Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists, 132
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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering 4-4 Center for Research on Learning and Teaching (CRLT) Theater Program: NSF ADVANCE at the University of Michigan, 144 4-6 Searching for Excellence and Diversity: Workshops for Search Committee Chairs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, 148 4-8 Specific Steps for Overcoming Bias, 158 5-5 National Science Foundation ADVANCE Program, 196 5-7 Deloitte and Touche: Leadership in Industry Case Study, 200 5-9 Women in Cell Biology, 203 6-3 Improving the Retention of Junior Faculty Case Study: Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force, 222 6-4 Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute: Climate Workshops for Department Chairs, 224 6-5 Building Strong Academic Chemistry Departments through Gender Equity, 226 6-6 Stanford University’s Childbirth Policy for Female Graduate Students, 228 6-7 Financial Support for Dependent Care, 230 Tracking and Evaluation 3-4 The Association of American Medical Colleges’ Faculty Roster, the American Chemical Society Directory of Graduate Research, and the American Institute of Physics Academic Workforce Survey, 90 5-6 The Alfred P. Sloan Awards for Faculty Career Flexibility, 198 6-8 Scorecard for Evaluating How Well Research Universities Serve Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 234
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