Assimilation of outsiders leads to feelings of inauthenticity—for women, the “men in skirts” phenomenon.t At the same time, some argue that there is little reason to assume that outsiders placed in an organization will be able to withstand pressure to conform.

Convergence. In workplace situations where repeated personal interaction is required, game theory indicates that cooperation is the preferred strategy, particularly where players are able to monitor each otheru or mobility is low,v two conditions that often exist in the workplace. To achieve cooperation among diverse group members, research shows that creating a convergent environment in which group members are seen as individuals rather than group members reduces between-group differences and creates a common in-group identity—everyone rooting for the same team.w Empirical research shows that only the convergence per


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ticipating in significant decisions. Even more striking, those extremely accomplished scientists reported that their sense of marginalization had grown as their careers advanced. Early in their careers, they, like their junior colleagues of today, had believed “that gender discrimination was ‘solved’ in the previous generation and would not touch them. Gradually, however, their eyes were opened to the realization that the playing field was not level after all.”51


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