Index

A

Academic careers. See Career building

Academic institutions. See College attendance;

Universities

Academic medicine, 82−84

culture of, 83

Academic milestones, 228

Academic Workforce Survey, 89−90

Acceptance, 185

Access to resources, 122

Accountability

and evaluation, 150, 155−159

methods for changing institutional processes to combat bias, 229−232

Action blueprint, 219−241

changing institutional processes to combat bias, 219−225

Adelman, Cliff, 55

ADVANCE program, 144−145, 155, 196−197, 211

Advising, 221

Age of Discrimination Act of 1975, 191

Agenda for Excellence: Creating Flexibility in Tenure-Track Faculty Careers, 201, 209

Alfred P. Sloan Awards, for faculty career flexibility, 198

Allport, Gordon, 260

Ambiguous and ambivalent prejudice, 264

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 124

American Association of University Women (AAUW), 191, 207−208

American Chemical Society, Directory of Graduate Research, 89−90, 104

American Council on Education (ACE), 9, 163, 198−199, 201, 209, 233

American Institute of Physics, Academic Workforce Survey, 89−90

American Philosophical Society, 124

American Physical Society (APS), 177, 202, 212

American Psychological Association (APA), 205−206

American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), 126−127, 203

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 194

Anti-discrimination laws

discrimination types banned under, 195

federal agencies enforcing, 11, 164−165

primer on, 192−194

Antiracists, 263

Applicant pool, 195

in physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering, and faculty positions, 88

Aronson, Josh, 46

Assimilation, of outsiders, 186



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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Index A Academic careers. See Career building Academic institutions. See College attendance; Universities Academic medicine, 82−84 culture of, 83 Academic milestones, 228 Academic Workforce Survey, 89−90 Acceptance, 185 Access to resources, 122 Accountability and evaluation, 150, 155−159 methods for changing institutional processes to combat bias, 229−232 Action blueprint, 219−241 changing institutional processes to combat bias, 219−225 Adelman, Cliff, 55 ADVANCE program, 144−145, 155, 196−197, 211 Advising, 221 Age of Discrimination Act of 1975, 191 Agenda for Excellence: Creating Flexibility in Tenure-Track Faculty Careers, 201, 209 Alfred P. Sloan Awards, for faculty career flexibility, 198 Allport, Gordon, 260 Ambiguous and ambivalent prejudice, 264 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 124 American Association of University Women (AAUW), 191, 207−208 American Chemical Society, Directory of Graduate Research, 89−90, 104 American Council on Education (ACE), 9, 163, 198−199, 201, 209, 233 American Institute of Physics, Academic Workforce Survey, 89−90 American Philosophical Society, 124 American Physical Society (APS), 177, 202, 212 American Psychological Association (APA), 205−206 American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), 126−127, 203 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 194 Anti-discrimination laws discrimination types banned under, 195 federal agencies enforcing, 11, 164−165 primer on, 192−194 Antiracists, 263 Applicant pool, 195 in physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering, and faculty positions, 88 Aronson, Josh, 46 Assimilation, of outsiders, 186

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Association for Women in Science (AWIS), 202 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), Faculty Roster, 79, 89−90 Association of American Universities, 9, 163, 233 Attainment, vs. intention, 63 Attrition. See Faculty attrition Automatic discrimination, 262−265 Avoidance, as intentional discrimination, 261, 263 Awards, 52 B Bachelors degrees. See Science and engineering undergraduate degree programs Backlash, 184, 188 Barriers to success in science and engineering, identifying, 200−205 Berg, Jeremy, 131 Bias avoidance behaviors, 179 Biases. See also Subtle bias and discrimination against caregivers, and family obligations, 174−175 effects on evaluation, top research articles on, 158 evidence establishing that most men and women hold implicit, findings concerning, 3 moving beyond, 159 specific steps for overcoming, 158, 242 against women, 114, 215 Biological, Social, and Organizational Components of Success for Women in Academic Science and Engineering, xiii, 19, 22 Biology, 37−42 brain structure and function, 37−38 evolutionary psychology, 41−42 hormonal influences on cognitive performance, 38−39 and learning and performance, 37−42 psychological development in infancy, 39−41 Blinded peer review, 146−147 Blueprint for action, 219−241 changing institutional processes to combat bias, 219−225 Boring, EG, 42 Brain structure and function, 25, 37−38 Building Engineering and Science Talent (BEST) Initiative, 20−21, 57 Talent Imperative: Diversifying America’s Science and Engineering Workforce, 21 Bullying behavior, 181, 242 C Call to action, 12, 241−243 Career building, 117−125 models of, 160 productivity, 117−120 progress in, 113 recognition, 123−125 sex differences in publication productivity, 121−123 success and its evaluation in science and engineering, 117−125 Career flexibility, Alfred P. Sloan Awards for faculty, 198 Career Lunch Table program, 203 Caregivers, family obligations and the bias against, 161, 164−165, 174−175 Carnegie Mellon University, Women in Computer Science Program, 68 Ceilings. See Glass ceiling; “Polycarbonate ceiling” Census Bureau, current nomenclature of ethnicity, 15n Center for Research on Learning and Teaching (CRLT) Theater Program, 226 NSF ADVANCE program at the University of Michigan, 144−145 Chait, Richard, 18 Changes needed, xiv, 217−218 building, 196−205 to combat bias in institutional processes, 219−241 coordinating body, 232−237 creating methods for evaluation and accountability, 229−232 creating new institutional structures, 225−229 economic reasons, 218 ethical reasons, 218 federal standards and compliance issues, 238−240

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering global competitiveness, 217−218 identifying barriers to success in science and engineering, 200−205 institutional constraints bringing, 196−205 legal reasons, 218 possible unintended consequences, 239−241 and sanctions, 239 scorecard for continuous evaluation, 238 small-win experiments, 197−200 systemic, 155 Chemistry departments, academic, building strong, through gender equity, 226−227 Chemistry faculty case study, 104−109 chemistry doctorates who obtain positions at Research I institutions, 108 comparison of the number of men and women at RI institutions, 107 by country of doctorate, 106 by sex and rank, 107 Chemistry research, major federal funders of, 224, 226−227 Child-care costs of covered by grants or reimbursements from scientific and professional societies to members, 231 on-site, from scientific and professional societies, at a supplemental rate using a high-quality provider, 231 Child Care Grant Subsidy (CCGS), 230 Childbirth policy, for female graduate students, 72, 228−229 Childcare Voucher Program, 230 Children, socialization of, 43−44 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 192, 238 pressures associated with, 81 Clare Boothe Luce (CBL) program, 211−212 Climate Workshops for Department Chairs, 224−225 Cognition, 28−37 hormonal influences on performance, 38−39 and learning and performance, 28−37 longitudinal manifestation of differences in, 36−37 mathematical and spatial performance, 29−32 verbal and written performance, 32−36 Cohen, Jacob, 27 Cohort analysis, 93 College attendance examining persistence and attrition, 61−66 graduate school persistence and attrition, 66−76 and majors, 61−66 social factors influencing undergraduate attrition, 63−66 undergraduate persistence to degree, 61−63 Collegiality, 153 Columbia University, xi, 97, 208 Commission on the Status of Women, 204 Commitment, sustaining, 220 Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering, xii, 1, 19 Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, xii, 1 Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists (COACh), 125, 132, 180, 197, 226−227 Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE), 19 Gender Differences in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty, 19, 22 To Recruit and Advance Women Students and Faculty in US Science and Engineering, 19 Competence, 143, 153 presumed, benefits of, 216 Competitiveness, consequences of failure to act as detrimental to the nation’s, findings concerning, 4, 241 Compliance, 164−165, 240 Composite information, funding agencies and foundations collecting, storing, and publishing, 10, 116 Conclusions, 4−6 on institutional constraints, 212−213 on learning and performance, 49 on persistence and attrition, 109−112 on success and its evaluation in science and engineering, 159

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Conflicts between personal and professional life, 84 and faculty retention, 97 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 38 Congress, recommendations to, 12, 165 Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology (CAWMSET) Project, building science and engineering talent with, 15, 20−21 Congruence, 135. See also Role congruity theory Conspiracy of silence, about minority-group women faculty, breaking, 210−211 Constitutional claim, of equal protection, 193 Continuous evaluation scorecard, in changing institutional processes to combat bias, 238 Contracts, for leadership positions, 129 Controversies, 23 the evolution of motivation, 42 models of faculty representation, 56−58 Convergence, 187 Coordinating body, in changing institutional processes to combat bias, 232−237 Cornell University, Child Care Grant Subsidy, 230 Course selection, in high school, and persistence and attrition, 59−61 Cover up. See Conspiracy of silence Creativity, increasing, 153 “Critical mass,” 187 CRLT Players, 144 Cross-institutional strategy, 224, 226−227, 242 Culture. See also Society and culture of academic medicine, 83 auditing, 156 within departments, 225 Cumulative disadvantage, 272−273 across generations and through history, 272 over time through the course of an individual’s life across different domains, 272−273 over time through the course of an individual’s life sequentially within any one domain, 273 Curricula vitae, 145−146 D Dartmouth University, 208, 229 childbirth policy for female graduate students, 72 David and Lucille Packard Foundation, Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, 231 Deans, recommendations for, 8, 52, 115−116, 257 Decision making, 266 departmental, 206 Decreasing isolation, in the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force study, 222 Defining issues. See Dynamic definitions of discrimination; Issues defined Degrees. See Science and engineering doctorate recipients; Science and engineering undergraduate degree programs Deloitte and Touche Leadership in Industry Case Study, 200, 202, 207 Department chairs, recommendations for, 8, 52, 115−116, 257 Department of Agriculture, 12, 165 Department of Defense, 12, 165, 192, 239 Department of Education, 12, 32, 164−165, 192, 239 Office of Civil Rights, 239 Department of Energy (DOE), 12, 132, 165, 224, 226 national laboratories leadership positions, 129 Department of Justice, 11, 164, 238n, 239 Department of Labor, 11−12, 164−165, 193 Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, 238n Departmental decision making, 206 Departments academic, building strong, through gender equity, 226−227 climate within, and faculty retention, 97−98, 105 vs. centers, 99 Dependent care expenses, funding agencies and foundations enabling use of grant monies for, 10 Dependent Care Fund for Conference Travel, 230 Differences in salaries between groups, and faculty retention, 95−96

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Directory of Graduate Research (DGR), 89−90 Disciplinary endogamy, 177 Discrimination federal agencies evaluating whether universities have engaged in any types of, 11 within five domains, map of potential points of, 271 understanding, 150−151 Discrimination cumulating over time through the course of an individual’s life across different domains, 272−273 sequentially within any one domain, 273 Discrimination law, 267 Discrimination types, 260−269 intentional, explicit discrimination, 260−262 organizational processes, 267−269 statistical discrimination and profiling, 265−267 subtle, unconscious, automatic discrimination, 262−265 Discrimination types banned under anti-discrimination laws, 195 disparate impact discrimination, 195 failure to maintain required policies and procedures, 195 intentional discrimination, 195 retaliation, 195 sexual harassment, 195 Disparities disparate impact discrimination banned, 195 root causes of, 214−217 Diversity capturing workforce talent, 154, 166 the case for, 153−155 within departments, 105 faculty development and, 221 federal agencies encouraging and providing technical assistance on achieving, 11−12 making it work, 156−157 among women, 18−19 Division of Genetics and Developmental Biology, 131 Doctorate degrees. See Science and engineering doctorate recipients Domains map of potential points of discrimination within five, 271 in which discrimination operates, 270−272 Dual-career marriages, 170 Duke University, 94 Women’s Initiative, 203−204 Dynamic definitions of discrimination effects of discrimination as cumulating across different domains, 272−273 effects of discrimination as cumulating across generations and through history, 272 effects of discrimination as cumulating sequentially within any one domain, 273 moving to, from episodic, 272−273 E Economics impact of faculty attrition, 100−104 and the necessity of change, 218 Education, 44−45 documenting, 266 in the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force study, 222 Effect size, 27 “Elephants in the room,” 242 Employers for Work-Life Balance, 207 Engineering. See Science and engineering Episodic definitions of discrimination, moving to dynamic, 272−273 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 11−12, 164−165, 192, 194−195, 238n Equal Pay Act of 1963, 190, 193 Equal protection, a constitutional claim, 193 Ethics, and the necessity of change, 218 Evaluation. See also Monitoring and evaluation criteria for often containing arbitrary and subjective components that disadvantage women, findings concerning, 3−4 of leaders, 129−135 Evaluation of success in science and engineering, 135−159 accountability and, 155−159

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering the case for diversity, 153−155 gender bias in, 143−150 subtle, implicit, or unexamined bias, 151−153 understanding discrimination, 150−151 Evolution of motivation, controversy over, 42 Evolutionary psychology, 41−42 Exclusion, as intentional discrimination, 261 Executive Order 11246, 190, 193, 195, 238 Experimental psychology, 42 Experiments and strategies, 23 breaking through the “polycarbonate ceiling,” 132 building strong academic chemistry departments through gender equity, 226−227 Carnegie Mellon’s Women in Computer Science Program, 68 Center for Research on Learning and Teaching Theater Program, 144−145 climate workshops for department chairs, 224−225 Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists, 132 Deloitte and Touche Leadership in Industry Case Study, 200 financial support for dependent care, 230−232 improving the retention of junior faculty case study, 222−223 National Science Foundation ADVANCE Program, 196−197 Pioneer Award, 130−131 searching for excellence and diversity, 148−150 speaker representation at scientific and professional society meetings, 126−127 specific steps for overcoming bias, 158 Stanford University’s childbirth policy for female graduate students, 228−229 Task Force on the Retention and Promotion of Junior Faculty, Yale Women Faculty Forum, 100−101 University of Washington Faculty Retention Toolkit, 105 Women in Cell Biology, 203 Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute, 224−225 workshops for search committee chairs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, 148−150 Explicit discrimination, 260−262 Extermination, as intentional discrimination, 262 F Faculty Advising Faculty Handbook, 145 Faculty attrition, 50−112. See also Chemistry faculty case study of chemistry, 104−109 chapter highlights, 50−51 college attendance, and majors, 61−66 college to graduate school, 66−76 conclusion, 109−112 course selection in high school, 59−61 economic impact of, 100−104 factors affecting, 96 findings, 51−52 postdoctoral appointments, 77−78 postgraduate career plans, 76 recommendations, 52−59 Faculty development and diversity, 221 in the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force study, 223 midcareer, 105 Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) award, 78 Faculty positions, 52, 79−99, 218, 221, 257. See also Tenure-track faculty careers departments vs. centers, 99 examining persistence and attrition, 79−99 exiting the tenure track, 91−92 hiring new doctorates into, 80−85, 103 mobility within, 51, 89−92, 174 the “pool,” 85−88 promotion, 93−95 Faculty representation, controversy over models of, 56−58 Faculty retention, 95−99 conflicts between personal and professional life, 97 department climate and a supportive work environment, 97−98

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering differences in salaries between groups, 95−96 tenure policies and procedures, 96−97 Failure to act, consequences of, as detrimental to the nation’s competitiveness, 4 Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), 190−191, 194, 207 Family-friendly policies, 162 Family obligations. See also Maternal wall and the bias against caregivers, institutional interactions reflecting, 174−175 enabling academic science careers in the context of, 221 Family responsibilities discrimination. See Maternal wall Federal agencies, 229, 257 encompassing a broad number and range of institutions in their review, 11 encouraging and providing technical assistance on achieving diversity, 11−12 evaluating whether universities have engaged in any types of discrimination, 11 recommendations to, 11−12, 52, 116 Federal enforcement agencies, enforcing the federal anti-discrimination laws, 11, 164−165 Federal standards and compliance issues, in changing institutional processes to combat bias, 238−240 Federation of Clinical Immunological Societies (FOCIS), 127 Feminist colleagues, supporting, 242 Financial support for dependent care, 230−232 from funding agencies and organizations, 231−232 from scientific and professional societies, 230−231 Findings, 2−4 academic organizational structures and rules contributing significantly to the underuse of women in academic science and engineering, 4 consequences of failure to act as detrimental to the nation’s competitiveness, 4 evaluation criteria often containing arbitrary and subjective components that disadvantage women, 3−4 evidence establishing that most men and women hold implicit biases, 3 examining persistence and attrition, 51−52 on institutional constraints, 161−162 on learning and performance, 25−26 problem lying not only in the pipeline, 2−3 on success and its evaluation in science and engineering, 114−115 women as likely to face discrimination in every field of science and engineering, 3 women as possessing the ability and drive to succeed in science and engineering, 2 women who are interested in science and engineering being lost at every educational transition, 2, 51 First-author papers, 77 Flexibility, in tenure-track faculty careers, 105, 201, 207 Foundations. See Funding agencies and foundations Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Postdoc Childcare Subsidy Program, 230 Funding agencies and foundations, 10−11, 231−232, 257. See also individual agencies and foundations collecting, storing, and publishing composite information, 10 creating additional funding mechanisms, 10 enabling use of grant monies for dependent care expenses, 10 establishing policies for extending grant support, 11 expanding support for research, 11 funding postdoctoral appointments, 78 institutional transformation driven by, and institutional constraints, 211−212 providing workshops, 10 recommendations to, 10−11, 116, 163−164

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering G Gender-congruent roles, 135 Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs, 15 Gender Differences in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty, 22 Gender discrimination, xi, 143−150 Gender equity, 143 bringing about, 112, 243 role of leadership in achieving, 116 universities reaffirming pledge for, 180 Generations, effects of discrimination as cumulating across, 272 Georgi, Howard, 167 Georgia Institute of Technology, Program for Institutional Transformation, 197 Glass ceiling. See also Maternal wall institutional interactions reflecting, 152, 179−180 Global competitiveness, and the necessity of change, 1, 13, 217−218 Gordon Research Conferences, 127 Government Accountability Office, 15 Graduate Record Examination scores, 75 Graduate school students, 55, 68−75 attrition of, 75−76 childbirth policy for female, 72, 228−229 Grants extending support from, funding agencies and foundations establishing policies for, 11 for leadership positions, 129 from scientific and professional societies to members to cover child-care costs, 231 Greenberg, Judith, 131 Group problem solving, 153 Guiterrez, Carlos, 45 H Halpern, Diane F., 29 Harvard University, 108, 167, 208 Dependent Care Fund for Conference Travel, 230 enabling academic science careers in the context of family obligations, 221 faculty development and diversity, 221 mentoring and advising, 221 Study of New Scholars, 96 sustaining commitment, 220 Task Force on Women Faculty, 18, 220−221 Task Force on Women in Science and Engineering, 18, 212, 219−221 Hate crimes, 262 Hazard analysis, 92 High school course selection and persistence and attrition, 59−61 graduates completing advanced coursework in mathematics and science, 60 High-threat condition, 48 Higher education organizations. See also College attendance; Universities recommendations for, 9, 163 Higher Education Research Institute, 98 Hildred Blewitt Scholarship, 212 Hiring, through word-of-mouth recommendations, 268 Hirsh, Elizabeth, 191 History, effects of discrimination as cumulating throughout, 272 Honorary societies, 1 recommendations for, 10, 116 Hopkins, Nancy, 81 Hormonal influences, on cognitive performance, 38−39 Human capital, 216 Human Frontier Science Program, 57 I “Ideal” scientist or engineer, and institutional constraints, 165−167 “Identity-blind” practices, 187 Inclusive work environment institutional constraints for establishing, 205−210 integrating work into one’s whole life, 207−210 service obligations, 210 Infancy psychological development in, 39−41 socialization in, 43−44 Information composite, funding agencies and foundations collecting, storing, and publishing, 10 limited or missing, 266

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Innate abilities, 215 Institute of Medicine, 2, 124 Institution-wide transformations, 162 Institutional constraints, 160−213, 256 breaking the conspiracy of silence about minority-group women faculty, 210−211 bringing institutional change, 196−205 chapter highlights, 160−161 conclusion, 212−213 establishing an inclusive work environment, 205−210 findings, 161−162 funding-agency-driven institutional transformation, 211−212 and the “ideal” scientist or engineer, 166−167 the legal landscape, 189−196 pioneers and tipping points, 180−188 recommendations on, 162−165 recruitment, 167−169 Institutional interactions, 169−180 cross-institutional strategy, 224, 226−227 family responsibilities, and the bias against caregivers, 174−175 glass ceilings, 179−180 the maternal wall, 176−179 Institutional structures, new, in changing institutional processes to combat bias, 1, 225−229 Institutions federal agencies encompassing a broad enough number and range of, in their reviews, 11 where the greatest number of chemistry faculty at research institutions were trained, 109 “Intangible” environment, 238−240 Integration of available data on gender issues across all fields of science and engineering, 256 of work into one’s whole life, 207−210 Intention vs. attainment, 63 Intentional discrimination avoidance, 261 banned under anti-discrimination laws, 195 exclusion, 261 explicit, 260−262 extermination, 262 physical attacks, 262 segregation, 261−262 verbal antagonism, 260−261 Inter-institution monitoring organization, 232 InterAcademy Council (IAC), 124 Interactions institutional, 169−180 social, 54 International Congress of Immunology, 127 Isolation, decreasing in the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force study, 222 Issues defined, 22−23 academic medicine, 82−84 anti-discrimination laws, 192−194 building engineering and science talent, 20−21 creating flexibility in tenure-track faculty careers, 201 diversity among women, 18−19 “elephants in the room,” 242 faculty attrition, 96 Title IX, 239 types of discrimination banned under the anti-discrimination laws, 195 universities reaffirming pledge for gender equity, 180 the variability hypothesis, 34−35 J Jackson, Shirley, 154 Job change, in all faculty ranks and fields, reasons for, 91−92 Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine academic rewards, 223 decreased isolation, 222 education, 222 faculty development, 223 Improving the Retention of Junior Faculty Case Study, 222−223 leadership, 222 monitoring and evaluation, 223 Task Force on Women’s Academic Careers in Medicine, 222−223 Journals, 143−144 recommendations for, 10, 116

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering K Keystone Symposia, 127 KiddieCorp, 231 L Land of Plenty: Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering, and Technology, 20 Language functions, lateralization of, 37 Lasker Prize, 124 Lawyers Life Coach, 121 Leadership positions, 1, 125−135, 152, 179, 188, 242, 257 evaluation of leaders, 129−135 grants and contracts for, 129 in the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force study, 222 success and its evaluation in science and engineering, 125−135 Learning and performance, 24−49 in biology, 37−42 chapter highlights, 24−25 in cognition, 28−37 conclusion, 49 findings, 25−26 recommendation, 26 research approaches, 26−28 in society and culture, 42−49 Leave-of-absence policies, 194, 228 Legal standards comparison with the four types of discrimination, 269−270 landscape of institutional constraints, 189−196 law and the necessity of change, 218 Letters of recommendation, 144 Lovell v. BBNT Solutions, LLC, 193 M Marriages dual-career, 170 PhDs with employed spouses, 173 Mass killings, 262 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 1, 81, 94−98, 206, 218, 224 Report on Women Faculty in the School of Science, 85 Maternal wall, institutional interactions reflecting, 176−179 Mathematical performance, 29−32 magnitude (“d”) of sex differences in, 36 Mathematics and science, percentage of high school graduates completing advanced coursework in, 60 Mathematics undergraduate degree programs, top reasons for leaving, 67 Measuring Racial Discrimination, 23, 258−274 Medewar, Peter, 26 Media portrayals, of nonwhites versus whites, 262 Medicine, academic, 82−84 Mental rotation ability, 39 Mentoring, 105, 221 of junior faculty, 143, 156, 205−206 of students, individual and perceived institutional value of, 119 Meritocratic system of rewards, 3, 142, 215 Meta-analysis, 27, 33 Millett, Catherine, 71 Minorities. See Racial discrimination; Women Minority-group women faculty, breaking the conspiracy of silence about, 210−211 Mobility, within faculty positions, 89−91, 174 Models, of faculty representation, controversy over, 56−58 Monitoring and evaluation, in the Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force study, 223 Monks, James, 233 Motherhood, 175, 225. See also Maternal wall Motivation, controversy over the evolution of, 42 N Nanny Network, 231 National Academies, 1, 13, 22−23 National Academy of Engineering, 2, 124 National Academy of Sciences, 2, 124 Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, 19 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 12, 165, 192, 239

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 28−29 National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, 9, 163, 233 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), 163, 232, 240 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 59 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 232 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 131 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 12, 165 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 12, 129, 165, 192, 224, 226, 232, 239 average research grant award to women and men, 142 Mentored Research Scientist Development Award K01 grant mechanism, 212 Pathway to Independence Award, 78 Pioneer Award, 124, 130−131 Roadmap for Medical Research, 130 Small Business Innovation Research Program, 129 Small Business Technology Transfer Program, 129 National Medal of Science, 124 National Research Council, 56−57 Research Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change, 86 National Science Foundation (NSF), 12, 120, 132, 165, 192, 224, 226, 239 ADVANCE program, 144−145, 155, 196−197, 211 Engineering Research Center leadership positions, 138−139 Faculty Early Career Development awards, 78−79 Science and Technology Center leadership positions, 140−141 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 52, 86, 89 Net present value model, 104 Nettles, Michael, 71 New doctorates, hiring into faculty positions, 80−85 New institutional structures, in changing institutional processes to combat bias, 225−229 “New normal,” 112, 241 New professors, start-up costs associated with, 103 Nine-University Statement on Gender Equity, 241 Nomenclature of ethnicity, current, 15n Northwestern University, 210 NSF. See National Science Foundation O Obstacles, recognizing, 15−22 Occupations of science and engineering PhDs, by sector, 54 O’Connor, Sandra Day, 13 Office of Civil Rights (OCR), 12, 239 Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, 193, 238n On-site child-care, from scientific and professional societies, at a supplemental rate using a high-quality provider, 231 Organizational processes development, 156 discriminatory, 267−269 pyramidal hierarchy, 216 Ostrow, Ellen, 121 Outgroups, people’s reactions to, 263 P Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, 231 Parenting. See Maternal wall Pathway to Independence Award, 78 Peer review, 77, 117−118, 143, 146−147 blinded, 146−147 Penk v. Oregon State Board of Higher Education, 191 Performance judgments of, 117 learning and, 24−49 mathematical, 29−32, 36 spatial, 29−32 verbal and written, 32−36 Persistence, 50−112 case study in chemistry, 104−109

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering chapter highlights, 50−51 college attendance, and majors, 61−66 college to graduate school, 66−76 conclusion, 109−112 course selection in high school, 59−61 economic impact of faculty attrition, 100−104 faculty positions, 79−99 findings, 51−52 postdoctoral appointments, 77−78 postgraduate career plans, 76 recommendations, 52−59 PhD pools, proportion of women in, 16−17 Physical attacks, as intentional discrimination, 262 Pioneer Award, 124, 130−131 Pioneers, institutional constraints on, 180−188 Pipeline, 56 findings concerning problems with, 2−3 science, engineering, and technology, 20 “Polycarbonate ceiling,” breaking through, 132 The “pool,” 85−88 proportion of women in, 16−17 Postdoc Childcare Subsidy Program, 230 Postdoctoral appointments, 77−78 examining persistence and attrition, 77−78 funding source, 78 professional development and productivity from, 77−78 Postgraduate career plans, and examining persistence and attrition, 76 Potential of women in academic science and engineering unfulfilled, 214−243 blueprint for action, 219−241 call to action, 12, 241−243 changing institutional processes to combat bias, 219−241 reasons change is necessary, 217−218 root causes of disparities, 214−217 Potential points of discrimination, within five domains, map of, 271 Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), 190, 193 Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), 78 women awardees, 79 Presumed competence, benefits of, 216 Primary Caregiver Technical Assistance Supplements, 232 Primer on anti-discrimination laws, 192−194 Americans with Disabilities Act, 194 Equal Pay Act, 193 equal protection, 193 Executive Order 11246, 193 Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 194 Pregnancy Discrimination Act, 193 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 192 Title IX, 192 Princeton University, 218, 224 Problem solving differences in, 36 group, 153 Productivity and building a career, 113, 117−120 from postdoctoral appointments, 77−78 Professional development, 116 from postdoctoral appointments, 77−78 Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education (POWRE), 98−99, 196 Professional societies, 9−10 honorary societies, 10 journals, 10 recommendations to, 9−10, 52−53 scientific and professional societies, 9−10 Professors, start-up costs associated with new, 103 Profiling, 265−267 Profits, increasing, 153 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 33 Promotions, 52, 93−95 Provosts, recommendations for, 7−8 Provost’s Committee on the Status of Women, 222 Psychiatric disorders, 37 Psychological development, in infancy, 39−41 Publication productivity, and building a career, sex differences in, 113, 121−123 Pyramidal organizational hierarchy, 216

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Q Quigley, Jim, 202 R Racial discrimination, 259−263 racial steering, 268 in US society, 151, 267 RAND Corp., 15 Recognition, and building a career, 123−125 Recommendations, 7−12 to Congress, 12 for examining persistence and attrition, 52−59 to federal agencies, 11−12 to funding agencies and foundations, 10−11 on institutional constraints, 162−165 on learning and performance, 26 to professional societies and higher education organizations, 9−10 on success and its evaluation in science and engineering, 115−117 to universities, 7−9 Recruitment, 52 institutional constraints on, 167−169 targeted, 156 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 191 Reimbursements, from scientific and professional societies to members to cover child-care costs, 231 Report on Women Faculty in the School of Science, 85 Representation. See Faculty representation Required policies and procedures, failure to maintain banned under anti-discrimination laws, 195 Research approaches, 23 benefits of presumed competence, 216 blinded peer review, 146−147 gender differences in the careers of science, engineering, and mathematics faculty, 22 gender factors in, 118 to learning and performance, 26−28 making diversity work, 156−157 meta-analysis, 27 stereotype threat, 46−47 top research articles on the effects of bias on evaluation, 158 workplace pioneers as “Men in Skirts,” 183−187 Research I (R1) institutions, 22, 74, 86, 91−93, 104−108, 123 chemistry faculty positions at, 108 number of faculty hired at, selected by sex, 110 Research productivity. See Productivity Research project grants (RPGs), 129 Resources, access to, 122 Retaliation, banned under anti-discrimination laws, 195 Retention. See Faculty retention “Review” paradigm, 93 Rising Above the Gathering Storm, 13 Roadmap for Medical Research, 130 Role congruity theory, 65 RPGs. See Research project grants Rutgers University, 98 S Salaries, 52. See also Differences in salaries between groups average start-up packages for assistant professors in selected fields starting at public Research I universities, 102 Sanctions, in changing institutional processes to combat bias, 239 Schmader, Toni, 46 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 24−25, 28−35, 46 Schultz, George, 85 Science engineering and mathematics (SEM) careers, 34−35, 45, 66, 69 and technology (SET) pipeline, 20 technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty, 168 Science and engineering applicant pool and faculty positions at the University of California, Berkeley, 88 identifying barriers to success in, 200−205 welcoming and encouraging all our nation’s people to excel in, 243

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Science and engineering doctorate recipients (of PhDs) 30-44 years old, spousal employment of, 172−173 hiring new doctorates into faculty positions, 80−85 location and type of planned postgraduate study for US citizens and permanent resident, by sex, 76 occupations of, by sector, 54 percentage of women, 14 by race or ethnicity and sex, 70−71 in tenured or tenure-track positions, by sex, marital status, and presence of children, 171 top 10 US baccalaureate institutions of, 74 Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act of 1980, 218 Science and engineering talent, building with the CAWMSET and BEST Projects, 20−21 Science and engineering undergraduate degree programs bachelor’s degree recipients, 64−65, 80 percentages of first-year college students intending to major in science and engineering, by sex and race or ethnicity, 62−63 persistence to degree, 61−63 by sex and race or ethnicity, 64−65 top reasons for leaving, by sex, 67 Scientific and professional societies, 1, 116, 229−231 on-site child-care at a supplemental rate using a high-quality provider, 231 providing grants or reimbursements to members to cover child-care costs, 231 recommendations for, 9−10, 163 speaker representation at meetings of, 126−127 Scorecard for Evaluating How Well Research Universities Serve Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 9, 53, 234−237. See also Continuous evaluation scorecard Search committees, workshops for chairs of, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, 148−150 Segregation, as intentional discrimination, 261−262 Self-confidence, challenge of maintaining, 75 Self-nomination, 131 Self-perpetuating discrimination, 266 Self-reported faculty hours, 121 Service obligations, 206, 210 Sexual harassment, 203 banned under anti-discrimination laws, 195 Shalala, Donna E., xi−xiv Silence. See Conspiracy of silence Sloan Foundation, 197−198 Small Business Innovation Research Program, 129 Small Business Technology Transfer Program, 129 Small-win experiments, 162, 197−200 Social effects on infants and children, 43−44 on undergraduate attrition, 63−66 on women’s cognitive performance, 45−49 Social interactions, 54 Social psychology, 135 Social tipping points, 187−188 Society and culture, 42−49 education, 44−45 and learning and performance, 42−49 Spatial performance, 29−32, 41 Speaker representation, at scientific and professional society meetings, 126−127 Spousal employment, 160 of science and engineering PhDs, 30-44 years old, 172 Stacy, Angelica, 168 Standardized tests, 33 Stanford University, 208, 218−219 childbirth policy for female graduate students, 72, 228−229 Start-up costs, associated with new professors, 103 Statistical discrimination, 265−267 Steele, Claude, 46 Steering, racial, 268 Stereotypes gender, 26, 40, 43−44, 143−145, 152 racial, 190, 265, 269 reducing use of, in hiring, 150 religious, 42 threat of, 46−47, 116 Strategies. See Experiments and strategies

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Strategies and Tactics for Recruiting to Improve Diversity and Excellence (STRIDE) program, 150 Structural discrimination, 267−268. See also Institutional structures Study of Faculty Worklife at the UW-Madison, 148 Study of New Scholars, 96 Subtle bias and discrimination difficult to document, 264−265 implicit or unexamined, 151−153 indirect prejudice, 263 unconscious and automatic, 262−265 Success and its evaluation in science and engineering, 113−159 building a career, 117−125 chapter highlights, 113−114 conclusion, 159 evaluation of success, 135−159 findings, 114−115 leadership positions, 125−135 moving beyond bias, 159 recommendations, 115−117 tournament model of, 216 Support for research, funding agencies and foundations expanding, 11 in the work environment, and faculty retention, 97−98 Supreme Court, 268 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 52 T Talent Imperative: Diversifying America’s Science and Engineering Workforce, 21 Targeted recruitment, 156 Task Force on Faculty Recruitment and Retention, 100−102 Task Force on the Retention and Promotion of Junior Faculty, 100−101 Task Force on Women Faculty (WF-TF), 18, 220−221 Task Force on Women in Science and Engineering (WISE-TF), 18, 219−221 Task statement, 256−257 Teleconferencing, xiii Tensions between personal and professional life, 84, 97 Tenure, 51, 92−93, 242 Tenure policies and procedures, and faculty retention, 96−97 Tenure-track faculty careers, 50, 55, 91 exiting, 91−92 flexibility in, 201 proportion of women in, by field, 16−17 Tenured faculty, 218, 221, 242 recommendations for, 8, 52, 115−116, 257 Theories of discrimination, 259−274 comparison of legal standards with the four types of discrimination, 269−270 domains in which discrimination operates, 270−272 map of potential points of discrimination within five domains, 271 role of cumulative disadvantage, 272−273 summary, 274 types of discrimination, 260−269 “There Goes the Neighborhood?,” 153−155 Tipping points, institutional constraints on, 180, 188 Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 189, 238 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 189, 192, 218, 238, 268 Title IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 189, 192, 218, 232−233, 238−240 To Recruit and Advance Women Students and Faculty in US Science and Engineering, 19 Tournament model of success, 216 Tracking and evaluation, 23 Alfred P. Sloan Awards for faculty career flexibility, 198 American Chemical Society Directory of Graduate Research, 90 American Institute of Physics Academic Workforce Survey, 90 Association of American Medical Colleges’ Faculty Roster, 90 Scorecard for Evaluating How Well Research Universities Serve Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 234−237 Transitions, educational, 55 women being lost at every, 2, 51 Transparency, 105

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Travel allowances, 231 Trower, Cathy, 18 Trustees, recommendations for, 7−8, 115 Types of discrimination, 260−269 banned under the anti-discrimination laws, 195 U Unconscious discrimination, 262−265 Undergraduate degrees. See Science and engineering undergraduate degree programs Underrepresented minorities (URMs), 87−88 Underuse of women in academic science and engineering, academic organizational structures and rules contributing significantly to, findings concerning, 4 Unintended consequences, in changing institutional processes to combat bias, 239−241 Universities, 1, 7−9, 256 Cornell University, Child Care Grant Subsidy, 230 deans and department chairs and their tenured faculty, 8 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Postdoc Childcare Subsidy Program, 230 Harvard University, Dependent Care Fund for Conference Travel, 230 importance of progress toward equality on their campuses, 214 reaffirming pledge for gender equity, 180 recommendations to, 7−9, 53 trustees, university presidents, and provosts, 7−8 university leaders working with their faculties and department chairs, 9 University of Washington, Childcare Voucher Program, 230 University leaders, recommendations for, 9, 115−116, 162−163 University of California, Berkeley, 86, 108, 167−168, 209 biological and health sciences applicant pool and faculty positions at Berkeley, 87 faculty advancing through the ranks, by sex and field, 94 faculty positions at, and the applicant pool in physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering, 88 faculty self-reported hours per week engaged in professional work, housework, and caregiving, 121 University of Colorado at Boulder, 95−98 Task Force on Faculty Recruitment and Retention, 100−102 University of Michigan, 224 NSF ADVANCE program, 144−145, 155 STRIDE program, 150 University of Washington, 66, 191, 208 Childcare Voucher Program, 230 Faculty Retention Toolkit, 105 University of Wisconsin-Madison, 169 WISELI program at, 147−150, 221 workshops for department chairs at, 224−225 workshops for search committee chairs at, 148−150 University presidents, recommendations for, 7−8 Unmarried scientists, 168, 174, 226, 228 V Variability hypothesis, 31−32, 34−35 Verbal antagonism, as intentional discrimination, 260−261 Verbal performance, 32−36 Vest, Chuck, 215 W Western European notions, dominant, 211 Women biases against, 215 as chief editors at top-ranked journals, by field, 125, 133−134 diversity among, 18−19 as faculty in the School of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 85 as likely to face discrimination in every

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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering field of science and engineering, findings concerning, 3 as a minority, 166 nominated to an honorific society or for a prestigious award, 128 as possessing the ability and drive to succeed in science and engineering, findings concerning, 2, 114 social effects on cognitive performance of, 45−49 Women CAREER and PECASE awardees, 79 Women in Cell Biology (WICB), 203 Women in science and engineering. See also Underuse of women in academic science and engineering career opportunities for, 257 declining proportions of, 14 evidence refuting commonly held beliefs about, 5−6 minority, xii PhD chemists working full-time at PhD-granting institutions, by rank and sex, 111 Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute (WISELI), 147−150, 197 Climate Workshops for Department Chairs, 224−225 Women interested in science and engineering, being lost at every educational transition, findings concerning, 2, 51 Women’s Initiative, 204 Women’s Participation in the Sciences Has Increased, but Agencies Need to Do More to Ensure Compliance with Title IX, 15 Word-of-mouth recommendations, hiring through, 268 Work, integrating into one’s whole life, 207−210 Work environment inclusive, institutional constraints for establishing, 205−210 “intangibles” in, 238 service obligations, 210 supportive, and faculty retention, 97−98, 219−221 Workplace pioneers, as “Men in Skirts,” 183−187 Workshops funding agencies and foundations providing, 10 for search committee chairs, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, 148−150 Written performance, 32−36 Y Yale Women Faculty Forum, 99−101 Z Zare, Richard, 218 Zero-sum game, 262

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