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Understanding Multiple Environmental Stresses: Report of a Workshop References Allen, C. D., and D. D. Breshears. 1998. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 95:14839-14842. Andreae, M. O., D. Rosenfeld, P. Artaxo, A. A. Costa, G. P. Frank, K. M. Longo, and M. A. F. Silva-Dias. 2004. Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon. Science 303:1337-1342. Arrhenius, S. 1896. On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground. The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Sciences 41:237-276. Bacastow, R., and C. D. Keeling. 1973. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon in the natural carbon cycle. II. Changes from A.D. 1700 to 2070 as deduced from a geochemical reservoir. Pp. 86-135 in G. M. Woodwell and E. V. Pecan, eds. Carbon and the Biosphere. Springfield, Virginia: U.S. Department of Commerce. Botterill, L. 2005. Late twentieth century approaches to living with uncertainty: The national drought policy. In From Disaster Response to Risk Management: Australia’s National Drought Policy, L. C. Botterill and D. A. Wilhite, eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Publishers. Breshears, D. D., N. S. Cobb, P. M. Rich, K. P. Pricee, C. D. Allen, R. G. Balice, W. H. Romme, J. H. Kastensf, M. L. Floyd, J. Belnapl, J. J. Anderson, O. B. Myers, and C. W. Meyer. 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 102:15144-15148. Cayan, D. R., S. A. Kamerdiener, M. D. Dettinger, J. M. Caprio, and D. H. Peterson. 2001. Changes in the onset of spring in the western United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82:399-415. Chapin, F. S., M. Sturm, M. C. Serreze, J. P. McFadden, J. R. Key, A. H. Lloyd, A. D. McGuire, T. S. Rupp, A. H. Lynch, J. P. Schimel, J. Beringer, W. L. Chapman, H. E. Epstein, E. S. Euskirchen, L. D. Hinzman, G. Jia, C. L. Ping, K. D. Tape, C. D. C. Thompson, D. A. Walker, and J. M. Welker. 2005. Role of land-surface changes in Arctic summer warming. Science 310:657-660. Charney, J., P. H. Stone, and W. J. Quirk. 1975. Drought in the Sahara: A biogeophysical feedback. Science 187:434-435. Charney, J. G., W. J. Quirk, S-H. Chow, and J. Kornfield. 1977. A comparative study of effects of albedo change on drought in semiarid regions. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 34:1366-1385.
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Understanding Multiple Environmental Stresses: Report of a Workshop Clark, J. S., E. C. Grimm, J. J. Donovan, S. C. Fritz, D. R. Engstrom, and J. E. Almendinger. 2002. Drought cycles and landscape responses to past aridity on prairies of the northern Great Plains, USA. Ecology 83(3):595-601. Cook, E. R., C. A. Woodhouse, C. M. Eakin, D. M. Meko, and D. W. Stahle. 2004. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States. Science 306:1015-1018. Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell. 2000. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 408:184-187. Dickinson, R. E., and A. Henderson-Sellers. 1988. Modelling tropical deforestation: Study of GCM land-surface parameterizations. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 114:439-462. Enfield, D. B., and L. Cid-Serrano. Forthcoming. Projecting the risk of future climate shifts. International Journal of Climate. Feddema, J. J., K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, L. O. Mearns, L. E. Buja, G. A. Meehl, and W. M. Washington. 2005. The importance of land-cover change in simulating future climates. Science 310:1674-1678. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 1995. National Mitigation Strategy. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. Friedlingstein, P. 2004. Climate carbon cycle interactions. Pp. 217-224 in The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, C. B. Field and M. R. Raupach, eds. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Fung, I., S. C. Doney, K. Lindsay, and J. John. 2005. Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 102:11201-11206. Gibbard, S., K. Caldeira, G. Bala, T. J. Phillips, and M. Wickett. 2005. Climate effects of global land cover change. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L23705. Gray, S. T., C. L. Fastie, S. T. Jackson, and J. L. Betancourt. 2004. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of precipitation in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, since 1260 A.D. Journal of Climate 17(19):3855-3865. Hagman, G. 1984. Prevention Better than Cure: Report on Human and Natural Disasters in the Third World. Stockholm: Swedish Red Cross. Hamlet, A. F., P. W. Mote, M. P. Clark, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Effects of temperature and precipitation variability on snowpack trends in the western United States. Journal of Climate 18(21):4545-4561. Hayes, M. J., M. D. Svoboda, C. L. Knutson, and D. A. Wilhite. 2004a. Estimating the economic impacts of drought. Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Applied Climatology, Seattle, Washington, January 11-15. Hayes, M. J., O. V. Wilhelmi, and C. L. Knutson. 2004b. Reducing drought risk: Bridging theory and practice. Natural Hazards Review 5:106-113. Hoerling, M., and A. Kumar. 2003. The perfect ocean for drought. Science 299:691-694. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 1990. First Assessment Report. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. IPCC. 1995. Second Assessment Report: Climate Change. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. IPCC. 2001. Third Assessment Report: Climate Change. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) Ad Hoc Discussion Group on Drought. 2003. Living with Risk: An Integrated Approach to Reducing Society’s Vulnerability to Drought. Geneva, Switzerland: ISDR. Jackson, R. B., E. G. Jobbagy, R. Avissar, S. B. Roy, D. J. Barrett, C. W. Cook, K. A. Farley, D. C. le Maitre, B. A. McCarl, and B. C. Murray. 2005. Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration. Science 310:1944-1947.
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Understanding Multiple Environmental Stresses: Report of a Workshop Karnosky, D. F., B. Mankovska, K. Percy, R. E. Dickson, G. K. Podila, J. Sober, A. Noormets, G. Hendrey, M. D. Coleman, M. Kubiske, K. S. Pregitzer, and J. G. Isebrands. 1999. Effects of tropospheric O3 on trembling aspen and interaction with CO2: Results from an O3-gradient and a FACE experiment. Journal of Water, Air and Soil Pollution 116:311-322. Knowles, N., M. D. Dettinger, and D. R. Cayan. 2006. Trends in snowfall versus rainfall in the western United States. Journal of Climate 19(18):4545-4559. Knutson, C., M. J. Hayes, and T. Phillips. 1998. How to Reduce Drought Risk. Lincoln, Nebraska: National Drought Mitigation Center. Lean, J., and D. A. Warrilow. 1989. Simulation of the regional climatic impact of Amazon deforestation. Nature 342:411-413. Mack, M. C., E. A. G. Schuur, M. S. Bret-Harte, G. R. Shaver, and F. S. Chapin. 2004. Ecosystem carbon storage in arctic tundra reduced by long-term nutrient fertilization. Nature 431:440-443. McCabe, G. J., M. A. Palecki, and J. L. Betancourt. 2004. Pacific and Atlantic Ocean influences on multidecadal drought frequency in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 101:4136-4141. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). 2005. Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainability for Human Well-Being. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. NAST (National Assessment Synthesis Team). 2000. Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. U.S. Global Change Research Program. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Nepstad, D. C., A. Veríssimo, A. Alencar, C. Nobre, E. Lima, P. Lefebvre, P. Schlesinger, C. Potter, P. Moutinho, E. Mendoza, M. Cochrane, and V. Brooks. 1999. Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire. Nature 398:505-508. NRC (National Research Council). 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002. Science for the Sustainability Transition. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2003. Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: A Workshop Summary. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004a. Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004b. NEON: Addressing the Nation’s Environmental Challenges. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2005a. Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2005b. Improving the Scientific Foundation for Atmosphere-Land-Ocean Simulations: Report of a Workshop. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. O’Meagher, B., M. Stafford Smith, and D. H. White. 2000. Approaches to integrated drought risk management. Pp. 115-128 in Drought: A Global Assessment (Volume 2), D. A. Wilhite, ed. London, U.K.: Routledge Publishers. Pacala, S. W., G. C. Hurtt, D. Baker, P. Peylin, R. A. Houghton, R. A. Birdsey, L. Heath, E. T. Sundquist, R. F. Stallard, P. Ciais, P. Moorcroft, J. P. Caspersen, E. Shevliakova, B. Moore, G. Kohlmaier, E. Holland, M. Gloor, M. E. Harmon, S. M. Fan, J. L. Sarmiento, C. L. Goodale, D. Schimel, and C. B. Field. 2001. Consistent land- and atmosphere-based U.S. carbon sink estimates. Science 292:2316-2319. Prentice, I. C., G. D. Farquhar, M. J. R. Fasham, M. L. Goulden, M. Heimann, V. J. Jaramillo, H. S. Kheshgi, C. Le Quéré, R. J. Scholes, and D. W. R. Wallace. 2001. The carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pp. 183-237 in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds. Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
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