tor of the Institute for Health Policy at Massachusetts General Hospital and Partners HealthCare System. Dr. Blumenthal is also the director of the Harvard University Interfaculty Program for Health Systems Improvement. Harvard University receives about $1 million per year from the Merck Foundation to support the research and convening activities of the Program for Health System Improvement. Dr. Blumenthal serves on several editorial boards, including those of the American Journal of Medicine and the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. He is a national correspondent for the New England Journal of Medicine. Dr. Blumenthal was the founding chairman of AcademyHealth (formerly the Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy), the national organization of health services researchers, and is a member of its board of directors. During the late 1970s, he was a professional staff member on Senator Edward Kennedy’s Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research. Dr. Blumenthal previously was the chair of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Department of Veterans Affairs Pharmacy Formulary Analysis. His research interests include academic-industrial relationships in the life sciences, quality management in health care, the role and influence of health information technology, determinants of physician behavior, and access to health services. He received his MD and his MPP from Harvard University. Dr. Blumenthal is a member of the IOM.

Sir Alasdair Breckenridge, CBE, is chairman of the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). MHRA is the executive agency of the UK Department of Health that is responsible for protecting and promoting public health and patient safety by ensuring that medicines, healthcare products, and medical equipment meet appropriate standards of safety, quality, performance, and effectiveness and are used safely. In 2004, he was awarded a knighthood for his service to medicine in recognition of his role in ensuring that British patients receive safe medical treatment. Prof. Breckenridge has played a leading role in monitoring the safety of medicines for many years. He previously was the chairman of the UK Committee on the Safety of Medicines (CSM) and was a member of the CSM Adverse Reactions Group and the Subcommittee on Adverse Reactions to Vaccines and Immunisation. He is a former professor of clinical pharmacology at the University of Liverpool and headed its Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics for 26 years. Prof. Breckenridge has been both a member and chairman of a regional health authority and a member of a local health authority. His research interests include the pharmacology of HIV drugs.

R. Alta Charo, JD, is the Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics at the University of Wisconsin Law School and its Medical School’s Department of Medical History & Bioethics. She teaches in the areas of Food and

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